About the Authors
RICHARD N. MACK, Chair, is professor in the School of Biological Sciences at Washington State University. He has extensive expertise in ecology, plant invasions (including population biology, ecological genetics, community- and ecosystem-level effects), and vegetation classification. From 1986 to 1999, Mack was chair of the Department of Botany, Washington State University. In 1983 he was a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Soviet Union in conjunction with the Binational Agreement on the Preservation of Arid Ecosystems. In 1988–1989 he served on the NRC Subcommittee on Plants for the report, “Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms.” In 1991–1992 he wrote, as a contractor, the report “Pathways and Consequences of the Introduction of Non-Indigenous Plants” for the Office of Technology Assessment’s publication, “Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States.” Mack received his B.A. degree in 1967 from the Western State College of Colorado, and his Ph.D. in 1971 from Washington State University.
SPENCER C. H. BARRETT is professor at the Department of Botany at University of Toronto, Canada. He also is a research associate at the Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Botany. Barrett has expertise in ecology and plant evolutionary biology, reproductive strategies of plants and plant genetics, and systematics and evolution of aquatic plants. He was visiting professor at the Department of Botany, University of Hong Kong; and visiting research scientist, Genetic Resources Programme, Division of Plant Industry, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. He served as aquatic weed consultant for International Research Institute in Jari, Lower Amazon, Brazil, and as weed biologist at Commonwealth
Development Corporation, Swaziland Irrigation Scheme. In 1998 he became Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In recognition for his contributions to plant evolutionary biology, Barrett received the E.W. Steacie Memorial Fellowship from the Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada. Barrett received his B.S. degree in botany (1971) from the Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, England, and his Ph.D. degree in botany (1977) from the Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley.
PETER L. DEFUR is president of a consulting firm, Environmental Stewardship Concepts, and affiliate associate professor at the Center for Environmental Study at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has extensive experience in risk assessment and ecological risk assessment regulations, guidance, and policy. deFur also worked as Visiting Investigator at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland. He was a member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST), and is currently a member of the NRC Subcommittee on the Toxicity of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate. He serves as chair of the Board of the Science and Environmental Health Network, and president of the Association for Science in the Public Interest. In 1994–1996 deFur served on the NRC Committee on Risk Characterization. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in biology (1972 and 1977, respectively) from The College of William and Mary, and his Ph.D. also in biology (1980) from the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
WILLIAM L. MACDONALD is a professor of plant pathology and environmental microbiology at West Virginia University. He is nationally recognized for his expertise is in the field of forest pathology, particularly fungus diseases of hardwoods (Dutch elm disease, Oak wilt, Chestnut blight). A major focus of his research has been the study of the biology of hypovirulence for use in biological control in a forest setting. Prior to his appointment as professor in 1983, MacDonald was an assistant professor (1971–1976) and associate professor (1977–1982) at West Virginia University. He received his B.A. degree in 1965 from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and a Ph.D. degree from Iowa State University. MacDonald is treasurer and member of the Board of the American Chestnut Foundation.
LAURENCE VINCENT MADDEN is professor at the Department of Plant Pathology and Environment, Graduate Studies Program, Ohio State University. He has extensive expertise in plant diseases caused by fungi and viruses, disease impact on crop losses, modeling of plant disease epidemics, and vector-pathogens relations. In 1996–97 he was president of the American Phytopathological Society. Madden is involved in many interdisciplinary projects with other plant pathologists and plant scientists focusing on better understand and managing plant diseases. He received his B.S. degree in biology (1975), M.S. degree in
plant pathology (1977), and his Ph.D. degree in plant pathology/statistics (1980) all from Pennsylvania State University.
DAVID S. MARSHALL is professor at Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center. He has extensive expertise in epidemiology and population dynamics of small grain diseases, and in developing genetic improvements for disease and insect resistance. Marshall has been involved in many international projects, including the ecology and mycology of fungal endophytes with the Crown Research Institute, AgResearch in New Zealand; development of wheat and barley germplasm with resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus and aphids for Syria (with ICARDA), Egypt (with Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture), Sudan, and Ethiopia; development of facultative wheat and barley with the Turkey Ministry of Agriculture; development of leaf rust-resistant wheat with the University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute in Australia; development of rust-resistant cereal germplasm with CIMMYT, Mexico; and development of dual-purpose wheat with INIA, Uruguay. Marshall received his B.S. degree in genetics (1977) from Towson State University, Maryland, his M.S. degree in plant pathology (1979) from Louisiana State University, and his Ph.D. also in plant pathology (1982) from Purdue University.
DEBORAH G. MCCULLOUGH is associate professor of Forest Entomology at the Department of Entomology and Department of Forestry (joint appointment) at Michigan State University. She has expertise in forest entomology and forest health, plant pathology, pest management, and forest and insect ecology. Prior to joining Michigan State University in 1992, McCullough was a consultant on forest entomology and forest health for the Minnesota Generic Environmental Impact Statement and worked for the USDA Forest Service on a technology development project. She serves as reviewer for many professional journals, USDA Forest Service, and Canadian Forest Service. McCullough is Director of the Michigan Gypsy Moth Education Program, and serves on the Michigan Asian Longhorned Beetle Interagency Task Force and Michigan Interagency Biological Control Committee. She received her B.S. degree in biology (1981) and M.S.F. degree in forestry (1985) from Northern Arizona University, and her Ph.D. degree in entomology (1990) from University of Minnesota.
PETER B. MCEVOY is professor of entomology at Oregon State University. He has extensive knowledge of insect and plant ecology plus biological weed control, and has been involved in policy issues surrounding nonindigenous species. In 1997. McEvoy was McMaster Fellow in the Division of Entomology at CSIRO, Australia. In 1994 he was scientific advisor to Office of Technology Assessment working on issues related to testing biocontrol agents and microbial biopesticides for host specificity. He was also scientific advisor to Agricultural Research Service, European Biological Control Laboratory, Montpellier, France.
McEvoy received his B.S. degree in biology (1971) from Amherst College, and his Ph.D. degree in ecology and evolutionary biology (1977) from Cornell University.
JAN P. NYROP is professor in the Department of Entomology, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University. He has extensive background in pest control, biological control and quantitative population ecology. Nyrop was a member of USDA/NRI Biobased Control and Biological Control review panels in 1994 and 1999, respectively. In 1994 he was awarded a research fellowship by Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands. He was also a consultant in Brazil on mite biological control and sampling in apples, and a consultant to Florida and California Avocado Commissions on quantitative risk assessment of exotic pests transported to the U.S. with Mexican avocados. Nyrop received his B.S. degree in wildlife ecology (1977) from University of Maine; two M.S. degrees, one in entomology (1979) and another in systems science (1982) from Michigan State University; and Ph.D. degree in entomology (1982) also from Michigan State University.
SARAH ELIZABETH HAYDEN REICHARD is research assistant professor of Urban Conservation Biology, Center for Urban Horticulture and Ecosystem Sciences Division, University of Washington. She has extensive background in woody plant invasions, development of screening and risk assessment models, monitoring of invasive species, and horticultural aspects of the reintroduction of rare plant species. Reichard has been invited speaker to many symposia, workshops, and seminars, including 1st Weed Assessment Workshop in Adelaide, Australia (1999), Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium, and Oregon Interagency Noxious Weed Symposium. Reichard received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in botany (1981, 1989, and 1994, respectively) from the University of Washington, Seattle.
KEVIN J. RICE is professor and chairman of the Ecology Graduate Group in the Department of Agronomy and Range Science, and The Center for Population Biology at the University of California at Davis. He is an expert in the genetic architecture of grassland ecology. His research utilizes population and evolutionary biology, genetic and ecological approaches to the study of grasslands and grassland restoration. Rice received B.S. and M.S. degrees at the University of Miami, Florida, in 1975 and 1978, respectively, and a Ph.D. degree in ecology at the University of California, Davis in 1984. Prior to his appointment as professor, Rice was an Assistant Professor (1986–1992), and Associate Professor (1992– 1998) at the University of California, Davis.
SUE A. TOLIN is professor at the Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science, Virginia Tech. She has expertise in viruses and viral diseases
of annual field crops, forage legumes, and perennial fruit crops. Her research includes a use of rapid biotechnology methods for identification of viruses that cause diseases, and then finding ways for controlling them through genetic means. She is also involved in national and international policy programs surrounding biotechnology and incorporation of genetically engineered organisms into integrated pest management and sustainable agriculture, issues of microbial collections, emerging pathogens, invasive species, and biodiversity. In 1995–1996 Tolin was president of American Phytopathological Society (APS). She received her B.S. degree in agricultural science (1960) from Purdue University, and her M.S. (1962) and Ph.D. (1965) degrees in botany–plant pathology from the University of Nebraska.