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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities:

Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies

CHARLES W.WESSNER, EDITOR

Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

Policy and Global Affairs

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-08257-9

Limited copies are available from Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Research Council, 1055 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W., Suite 2014, Washington, D.C. 20007; 202–334–2200.

Additional copies of this report are available from
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Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

Steering Committee for Government-Industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies *

Gordon Moore, Chair Chairman Emeritus, retired

Intel Corporation

M.Kathy Behrens Managing Partner

Robertson Stephens Investment Management and STEP Board

Michael Borrus Managing Director

The Petkevich Group, LLC

Iain M.Cockburn Professor of Finance and Economics

Boston University

Kenneth Flamm Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs

LBJ School of Public Affairs University of Texas at Austin

James F.Gibbons Professor of Engineering

Stanford University

W.Clark McFadden Partner

Dewey Ballantine

Burton J.McMurtry General Partner

Technology Venture Investors

William J.Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman Emeritus

International SEMATECH and STEP Board

Mark B.Myers Senior Vice-President, retired

Xerox Corporation and STEP Board

Richard Nelson George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs

Columbia University

Edward E.Penhoet Dean,

School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley and STEP Board

Charles Trimble Chairman

U.S. GPS Industry Council

John P.Walker Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

Axys Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Patrick Windham President,

Windham Consulting and Lecturer, Stanford University

*  

As of August 2001.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

Project Staff*

Charles W.Wessner Study Director

McAlister T.Clabaugh Program Associate

David E.Dierksheide Program Associate

Christopher S.Hayter Program Associate

Sujai J.Shivakumar Consultant

Contributors

Paula Stephan

Georgia State University

Grant Black

Georgia State University

Wesley M.Cohen

Carnegie Mellon University

Kenneth Flamm

University of Texas at Austin

Michael McGeary

McGeary and Smith

John Walsh

University of Illinois at Chicago

*  

As of August 2001

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

For the National Research Council (NRC), this project was overseen by the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP), a standing board of the NRC established by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine in 1991. The mandate of the STEP Board is to integrate understanding of scientific, technological, and economic elements in the formulation of national policies to promote the economic well-being of the United States. A distinctive characteristic of STEP’s approach is its frequent interactions with public and private-sector decision makers. STEP bridges the disciplines of business management, engineering, economics, and the social sciences to bring diverse expertise to bear on pressing public policy questions. The members of the STEP Board* and the NRC staff are listed below:

Dale Jorgenson, Chair Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics

Harvard University

M.Kathy Behrens Managing Partner

Robertson Stephens Investment Management

Vinton G.Cerf Senior Vice-President

WorldCom

Bronwyn Hall Professor of Economics

University of California at Berkeley

James Heckman

Henry Schultz Distinguished Service

Professor of Economics

University of Chicago

Ralph Landau Consulting Professor of Economics

Stanford University

Richard Levin President

Yale University

William J.Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman Emeritus

International SEMATECH

David T.Morgenthaler Founding Partner

Morgenthaler

Mark B.Myers Senior Vice-President, retired

Xerox Corporation

Roger Noll

Morris M. Doyle Centennial

Professor of Economics

Stanford University

Edward E.Penhoet Dean,

School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley

William Raduchel Chief Technology Officer

AOL Time Warner

Alan Wm.Wolff Managing Partner

Dewey Ballantine

*  

As of August 2001.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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STEP Staff*

Stephen A.Merrill Executive Director

Philip Aspden Senior Program Officer

Craig M.Schultz Senior Program Officer

Camille M.Collett Program Associate

David E.Dierksheide Program Associate

Charles W.Wessner Program Director

Sujai J.Shivakumar Consultant

Adam Korobow Consultant

McAlister T.Clabaugh Program Associate

Christopher S.Hayter Program Associate

*  

As of September 2001.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

National Research Council

Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

Sponsors

The National Research Council gratefully acknowledges the support of the following sponsors:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Office of the Director, Defense Research & Engineering

National Science Foundation

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Naval Research

National Institutes of Health

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Sandia National Laboratories

Electric Power Research Institute

International Business Machines

Kulicke and Soffa Industries

Merck and Company

Milliken Industries

Motorola

Nortel

Proctor and Gamble

Silicon Valley Group, Incorporated

Advanced Micro Devices

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the project sponsors.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×

Contents

 

 

PREFACE

 

1

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

14

I.

 

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

 

21

II.

 

ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

 

33

III.

 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

51

IV.

 

PROCEEDINGS

 

71

   

Welcome
Dale Jorgenson, Harvard University

 

73

   

Introduction
Bill Spencer, SEMATECH

 

76

   

Opening Remarks
Congressman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY)

 

78

   

Panel I: Biotechnology and Information Technologies: The Need for a Diversified Federal Research Portfolio
Moderator: Clark McFadden, Dewey Ballantine

 

84

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×
   

The View From the Semiconductor and Biotechnology Industries
Gordon Moore, Intel Corporation Edward Penhoet, University of California at Berkeley and Chiron Corporation

 

85

   

Discussion

 

95

   

Panel II: A Historical Perspective: Federal Partnerships in Computing and Biotechnology
Moderator: Patrick Windham, Stanford University

 

98

   

Partnerships in the Computer Industry
Kenneth Flamm, University of Texas at Austin

 

98

   

Partnerships in the Biotechnology Industry
Leon Rosenberg, Princeton University

 

111

   

Trends in Federal Research
William Bonvillian, Office of Senator Joseph Lieberman

 

116

   

Luncheon Address: “The Cornucopia of the Future”
Dan Goldin, NASA

 

120

   

Panel III: Biotechnology: Needs and Opportunities
Moderator: Edward Penhoet, University of California at Berkeley and Chiron Corporation

 

129

   

Exploiting the Biotechnology Revolution: Training and Tools
Marvin Cassman, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH

 

129

   

The New Frontier: Bioinformatics and the University
Rita Colwell, National Science Foundation

 

135

   

Emerging Opportunities and Emerging Gaps
Paula Stephan, Georgia State University

 

139

   

Discussant:
Greg Reyes, Schering-Plough Stephen Dahms, San Diego State University

 

144

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Discussion

 

145

   

Panel IV: Information Technology: New Opportunities—New Needs
Moderator: Dave Goldston, Office of Congressman Boehlert

 

146

   

Biofutures for Multiple Missions
Jane Alexander, DARPA

 

146

   

Meeting the Needs: Realizing the Opportunities
Paul Horn, IBM

 

149

   

New Information Technology Research Initiatives
Tom Kalil, National Economic Council

 

152

   

Discussants:
Charles Trimble, Trimble Navigation Richard Rosenbloom, Harvard Business School

 

155

   

Discussion

 

157

   

Panel V:Capturing New Opportunities
Moderator: Michael Borrus, Pektevich & Partners, LLC

 

160

   

Computing and the Human Genome
Mark Boguski, National Center for Biotechnology Information

 

160

   

NanoFrontiers
Alton Romig, Sandia National Laboratories

 

165

   

Defense Interests and Applications
Timothy Coffey, Naval Research Laboratory

 

169

   

Discussion

 

171

   

Panel VI: Intellectual Property and the Public Domain: Sectoral Perspectives
Moderator: Jorge Goldstein, Stern, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox

 

173

   

Sectoral Variations in the Role of Intellectual Property
Wesley Cohen, Carnegie Mellon University

 

174

   

Post Bayh-Dole University-Industry Relationships
Maryann Feldman, Johns Hopkins University

 

179

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Intellectual Property and Biotechnology
Robert Blackburn, Chiron Corporation

 

183

   

Discussion

 

189

   

Concluding Remarks
Gordon Moore, Intel Corporation

 

191

V.

 

RESEARCH PAPERS

 

193

   

The Federal Partnership with U.S. Industry in U.S. Computer Research: History and Recent Concerns
Kenneth Flamm, University of Texas at Austin

 

195

   

Public Research, Patents, and Implications for Industrial R&D in the Drug, Biotechnology, Semiconductor and Computer Industries
Wesley M.Cohen, Carnegie Mellon University John Walsh, University of Illinois at Chicago

 

223

   

Bioinformatics: Emerging Opportunities and Emerging Gaps
Paula E.Stephan, Georgia State University Grant Black, Georgia State University

 

244

   

Recent Trends in the Federal Funding of Research and Development Related to Health and Information Technology
Michael McGeary, McGeary and Smith

 

261

VI.

 

ANNEX

 

319

   

A. Biographies of Contributors

 

321

   

B. Participants List

 

327

   

C. Bibliography

 

335

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10281.
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This report addresses a topic of recognized policy concern. To capture the benefits of substantial U.S. investments in biomedical R&D, parallel investments in a wide range of seemingly unrelated disciplines are also required. This report summarizes a major conference that reviewed our nation’s R&D support for biotechnology and information technologies. The volume includes newly commissioned research and makes recommendations and findings concerning the important relationship between information technologies and biotechnology. It emphasizes the fall off in R&D investments needed to sustain the growth of the U.S. economy and to capitalize on the growing investment in biomedicine. It also encourages greater support for inter-disciplinary training to support new areas such as bioinformatics and urges more emphasis on and support for multi-disciplinary research centers.

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