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Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development Proceedings of a U.S.-Japan Workshop Hyman Bass, Zalman P. Usiskin, and Gail Burrill, Editors Mathematical Sciences Education Board/Center for Education/ Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction/ Board on International Scientific Organizations/Po~icy and Global Affairs Division National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation (ESI-0001439), The Spencer Foundation, and the MCI WorldCom Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. library of Congress Cataloging-'n-Publication Dam Studying classroom teaching as a medium for professional development: proceedings of a U.S.-Japan workshop / Hyman Bass, Zalman Usiskin, and Gail Burrill, editors. p. cm. "Mathematical Sciences Education Board/Center for Education/Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction/Board on International Scientific Organizations/Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council." Workshop hosted by Mathematical Sciences Education Board and United States National Commission on Mathematics Instruction, August 2000, Makuhari, Japan. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-08252-8 (pbk.) 1. Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary)--Japan-Congresses. 2. Mathematics-Study and teaching (Elementary)--United States-Congresses. I. Bass, Hyman, 1932- II. Usiskin, Zalman. III. Burrill, Gail. IV. National Research Council (U.S.~. Mathematical Sciences Education Board. V. United States National Commission on Mathematics Instruction. QA135.6 .S78 2002 372.7'0952--dc21 2001007273 Suggested Citation: National Research Council. (2002~. Studying classroom teaching as a medium for professional development. Proceedings of a U.S.-.lapan workshop. Hyman Bass, Zalman P. Usiskin, and Gail Burrill (Eds). Mathematical Sciences Education Board, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction, International Organizations Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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U.S.- JAPAN TEACHER DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE Hyman Bass, Cochair, University of Michigan Zalman P. Usiskin, Cochair, University of Chicago Deborah Loewenberg Ball, University of Michigan Toshiakira Fujii, Tokyo Gakugei University Jacqueline Goodioe, Burrville Elementary School, Washington, DC Daniel Goroff, Harvard University Keiko Hino, Nara University of Education Harno Ishigaki, Waseda University Haiime Yamashita, Waseda University Jerry Becker, (Ex Officio) Southern Illinois University Frances Curcio, (Ex Officio) New York University Hiroshi Fujita, (Ex Officio) Tokai University Gail BurriU, Director, Mathematical Sciences Education Board (MSEB) Tamae Maeda Wang, Program Director, U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction (USNCM~ Brian McQuiBan, Senior Project Assistant, MSEB Manza Silva, Senior Project Assistant, USNCMI Kara Suzuka, Consultant Makoto Yoshida, Consultant
MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION BOARD Joan R. Leitzel, Chair, University of New Hampshire Jere Confrey, Vice Chair, University of Texas et Austin Judith Ackerman, Montgomery College, Maryland Richard A. Askey, University of Wisconsin-Madison Deborah Loewenberg Ball, University of Michigan Richelle Blair, Lakeland Community College, Ohio Ingtid Daubechies, Princeton University Jan de range, Freudenthal Institute, The Netherlands Keith Deviin, St. Mary's College of California Karen Economopoulos, TERC, Massachusetts Susan Eyestone, National Parent Teacher Association, Minnesota Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Michigan State University Arthur M. Jaffe, Harvard University Daniel Kennedy, The Baylor School, Tennessee Karen Longhart, Flathead High School, Montana Miriam MasuBo, IBM Corporation, New York Thomas L. Moore, Grinnell College, Iowa Debra Paulson, Hornedo Middle School, Texas Marge M. Petit, The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, New Hampshire Anthony Scott, Chicago Public Schools William Steenken, GE Aircraft Engines, Ohio Lee V. SHff, North Carolina State University James W. Stigler, University of California, Los Angeles Jerry UhI, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Gail BurriU, Director Bradford Findell, Program Officer Brian McQuiBan, Senior Project Assistant U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION Zalman P. Usiskin, Chair, University of Chicago Wade Ellis, Jr., West Valley College, California Daniel Goroff, Harvard University Marilyn Mays, North Lake College, Texas David Moore, Purdue University Daniel Teague, North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics Tamae Maeda Wang, Program Director Wendy White, Director, Board on International Scientific Organizations (BISO) Manza Silva, Senior Project Assistant Valerie ~heberge, Senior Project Assistant
The Mathematical Sciences Education Board and the U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruction gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation, The Spencer Foundation, and the MCT WorIdCom Foundation for their financial support of Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development: Proceedings of a U.S.-]apan Workshop. We would like to acknowledge the staff at the Center for Education and International Organizations Board for their efforts in putting the workshop together, and the subse- quent proceedings. In particular, Danna Brennan and Myrna McKinnon were instrumental for overseeing logistical arrangements for the workshop. Yuri Maeda provided on-site support along with Saitou Harumichi, Yoshimichi Kanemoto, Eri Matsuda, Tatsuhiko Seino, Kaori Tabeta, and Yoshihisa Tanaka from Tokyo Gakugei University. We also are grateful to Professor Hiroshi Fujita, Chair of the Ninth Inter- national Congress on Mathematical Education dCME-9), for his cooperation and support of the workshop, to those who made the classroom visit to Setagaya School possible, and to Hiroshi Nakano and Shunji Kurosawa for sharing their lessons with us. In addition, Tad Wantanabe helped facilitate the arrangements and did on-site transTation during the workshop. Special acknowledgment goes to Makoto Yoshida for his help in setting up the workshop, transTating materials, and serving as an interpreter for both the lapanese and the U.S. participants during and after the workshop. Brian McQuillan was respon- sible for preparing this report for publication. Mariza Silva served as the website man- ager who prepared the on-line version of the workshop proceedings, which is available on the project home page at http://www4.nationalaca(1emies.org/pga/math.nsf. We also are grateful to the members of the steering committee for their oversight in planning the program for the workshop. In addition we w~sh to acknowledge the speakers and in particular the discussion group leaders for their contributions and leadership that gave substance to the discussion. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives an(1 technical expertise, in accor(lance with proce(lures approve(1 by the National Research CounciT's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that w~l assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the
report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Hilda Borko, University of Colorado; Clea Fernandez, Columbia University; Roger Howe, Yale University; lean Krusi, Ames Middle School, Ames, Iowa; Catherine Lewis, Mills College; Nanette Seago, VideoCases for Mathematics Professional Development, Riverside, California; and Akihiko Takahashi, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Gilbert I. Cuevas, University of Miami. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The Ninth International Congress on Mathematics Education dCME-9) held in Makuhari, Japan, in August 2000 provided a unique opportunity for the Mathematical Sciences Education Board and the U.S. National Commission on Mathematics Instruc- tion. Together with educators from the Japanese mathematical community, they hosted a workshop on teacher development immediately following the Congress. The aim of the workshop was to draw upon the expertise of participants from the two countries to work on developing a better understanding of the knowledge that is needed to teach mathematics well and how to help teachers gain this knowledge. The workshop focused on using the study of classroom events to help elementary mathematics teachers improve their teaching. In the first part of the workshop, participants considered a professional development approach that the Japanese refer to as ja~gyokenky?~ or "lesson study." In the second part of the workshop, participants considered the use of classroom documentation and written cases, highlighting some of the work performed in the United States. The workshop consisted of large group plenary sessions, panel discussions, activity- based sessions, and small group discussion. Interactions between the two cultures were made possible by simultaneous translation. Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development is a record of what took place at the workshop. The first section consists of papers written after the workshop by two participants reflecting on their experiences during the workshop. The body of the proceedings consists of edited transcriptions of the talks presented in plenary sessions and of the remarks given by panel members on various topics. The final section of the document contains the summa- ries of small group discussions describing the group response to one or two focused questions. A videotape accompanies the book and includes video selections of classroom lessons and a Japanese postlesson discussion that were shown at the workshop. These seg- ments along with written cases describing mathematics classes were used to engage participants in observing and discussing classroom practices, allowing them to consider how such materials might be used in professional development contexts. Supporting print materials, such as transcripts and lesson plans, are in the appendixes.
Studying Classroom Teaching as a Medium for Professional Development is intended for people interested in ways that teachers might work on their teaching, opportunities for teacher learning, or for investigating what it might mean to use teaching and learning as a place to study and improve it. The videos shown at the workshop and the plenary sessions played vital roles in stimulating and grounding the conversations of the partici- pants. This document might be used in the same way to stimulate conversation among teacher educators, helping them shape their work. As you engage with these materials, you might consider questions such as the following: What do teachers in these two countries do that enables them to develop their teaching practice to become increas- ingly more adept at designing lessons, carrying out those lessons with their students, and all the time observing how the lesson is working with those students? What do teachers need to learn to engage in the practice of mathematics teaching? How do educators from the two countries talk about and make records of teaching that inform their conversations? How do teachers in Japan and the United States use practice to work on their teaching? It is as important to note what these materials are not designed to do. These materials are not appropriate for comparing U.S. and Japanese teaching the lessons were not chosen to represent typical teaching in either country. Neither have these materials been designed for use in professional development; they constitute fragments of teach- ing, without context, or tasks from which teachers might learn. These materials are also not designed to show exemplary practice. What these materials are designed for is to create opportunities to explore what it might mean to use teaching practice as a medium for professional development. The workshop was a meeting of two very different cultures: people trying to solve in their own ways common problems of mathematics education and the education of teachers. The U.S.- Japan workshop was one attempt to move forward in building a collective understanding about the possibilities and challenges of such work. We person- ally found it a rich and rewarding experience and hope that through these proceedings, you will be able to share in the discussions and deliberations in ways that will make it a fruitful experience for you. Sincerely, S I r Hyman Bass, Co-chair U.S.- Japan Teacher Development Workshop Steering Committee Zalman P. Usiskin, Co-chair U.S.- Japan Teacher Development Workshop Steering Committee
INTRODUCTION 1 REFLECTIONS ON THE WORKSHOP Observations from the Stucly of Teaching Practice as a Meclium for Professional Development Henry S. Keener, Jr. Builcling an International Community: Sharing KnowlecIge arc! Experiences in Professional Development for Mathematics Education TO Carol E. Malloy 3 BACKGROUND CONTEXT FOR TEACHER PREPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN JAPAN 19 Elementary Mathematics Education in the Unitec! States Deborah Schifter Mathematics Teacher Education in Gracles 7-1 2 in the Unitec! States 28 Zalman ~ Usiskin A Stucly of Teacher Change Through Inservice Mathematics Education Programs in Gracluate School Keiko Hino and Keiichi Shigematsu Recurrent Education in Japan: WasecIa University Education Research arc! Development Center Toru Handa Recurrent Education in~lapan: Kanagawa Prefectural Education Center Mamoru Takezawa 21 35 44 46
LESSON STUDY AS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 47 Setting the Stage Dehorah Loewenherg Ball Lesson Stucly: What, Why, arc! How? Yoshinori Shimiza~ Framing Lesson Stucly for U.S. Participants Makoto Yoshida Lesson Stucly from the Perspective of a Fourth-Gracle Teacher Hiroshi Nakano Stuclying Classroom Teaching as a Meclium for Professional Development: Vicleo Component Reflections on Vicleos: Pane! Jacqueline Goodloe 69 ferry Becker 70 ·chiei Hirahayashi 72 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE USE OF RECORDS OF PRACTICE Professional Development Through RecorcIs of Instruction Dehorah Loewenherg Ball and Hyman Bass Professional Development Through Written Cases Margaret S. Smith 49 53 58 65 67 68 77 79 90 MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE OF TEACHERS PANEL 99 Zalman ~ Usiskin Dehorah Schifter Marco Ishigaki Miho Ueno SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION 101 104 107 108 111 Group I, Michelle Manes 113 Group IT, Denisse Thompson 118 Group Ill, Susan Beal 124 GroupIV, Ramesh Gangolli 128 Group V, Susan Wood 134 CONTE NTS
APPENDIXES Appendix A: Workshop Agenda Appendix B: Participant List Appendix C: Steering Committee Biographical Information Appendix D: A Plan for the Lesson on Division by a Two-Digit Number ]39 ]44 ]49 ]54 Appendix E: A Demonstration Lesson: Function Thinking at Sixth Grade ~ 57 Appendix F: A Study Lesson: Large Numbers at Fourth Grade ~ 77 Appendix G: Records of Instruction: Reasoning About Three Coins at Third Grade Appendix H: Transcript of Excerpts from Small Group Discussions Appendix I: A Written Case: Pattern Trains at Sixth Grade Appendix -1: Appendix K: Appendix ·: Appendix M: CONTE NTS 235 To Become a Mathematics Teacher Glossary Workshop Reading List References 227 23] 248 252 254 255
STUDYING CLASSROOM TEACHING AS A MEDIUM FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: VIDEO COMPONENT [Total Time: 90 minutes] (1) (2) (3) (4) A Demonstration Lesson: Function Thinking at Sixth Grade Shunji Kurosawa Setagaya Elementary School Tokyo Gakugei University, Japan August 3, 2000 Approximately 21 minutes Sixth-Grade Postlesson Discussion Facilitator: Takashi Nakamura Teacher: Shunji Kurosawa August 3, 2000 Approximately 22 minutes A Study Lesson: Large Numbers at Fourth Grade Hiroshi Nakano Setagaya Elementary School Tokyo Gakugei University, Japan December 7, 1999 Approximately 22 minutes Records of Instruction: Reasoning about Three Coins at Third Grade Deborah Loewenberg Ball Spartan Village Elementary School, East Lansing, MI September 1S, 1989 Approximately 13.5 minutes Excerpts from Small Group Discussions August 7, 2000 Approximately 8.5 minutes