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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
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Glossary

abiotic:

physical properties of an environment, such as climate, soils, atmospheric gases.

adventive:

nonindigenous species which has recently arrived or which appears to be a temporary resident in a new range; its persistence has not been determined.

allele dynamics:

the interactions of alleles with each other.

alleles:

any number of variants of a single gene.

allelopathy:

the production and emittance of organic compounds by an organism that causes detrimental consequences for its neighbors.

allopatric:

two or more species having nonoverlapping ranges of distribution.

annual:

an organism that completes its life cycle in a year or less.

antipodal:

opposites; refers to any objects (such as chromosomes) that are at diametrically opposite extremes.

apomixis:

the development of a seed without fertilization.

arrhenotokous:

capable of producing male offspring only, as in worker bees and some sawflies.

asexual reproduction:

any reproduction not involving the fusion of gametes.

autotroph:

an organism capable of self-nourishment, such as a plant nourishing itself by photosynthesis.

avirulence gene:

a gene that infers the inability to infect another organism.

basic reproduction number (Ro):

the average number of offspring or infectious units from a single organism or infectious agent.

biological control:

control of an invasive species by the introduction of a predator, grazer, or pathogen of that species.

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×

biotic:

any process or phenomenon that is caused by living organisms.

carrying capacity:

the theoretical maximum number of individuals in a population that can be supported by a defined set of conditions in an environment.

cline:

a geographic gradient in the frequency of a gene.

confamilial:

belonging to the same family.

congeners:

members of the same genus.

congeneric:

referring to members of the same genus.

conspecific:

referring to members of the same species.

cryptogam:

plants and plant-like organisms that do not reproduce with seeds and do not produce flowers, such as ferns, mosses, fungi, and algae.

demographic:

refers to any attribute or process relating to a population.

deterministic growth rate (λ):

a growth rate that has only one outcome as defined by the parameters or conditions under which the population occurs.

diapause:

a state of arrested growth or development, usually applied only to insects.

dichogamy:

flowers that are functionally male first, then develop female structures.

dioecious:

producing male and female structures on two separate plants within the same species.

dioecy:

in plants, the possession of male and female structures on separate individuals.

diploid:

possession of two full sets of genes and two sets of chromosomes; one set from the mother, one from the father.

dsRNA:

double stranded ribonucleic acid.

ectophagous:

feeding on the outside of the host.

endophagous:

feeding on the internal organs or at least within the body of the host.

endophytic:

fungi that reside within plant cells, or plants that live within other plants.

entomophagous:

insect-feeding.

epiphyte:

a plant that grows on another plant nonparasitically, or grows on an object.

establishment:

permanent self-maintenance of a population without additional members arriving through immigration.

exploitation competition:

competition in which resources obtained by one organism, population, or species results in a lowered resource availability to another organism, population, or species.

floras/faunas:

the collective assembly of all plants (floras) or animals (faunas) within a prescribed area and within a prescribed taxonomic group (for example all insect species in the United States).

founder:

an organism which gives rise to a new populations.

genetic drift:

changes in allelic frequency due to sampling error; that is, changes in frequency that result because the genes appearing in offspring are not

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×

a perfectly representative sampling of the parental genes (such as occurs in small populations).

genotypes:

the genetic constitution of an individual or group.

haustellate:

having a tubular organ adapted for sucking blood or the juices of plants.

herbivorous:

refers to those animals that feed or graze on living plant material, usually in reference to non-reproductive tissue (i.e., leaves, stems).

heterogamy:

alteration of sexual reproduction with parthenogenesis.

hermaphrodite:

an organism that possesses the reproductive organs of both sexes.

heterozygosity:

the proportion of the individuals in a population that are heterozygotes; that is, those individuals that have two different alleles at a locus.

homozygous:

having two copies of the same allele at a genetic locus.

indigenous:

native to a prescribed geographic range.

interference competition:

competition between any two individuals in which one physically excludes or prohibits another from gaining a resource in short supply.

intrinsic rate of increase (r):

maximum growth rate of a population, estimated as a birth rate minus the death rate; the net increase in the population.

inverse density dependence:

increase in fitness with increases in density (birth rates rise, mortality rates drop).

invasion (biotic or biological):

a phenomenon in which a nonindigenous species arrives in a new range in which it establishes, proliferates, spreads, and causes broadly-defined detrimental consequences in the environment.

lag phase:

phase in the typical cycle of population growth, when there is little or no growth, between introduction of an organism and exponential (log) growth.

larval:

in connection with arthropods, the immature instars, that is, stages in development.

logistic curve:

growth curve characterized by oscillation of population growth at a level below the carry capacity.

log phase:

phase in the typical cycle of population growth, between lag phase and decline, when a population grows exponentially.

mandibulate:

chewing, in reference to insects that chew prey with those mouth-parts called mandibles.

mean population growth rate:

the average rate by which a population changes size.

mesic:

having or characterized by a moderate amount of moisture.

mesophytic:

referring to intermediate environmental conditions.

monoecious:

bearing the reproductive structures of both parents on the same plant.

monophagous:

feeding on a single prey or forage species.

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×

Moran effect:

a spatially correlated density independent perturbation, such as weather, which occurs across populations.

multilocus genotype:

a genotype that results in a trait or traits from the expression of genes at multiple locations within the genome of an organism.

mutational variance:

variance in the genetic make-up of a population due to mutations in individuals’ chromosomal DNA.

naturalization:

the establishment of a nonindigenous population in a new range; used mainly in connection with plants.

net reproductive rate:

average number of offspring an individual in a population will produce in his/her lifetime.

nonindigenous:

not native; refers to a species, population, organism that occurs at a locale that is not part of its native range.

oligophagous:

feeds on a few or several prey or forage species.

oviposition:

passage of the arthropod egg from the oviducts to outside the arthropod; egg-laying.

pathotype:

an infrasubspecific classification of a pathogen distinguished from others of the species by its pathogenicity on a specific host(s).

parasitoids:

insects that initially behave as a parasite but eventually act as a predator and devour their host.

parthenogenetic:

production of individuals from unfertilized eggs.

perennials:

organisms that may (and usually must) survive several years in order to reproduce.

phenological synchrony:

correspondence between traits in becoming active at the same season.

phenotype:

the observable characteristics of an organism.

phenotypic plasticity:

the phenomenon of organisms displaying a range of phenotypes from the same genotype.

phytophagous:

feeding on plants.

phytosanitary:

related to ensuring plant health.

plasticity:

the capacity of organisms with the same genotype to vary in developmental pattern, in phenotype, or in behavior according to varying environmental conditions.

polyphagous:

feeds on many prey or forage species.

polyploidy:

possessing more than two sets of genes and chromosomes.

population:

a group of genetically related members of the same species living within a prescribed space or range within a prescribed time frame.

propagules:

seeds, eggs, spores or other resting stages that are capable of being transported.

physiognomic:

literally the morphology of a plant community; refers to the number and characteristic shape of the layers of plants if the community were viewed in cross-section.

predatory guild:

a group of several types of predators that feed on a particular developmental stage of a pest.

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×

race:

a genetically or geographically distinct subgroup of a species.

ruderal:

highly disturbed areas, such as rubbish heaps.

selfer:

an organism that does not require a sexual partner to contribute either egg or sperm; the organism contains both sexes.

stochastic:

random, involving chance or probability.

sympatric:

referring to speciation within the same geographical area.

true annual population:

a population that replicates one time per year.

univoltine:

one generation per year, used in connection with arthropods.

voltinism:

the frequency or number of annual broods.

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10259.
×
Page 180
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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests Get This Book
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Nonindigenous plants and plant pests that find their way to the United States and become invasive can often cause problems. They cost more than $100 billion per year in crop and timber losses plus the expense of herbicides and pesticides. And this figure does not include the costs of invasions in less intensively managed ecosystems such as wetlands.

Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests examines this growing problem and offers recommendations for enhancing the science base in this field, improving our detection of potential invaders, and refining our ability to predict their impact.

The book analyzes the factors that shape an invader’s progress through four stages: arriving through one of many possible ports of entry, reaching a threshold of survival, thriving through proliferation and geographic spread, and ultimate impact on the organism’s new environment. The book also reviews approaches to predicting whether a species will become an invader as well as the more complex challenge of predicting and measuring its impact on the environment, a process involving value judgments and risk assessment.

This detailed analysis will be of interest to policymakers, plant scientists, agricultural producers, environmentalists, and public agencies concerned with invasive plant and plant pest species.

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