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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Index

Note to the reader: This index contains entries for each of the six volumes of the Veterans and Agent Orange series released to date: Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (I), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 (II), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 (III), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 (IV), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 (V), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 (VI). Page numbers for the discussions of topics in specific volumes follow the roman numerals denoted above. Thus, for example, the entry “Agent Blue, I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100; III: 136, 137; IV: 118” first refers to material found on pages 27, 89–90, 93, 97, and 100 in Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam, then to material found on pages 136 and 137 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 and on page 118 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

A

Abortions. See Spontaneous abortion

ACC. See US Army Chemical Corps

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. See AIDS/HIV

ACS. See American Cancer Society

ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). See Leukemia

Aacute Myelogenous Leukemia. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia)

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). See Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). See Leukemia

AD. See Alzheimer’s disease

ADA. See American Diabetes Association

Adipose tissue

TCDD distribution,

I: 130, 131, 168–169, 259, 269, 280;

IV: 42, 43, 64, 116, 117;

VI: 67–68

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),

IV: 59

Aerial spraying,

I: 3, 24;

III: 135, 137, 139;

IV: 117, 120, 123, 150, 160, 303;

VI: 175–177, 185

military early research,

I: 25–26;

III: 28;

IV: 150

records of,

I: 84–85, 287

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

AFHS. See Air Force Health Study

Aflatoxin,

I: 453;

IV: 267

Africa, sub-Saharan,

II: 181;

III: 282;

IV: 267;

VI: 221

Age and aging

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 9, 378

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 378

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,

V: 524

bone/joint cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 302;

IV: 288;

V: 279

brain cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 356;

IV: 351;

V: 339, 524

breast cancer incidence in US women, data for selected age groups,

III: 324;

IV: 314;

V: 301

cancer age-specific incidence,

I: 436–438

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 378

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 378

diabetes prevalence, data by age,

III: 492

epidemiologic studies, control of aging effects,

II: 261–262;

III: 409;

IV: 3, 13, 23

female reproductive system cancer incidence, data by type, for selected age groups,

III: 329, 330;

IV: 321;

V: 310

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by type for selected age groups,

III: 267;

IV: 250;

V: 244

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 372;

IV: 365;

V: 355

immune system,

IV: 31, 79

kidney cancer,

V: 334

laryngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 292;

IV: 277;

V: 268

latency and,

II: 261–262, 273, 275;

III: 409, 414–415, 425, 428, 430;

IV: 254, 256, 264, 265

leukemia incidence, data by type, for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

V: 367

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancers incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 282;

IV: 267;

V: 260

lung cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 296;

IV: 281;

V: 272

melanoma incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 313;

IV: 300;

V: 288

multiple myeloma incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 377;

V: 361

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 289;

IV: 273;

V: 265

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma age of onset,

I: 436

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 362;

IV: 356;

V: 344

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

parkinsonism,

V: 524

prostate cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 334;

IV: 10, 327;

V: 317, 524

renal cancers incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 352;

IV: 346

reproductive disorders,

IV: 51–52, 59, 63, 66, 71, 80, 200

research recommendations,

V: 524

soft-tissue sarcoma age of onset,

I: 436

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 306;

IV: 292;

V: 282

TCDD half–life,

IV: 24, 28, 45

testicular cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 343;

IV: 335;

V: 325

urinary bladder cancer incidence, data for selected age groups,

III: 347;

IV: 340;

V: 328

See also Demographic data, Vietnam veterans

Agent Blue,

I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100;

III: 136, 137;

IV: 118;

VI: 183–185

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136

Agent Green,

I: 27, 90, 92, 114;

III: 136, 137, 140, 146;

IV: 118;

VI: 183

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136;

IV: 123

Agent Orange,

II: 308;

III: 130, 159, 315, 344, 359, 389, 407, 444, 460, 462, 489, 491;

IV: 117–118, 150, 156;

V: 1, 12;

VI: 1, 183

Air Force research activities,

II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

birth defects association,

II: 298, 300;

III: 435;

IV: 400

breast cancer association,

V: 307

cancer latency issues,

II: 260–276;

III: 407–431;

IV: 284

chemical composition,

I: 27;

II: 102;

IV: 119

chloracne association,

II: 317, 318;

III: 479;

IV: 138, 463;

V: 478

congressional hearings,

II: 27–28;

III: 25

defoliant effectiveness,

I: 90

Department of Veterans Affairs activities,

II: 29–31, 153, 156–157;

III: 27–28;

IV: 15

Environmental Protection Agency research activities,

II: 32;

III: 29–30

exposure opportunity index (EOI),

II: 290–291;

III: 146, 147, 148;

IV: 124, 405

federal government action/research,

I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 27–32;

IV: 13

health effects of, concerns,

I: 2;

II: 19–23, 26–27;

III: 19–20, 236, 237, 240, 242, 243

International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities,

III: 30

legislation,

I: 47–52;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27;

IV: 1, 15

Orange II formulation,

I: 90;

III: 137;

IV: 119

product liability litigation,

I: 34–35

spontaneous abortion,

II: 283;

IV: 399–400, 409–412;

V: 414

suspension of use,

I: 92–93;

II: 26

TCDD as contaminant of,

I: 91, 114, 126–127;

II: 102;

III: 140;

IV: 133–135

Vietnam amount used,

I: 1, 27, 74, 90, 97–98, 106;

II: 1, 26;

III: 136;

IV: 115, 118–119

Vietnam military application,

I: 1, 3, 27, 74, 84–85, 90, 92–93, 97–107, 543–545;

II: 1, 26–27;

III: 1, 25, 136, 137, 138, 140;

IV: 125–126

Vietnam surplus disposal,

I: 93–94

Vietnam veterans’ concerns,

I: 32–34;

II: 26–27

Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk,

II: 22–23;

III: 22–23, 272;

IV: 8–9, 12, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 388

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

II: 136;

IV: 120, 123, 150

See also Herbicides;

Incineration, of Agent Orange

Agent Orange, the Deadly Fog,

I: 33

Agent Orange Act of 1991. See Public Law 102-4

Agent Orange Briefs,

I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Agent Orange II. See Agent Orange

Agent Orange Registry (AOR),

I: 20, 53, 56, 729;

II: 29, 31, 153, 228;

III: 28, 344

See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA)

Agent Orange Review,

I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Agent Orange Scientific Task Force,

I: 60–61

Agent Orange Study,

I: 19, 57, 58–59, 63–64, 276–278;

II: 102;

III: 147, 148;

IV: 124

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Agent Orange Task Force,

II: 24–26;

III: 24–25, 148;

IV: 124

See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA)

Agent Orange Validation Study,

III: 240;

IV: 156, 159, 160, 162, 283, 304, 327, 403;

VI: 139, 190

Agent Orange Victims International,

I: 34

Agent Orange Working Group,

I: 19, 46, 58, 277, 743

research methodology,

I: 728

Agent Pink,

I: 27, 90, 92, 114;

III: 136, 137, 140, 146;

IV: 118, 122–123;

VI: 183

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136;

IV: 123

Agent Purple,

I: 27, 89, 92, 114;

III: 136, 140, 146;

IV: 118, 122–123;

VI: 183

Operation Ranch Hand,

IV: 123

TCDD in,

I: 126;

IV: 122

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136

Agent White,

I: 27, 90, 92–93, 97, 115, 189;

III: 136, 137;

IV: 118–119;

V: 36, 40;

VI: 43, 183–185

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136

Agricultural/forestry workers,

VI: 119, 124–128

brain tumors,

I: 320, 523;

II: 136

Canadian Farmer Cohort,

II: 135–136

cancers,

I: 13, 37, 320–323, 443, 447, 454;

II: 133–137, 179

case-control studies,

I: 326–341, 486–488;

II: 118–122, 138–140;

III: 185–195, 228–232;

V: 113–114;

VI: 127–128

cohort studies,

I: 318–323;

II: 118–120, 135–137, 197–198;

III: 178–185, 224–228;

IV: 197–202;

V: 6, 109–113;

VI: 124–127

epidemiologic studies,

I: 37, 318–323;

II: 118–120, 135–137, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 284–285, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 134, 141–142, 145, 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 285, 290, 296, 306, 312, 318, 324, 333, 338, 349, 353, 360, 368, 374, 381, 401;

V: 3, 143–153, 222–224;

VI: 124–125

female reproductive and breast cancers,

I: 510–511;

IV: 324–325

hepatobiliary cancer,

I: 454;

II: 183–184;

III: 284–285;

IV: 271

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 265–266;

III: 154–157;

IV: 202

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 550–553;

II: 135

Irish agricultural workers study,

II: 136–137

kidney cancer,

I: 515

leukemia,

I: 332–335, 566–568;

II: 136;

III: 387–388

malignant lymphoma in,

IV: 201

multiple myelomas,

I: 11–12, 558–561;

II: 138–139, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 379–380

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 9, 256–257, 530–540;

II: 138, 139, 232–234;

III: 364–365;

IV: 359–361

parkinsonism in,

V: 6

prostate cancer,

I: 11, 518, 519, 575;

II: 8–9;

III: 335;

IV: 327–329

reproductive outcomes,

I: 510–511, 598

respiratory cancer,

I: 11, 466;

II: 197–198

soft-tissue sarcomas,

I: 37, 326–328, 479–481, 486–488

sperm dysfunction,

I: 632

suicide,

I: 650

See also Forests;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Agricultural Health Study (AHS),

IV: 142;

VI: 126, 175

See also Iowa

Agricultural herbicides,

I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181;

II: 137–139

See also Herbicides

Agriculture. See Agricultural/forestry workers;

Agricultural herbicides;

Food crops;

Forests

Ah receptor (AhR),

I: 3, 123, 134;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62;

III: 54–58, 129;

IV: 25–26, 29–30, 42, 47, 50–58, 60, 68, 69, 70–73, 76, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 95, 99–100;

V: 24–25, 52–55;

VI: 55–66

animal studies and,

I: 114, 123;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62, 92–93;

III: 33, 34, 35, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69, 129;

IV: 48–49, 61–62, 64–67, 74–75;

VI: 55–57

anti-estrogenicity and,

II: 62;

III: 67–69

biological consequences of activation,

II: 57;

III: 62;

IV: 56–60, 323

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

blood abnormalities,

I: 125

cacodylic acid acute toxicity,

I: 188

cacodylic acid and mechanism of toxicity,

II: 50–51;

IV: 24

cacodylic acid carcinogenicity,

I: 118, 119, 187;

IV: 5, 387

cacodylic acid chronic exposure,

I: 188–189

cacodylic acid developmental toxicity,

I: 189

cacodylic acid genotoxicity,

I: 187–188

cacodylic acid mechanism of action,

I: 188–189

cacodylic acid pharmokinetics,

I: 186–187

cacodylic acid renal toxicity,

II: 50–51

cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity,

I: 189

cacodylic acid toxicity summary,

II: 50;

III: 48;

IV: 38

cacodylic acid toxicokinetics,

I: 188–189;

IV: 24, 27, 38

combinatorial interactions,

II: 57–58

DNA binding capability and transcription, activation of,

II: 56–57;

III: 58–61

free radicals and,

II: 60;

III: 64–65

growth/differentiation signaling,

III: 62–63

growth factor and,

II: 59

inconsistencies in,

II: 57–62

interactions,

VI: 58–59

ligand-independent activation,

II: 58

multiple forms of,

II: 57

nervous system and,

I: 161;

V: 470–471

protein and,

VI: 56–58

protein kinases and,

II: 60–62;

III: 65–67;

IV: 69–71

redox signaling,

III: 64–65;

IV: 67–69

signaling interactions,

II: 59–62;

III: 62–69;

IV: 60–61, 64, 71–74

structural and functional aspects of, II: 54–56;

III: 54–58;

IV: 54–56;

VI: 56–66

TCDD biologic plausibility and,

I: 3, 133–138, 452–453;

IV: 4, 25–26, 29, 42, 47–53, 322, 386

TCDD carcinogenicity and,

I: 118, 439

TCDD hepatotoxicity and,

I: 151, 152, 457;

II: 3–4

TCDD immunotoxicity and,

I: 122, 150

TCDD interactions with,

V: 24–25, 52–54, 309

TCDD reproductive toxicity and,

I: 123

TCDD teratogenicity and,

I: 159–160

transcriptional-independent responses,

II: 58–59

See also ARNT

AHS. See Agricultural Health Study

AIDS/HIV,

I: 338, 527, 541, 695;

II: 326;

IV: 144, 214, 356, 475, 476

Air Force. See US Air Force

Air Force Health Study (AFHS),

I: 62–63, 260, 272, 622;

II: 284, 293–295, 336;

III: 23, 25, 29, 239, 438–439, 495, 505, 514;

IV: 13, 232, 233, 234, 235;

V: 10, 513;

VI: 120, 260, 406, 492

appropriation for,

I: 51

autoimmune disease in,

I: 698

basal/squamous cell skin cancer in,

III: 318, 321, 322;

IV: 309

baseline mortality studies,

II: 151

birth defects in offspring,

II: 286, 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439;

IV: 402

bone/joint cancer in,

III: 303;

IV: 289

cancer and latency in,

III: 423, 424, 425, 427

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

V: 465–466

circulatory disease in,

I: 703–705, 706;

II: 336;

III: 514, 517;

IV: 508–509

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders,

V: 449

data sources,

I: 385–386;

II: 150–151

diabetes mellitus in,

I: 684;

II: 330;

III: 495, 498–500, 502;

IV: 485–487

epidemiological studies,

II: 31, 32, 149, 150–152, 154–156, 293–295;

III: 28–29, 206–207, 218, 237–240, 303, 309–310, 313–314, 318, 321, 322, 339, 340, 385, 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458, 481, 486, 495, 498–500, 502, 505, 506, 507, 510, 513, 514, 517;

IV: 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 305–306, 308–311, 313, 327, 329, 331, 334–336, 342, 345, 347, 350, 352, 355, 357, 362, 366, 370, 373, 376, 380, 383

exposure assessment in,

I: 279–280, 281, 386;

II: 4–5, 101, 103, 109;

III: 6, 146–147, 157–158, 162;

IV: 123–124

gastrointestinal ulcers in,

I: 691;

III: 510, 513

immune system disorders in,

I: 696

infertility in,

II: 280;

III: 446–447, 449

laryngeal cancer in,

V: 272

lipid abnormalities in,

I: 689;

II: 333;

III: 505, 506, 507;

IV: 494

liver toxicity in,

II: 332;

III: 510, 513;

IV: 502

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

low birthweight in,

I: 626, 627;

III: 457–458

melanoma in,

III: 313–314;

IV: 303–304

methodology,

I: 230–231, 385–386, 445, 757–762

multiple myelomas in,

I: 562;

II: 244, 245;

IV: 373

neurological disorders in,

I: 659;

IV: 441–443, 445, 454–455, 459

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

I: 541;

IV: 362

participants,

I: 722–723;

II: 150–152

perinatal death in offspring,

III: 452–453

peripheral nervous system disorders in,

I: 665;

IV: 454–455

porphyria cutanea tarda in,

I: 681–682;

II: 321–322;

III: 481

recommendations for,

I: 16–17, 722–724;

II: 23, 24;

IV: 13;

V: 524

reproductive outcomes in,

I: 601, 612–613, 632, 633, 727;

II: 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458;

IV: 403

respiratory cancers in,

I: 469;

II: 201

respiratory disorders in,

I: 711–712;

III: 486

role of,

I: 53

skin cancers in,

II: 209;

IV: 303

skin disorders in,

I: 678

soft-tissue sarcoma in,

I: 492–493;

III: 309–310;

IV: 294–295

spina bifida in offspring,

II: 9, 295–296;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 438

spontaneous abortions in,

II: 283–284

status of,

I: 53;

II: 31–32

TCDD half-life estimates,

I: 260–261;

II: 104–105;

III: 37, 50, 157–158

TCDD serum levels,

I: 273, 281, 285, 656;

II: 101, 103, 105, 109, 351, 356, 357;

III: 146, 147

update of,

V: 6

See also Operation Ranch Hand;

Ranch Hand study;

US Air Force;

Vietnam veterans

Aktiengesellschaft, Germany,

IV: 137

AL-type primary amyloidosis. See Amyloidosis

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT),

II: 331, 332;

III: 45, 509, 510;

IV: 37

Alaskan natives

Inuit,

III: 50–51

See also Race/ethnicity

Alberta, Canada,

II: 135–136, 232, 242, 246;

III: 234–235, 319–320;

IV: 149, 198, 229, 312–313;

V: 117

Alberta Cancer Registry,

III: 235

Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan,

III: 235

Alcohol consumption,

I: 507

ALL. See Leukemia

Allergies,

II: 327, 329;

III: 487–488;

IV: 469–470

See also Immune system disorders

ALS. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS. See Assembly of Life Sciences

Alsea, Oregon,

I: 42–43, 372–373, 598

ALT. See Alanine aminotransferase

Alzheimer’s disease (AD),

V: 6, 449, 451

American Association for the Advancement of Science,

I: 29, 92

Herbicide Assessment Commission,

I: 30–31

American Cancer Society (ACS),

I: 334;

II: 177, 181, 189, 191, 204, 205, 209, 211, 217, 223, 228, 231, 239, 245;

III: 267, 282, 289, 292, 295, 296, 302, 304, 312, 322, 324, 329, 334, 343, 347, 351, 356, 362, 371, 377, 383;

IV: 250, 267, 273, 277, 281, 287, 291, 299, 300, 314, 320, 326, 335, 339, 345, 350, 355, 364, 371, 377;

V: 244, 278, 282, 289, 309, 316, 425

Cancer Prevention Study,

II: 239;

III: 229

American College of Epidemiology,

II: 25

American Diabetes Association (ADA),

III: 492, 493, 502;

V: 485

American Industrial Hygiene Association,

II: 25

American Journal of Epidemiology,

II: 281

American Legion,

I: 60, 278–279, 399, 601–602, 626, 633;

II: 113, 157;

IV: 133, 158;

VI: 120

Vietnam veterans’ epidemiological studies,

III: 212–213, 243;

V: 126;

V: 126, 187;

VI: 140

American Public Health Association,

II: 25

American Thoracic Society

Epidemiology Standardization Questionnaire,

II: 136

d-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase,

I: 153–154

Amitrole,

I: 323

AML. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia)

AML. See Leukemia

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Amsterdam, Netherlands,

V: 5, 228–229, 511

Amyloidosis,

IV: 2, 7, 11, 511–513;

V: 506–507;

VI: 471–473

biologic plausibility,

VI: 473

scientific literature update,

VI: 472

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),

V: 6, 461–465, 524;

VI: 420–422

biologic plausibility,

VI: 420–422

clinical features,

V: 461

pesticide exposure and,

V: 463–465

pesticide occupational exposure studies,

V: 462

scientific literature update,

VI: 422

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 422

Anencephaly,

IV: 404–405

Angina,

I: 708;

IV: 135

See also Circulatory disorders

Animal studies,

III: 394–396, 524;

IV: 254, 256, 269, 275, 279, 290, 293–294, 296;

V: 35–36;

VI: 29–30, 34–41

2,4-D carcinogenicity,

I: 118–119, 176–178;

II: 48;

III: 47, 396;

IV: 37;

VI: 36–40

2,4-D chronic exposure,

I: 179–180;

IV: 34

2,4-D developmental toxicity,

I: 124, 180–181;

III: 46;

VI: 38–39

2,4-D disease outcomes and mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 48–49;

III: 38–39, 44–47;

IV: 30–32, 35

2,4-D genotoxicity,

I: 178–179;

IV: 28, 33;

VI: 36–40

2,4-D immunotoxicity,

I: 122–123, 181;

III: 46, 423;

IV: 36;

VI: 39

2,4-D lethality,

III: 44–45;

IV: 35

2,4-D mechanism of action,

II: 47–48;

III: 44;

IV: 33;

VI: 40–41

2,4-D mechanism of toxicity,

II: 48–49;

IV: 28, 37;

VI: 36

2,4-D neurotoxicity,

II: 48;

III: 45–46, 473;

IV: 30, 35;

VI: 37

2,4-D pharmacokinetics,

I: 175

2,4-D reproductive toxicity,

I: 124, 180, 181;

III: 46;

IV: 29, 36;

VI: 38–39

2,4-D toxicity profile update summary,

II: 46;

IV: 33

2,4-D toxicokinetics,

II: 46–47;

III: 43–44;

IV: 24, 27;

VI: 34–36

2,4,5-T acute toxicity,

I: 184

2,4,5-T carcinogenicity,

I: 118, 119, 182–184;

III: 396

2,4,5-T chronic exposure,

I: 184

2,4,5-T developmental/reproductive toxicity,

I: 124, 185;

II: 49–50

2,4,5-T genotoxicity,

I: 184

2,4,5-T immunotoxicity,

I: 123

2,4,5-T mechanism of action,

III: 47–48

2,4,5-T mechanism of toxicity,

II: 49–50;

IV: 37

2,4,5-T pharmacokinetics,

I: 182

2,4,5-T toxicity profile update summary,

II: 49;

IV: 37

2,4,5-T toxicokinetics,

II: 49;

III: 47;

IV: 37

Ah receptor,

I: 3, 123, 134;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62;

III: 54–58, 129;

IV: 4, 30, 386

amyloidosis,

IV: 512

blood abnormalities,

I: 125;

IV: 496

breast cancer,

IV: 29, 317–318

cacodylic acid acute toxicity,

I: 188

cacodylic acid carcinogenicity,

I: 118, 119, 187;

IV: 5, 387

cacodylic acid chronic exposure,

I: 188–189

cacodylic acid developmental toxicity,

I: 189

cacodylic acid genotoxicity,

I: 187–188

cacodylic acid mechanism of action,

II: 50;

III: 49–50

cacodylic acid mechanism of toxicity,

II: 50–51;

IV: 24;

VI: 41–43

cacodylic acid pharmacokinetics,

I: 186–187

cacodylic acid renal toxicity,

II: 50–51

cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity,

I: 189

cacodylic acid toxicity summary,

II: 50;

IV: 38

cacodylic acid toxicokinetics,

II: 50;

III: 48;

IV: 24, 27, 38;

VI: 41

characteristics of,

I: 111–114;

IV: 48

epidemiologic studies,

IV: 359, 361, 369, 381

evidentiary role,

I: 228;

IV: 85, 106, 385, 515–516

generalizability,

I: 112, 113, 114, 118, 122–123, 160;

IV: 26, 85, 426, 459

hepatic abnormalities,

I: 124–125, 688;

IV: 25, 57, 59–60

human health relevance of toxicology,

III: 35–36;

IV: 26, 48

male-mediated disorders,

I: 593–594

nonhuman primates,

I: 151

picloram in,

I: 118, 119, 125, 190–192;

III: 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

research recommendations,

V: 526–527

squamous cell carcinomas,

IV: 284

TCDD acute toxicity,

II: 75–76

TCDD and bladder cancer in,

IV: 342

TCDD and bone/joint cancer in,

IV: 290

TCDD and Hodgkin’s disease in,

IV: 367

TCDD and leukemia disease in,

IV: 380

TCDD and multiple myeloma in,

IV: 374

TCDD and nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer in,

IV: 275

TCDD and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

IV: 358

TCDD and prostate cancer in,

IV: 332

TCDD and soft-tissue sarcoma in,

IV: 279

TCDD carcinogenicity,

I: 3, 116, 138–142;

II: 3, 65–68;

IV: 26, 305, 311

TCDD cardiovascular toxicity,

I: 171;

II: 76;

III: 74–75

TCDD dermal toxicity,

I: 173–174;

II: 76

TCDD developmental toxicity,

I: 123–124, 156–157, 159–160;

II: 3, 71, 72–73;

III: 92–105;

IV: 58

TCDD disease outcomes,

II: 3;

III: 39–43, 71–105;

IV: 3, 23

TCDD endocrine effects,

III: 83–84

TCDD gastrointestinal toxicity,

I: 169–170;

IV: 256

TCDD hepatotoxicity,

I: 124–125, 151–156;

II: 3, 73–75;

III: 76–79

TCDD immunotoxicity,

I: 119–122, 146–151;

II: 3, 68–71;

III: 85–92;

IV: 3, 26

TCDD-induced diabetes,

IV: 488

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome,

I: 162–166;

II: 76–77;

III: 80–83;

IV: 57, 76

TCDD lethality,

III: 71–73;

IV: 76

TCDD mechanism of action,

II: 3, 54–65;

III: 51–53, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69;

IV: 3, 24

TCDD mechanism of toxicity,

II: 65–77

TCDD metabolic toxicity,

I: 166–169

TCDD neurotoxicity,

I: 160–166;

II: 3, 75;

III: 84–85;

IV: 352, 458

TCDD pharmacokinetics,

I: 127–133

TCDD renal toxicity,

II: 77;

III: 75–76;

IV: 348

TCDD reproductive toxicity,

I: 123–124, 156–159;

II: 3, 71–72;

III: 92–105;

IV: 26, 64, 323, 337, 411, 432, 434

TCDD respiratory tract toxicity,

I: 170

TCDD toxicity update summary,

II: 51–53

TCDD toxicokinetics,

II: 3, 53–54;

III: 4–5, 33;

IV: 3, 23, 41, 47

toxicity, potential health risks and contributing factors,

III: 106, 107, 108;

VI: 45–47

Anthropometry. See Body weight

AOR. See Agent Orange Registry

Aphasia,

V: 447

Apoptosis, TCDD and,

II: 3, 67

Arctic region natives,

III: 50–51;

VI: 226

Argentina,

III: 224;

VI: 125

Arkansas,

I: 373–374, 663;

III: 234;

IV: 149, 231;

V: 117;

VI: 133

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology,

I: 494

Army. See US Army

Army Chemical Corps. See US Army Chemical Corps

Army Reserve Personnel Center,

II: 152

ARNT,

II: 4, 45, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66;

III: 38, 54–58, 63;

IV: 30, 47–56, 61, 67, 69–73, 86

See also Ah receptor (AhR)

Arsenic

cacodylic acid component,

IV: 117–118;

V: 4, 21;

VI: 21

respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 268;

III: 420

Arsenic in Drinking Water,

V: 21, 38;

VI: 21, 42

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase,

I: 135, 153, 155–156, 170

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor. See Ah receptor

Asbestos, respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 268;

III: 420

Asia,

III: 471;

VI: 203, 221, 226, 233

See also Southeast Asia;

individual countries

Asian Americans,

II: 188

See also Race/ethnicity

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST),

II: 331, 333;

III: 45, 509;

IV: 37

Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS),

I: 62, 63

Association of Birth Defect Children,

II: 292

AST. See Aspartate aminotransferase

Asthma,

I: 708, 711, 713;

IV: 199

See also Respiratory disorders

Astrocytomas,

V: 525

Ataxia,

I: 658

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

Atlanta, Georgia,

II: 241, 296;

III: 229

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

CDC Birth Defects Study,

II: 9;

III: 438;

IV: 237

Atlanta Congenital Defects Program,

I: 387

Atlantic Ocean,

III: 108

Australia,

I: 61, 91, 340, 406, 418, 444, 470, 488–489, 537, 546, 614–615, 633, 702, 710;

II: 113, 132, 149, 160, 202, 293;

III: 216–217, 218, 237, 244–245;

IV: 8, 10, 144, 150, 159, 210, 304;

VI: 128

Air Force veterans,

III: 244

Army veterans,

III: 244, 245;

IV: 159;

VI: 141

Australian National Service Vietnam veterans,

III: 273, 286

Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey, 1989-1990,

III: 245, 485, 511, 517

Department of Defense,

III: 244, 245

Department of Veterans Affairs,

III: 244, 245

Electoral Commission rolls,

III: 245

Health Insurance Medicare,

III: 245

herbicide use by forces,

III: 137–138

lung cancer mortality in Vietnam veterans,

III: 424

National Death Index,

III: 245

Navy veterans,

III: 244

Victorian Cancer Registry,

III: 232;

IV: 144;

VI: 128

Vietnam veterans epidemiologic studies,

III: 9, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 339, 340, 343, 346, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 469, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517;

IV: 244–247, 255, 259, 262, 264, 266, 272, 276, 280, 283, 287, 295, 298–299, 305–308, 310, 313, 319, 323–326, 332, 334–335, 337, 339, 345, 350, 355, 362–363, 371, 376, 380, 383, 404–405;

V: 127–128, 191–193, 324, 420

See also Tasmania

Austria,

IV: 138–139, 189, 467–468, 500

Autoimmune disease,

I: 697–699;

IV: 475–481

See also Immune system disorders;

Systemic autoimmune disease;

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Autoimmunity,

I: 693, 697–699;

II: 7, 21, 327, 329;

III: 487–488;

IV: 476–477

See also Immune system disorders

Axonal nerve damage,

VI: 428

B

B cell function,

I: 147, 148

Baltic Sea,

II: 329;

III: 108, 236, 272, 285, 358, 484, 515

Baltimore, Maryland,

V: 5, 400

Baltimore-Washington Infant Study,

V: 400

Basal/squamous cell skin cancer

biologic plausibility,

III: 322;

IV: 311;

V: 300;

VI: 264–265

epidemiologic studies,

III: 317–322, 323;

V: 296, 297–298, 299;

VI: 261–265

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 323;

IV: 229, 309;

V: 297–298, 299

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 321, 323;

IV: 309;

V: 296, 297, 298–299

herbicides association with,

III: 317–322, 323;

V: 295–300

incidence,

III: 319–320

morbidity studies,

V: 297–298

mortality studies,

III: 319, 321;

V: 296

scientific literature update,

III: 319–320;

IV: 309;

V: 296, 298–299;

VI: 261

Vietnam veterans and,

III: 323;

V: 298;

VI: 265

See also Melanomas;

Skin cancer

BASF,

I: 312–313, 444, 530, 550, 558;

II: 130–131, 238, 318–319, 325, 330–331, 332–333, 334, 336;

III: 153, 154, 174, 221–222, 269–270, 273, 297, 349, 484, 495, 506, 511;

IV: 112, 188–189, 257, 260, 271, 285, 290, 301, 333, 343–344, 368, 382;

V: 108, 135–136;

VI: 123, 425

Aktiengesellschaft,

III: 221;

IV: 137

Dioxin Investigation Programme,

II: 131

Occupational Safety and Employee Protection Department,

II: 131

Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH),

II: 54, 55, 56;

IV: 49

Bayer,

III: 154;

IV: 112

Beck’s Depression Inventory,

I: 650, 651

Belgium,

VI: 133, 181, 447, 476–477

Benefits. See Compensation, veterans

BHLH. See Basic helix-loop-helix

Bias

in an investigation,

V: 22;

VI: 23

methodological. See Methodological bias

publication,

VI: 30–31

Binghamton, New York,

III: 234;

IV: 149;

V: 117

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Biochemical warfare,

I: 29, 45

Biologic plausibility,

II: 88, 92;

III: 2, 124, 128;

IV: 2–3, 16, 20–22, 26, 29, 106–107, 249, 385–388;

V: 4, 378–381, 516–518;

VI: 18, 24–25, 483–485

Ah receptor-TCDD interaction,

I: 3, 133–137, 439, 452–453;

III: 129;

IV: 48, 86

altered sperm parameters,

I: 634;

III: 451

amyloidosis,

V: 505;

VI: 473

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,

VI: 420–422

animal studies,

I: 228;

II: 176;

III: 460–462, 474–475;

IV: 431–435

basal/squamous cell skin cancer,

III: 322;

V: 300;

VI: 264–265

birth defects,

II: 298;

III: 444;

IV: 403;

V: 404;

VI: 365

bladder cancer,

III: 351;

IV: 342–343;

V: 333;

VI: 291

bone/joint cancer,

I: 474;

III: 304;

IV: 290;

V: 282;

VI: 245

brain tumors,

I: 525;

III: 362;

IV: 352;

V: 343;

VI: 302

breast cancer,

II: 217;

III: 327, 329;

IV: 317–318;

V: 309;

VI: 269–270

carcinogenicity,

I: 116–118, 119, 146, 176–178, 182–184, 187, 190–191, 439, 451;

II: 176;

III: 394–397;

IV: 385–387

childhood cancer,

I: 630;

II: 300;

IV: 426;

VI: 389

chloracne,

I: 678;

II: 320–321;

III: 480;

IV: 466;

V: 479;

VI: 438

circulatory disorders,

I: 708;

III: 518;

IV: 510;

V: 505–506;

VI: 471

diabetes mellitus,

I: 692;

II: 335;

III: 502–503;

IV: 488;

V: 492;

VI: 456

endometrial cancer,

IV: 322

endometriosis,

VI: 478

evidentiary role of,

I: 111, 114, 223–224, 240–241, 434;

II: 88, 92, 176;

III: 23, 106–107;

V: 23–24

female reproductive system cancers,

I: 512;

III: 334;

IV: 323;

V: 316

fetal/neonatal/infant death,

I: 624;

III: 453

gastrointestinal disorders,

III: 513–514;

V: 502;

VI: 466

gastrointestinal tract cancers,

III: 281–282;

IV: 256;

V: 246;

VI: 221

genitourinary tract cancers,

I: 521–522

genotoxicity,

I: 178–179, 184, 187–188, 191

hepatobiliary cancer,

I: 453, 457;

III: 286, 288;

IV: 270;

V: 263–264;

VI: 225–226

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 557;

III: 377;

IV: 367;

V: 361;

VI: 319

hormonal effects,

VI: 394–397

hyperlipidemia,

I: 692

immune system disorders,

VI: 447–448

immunotoxicity,

I: 122, 146–151, 181, 192, 699;

III: 491

infertility,

I: 634;

II: 282;

III: 451;

VI: 372

kidney cancer,

V: 338

laryngeal cancer,

III: 295;

IV: 279;

V: 271–272;

VI: 234

leukemia,

I: 571;

III: 390;

IV: 380–381;

V: 372, 376;

VI: 333, 337

lipid and lipoprotein disorders,

VI: 459–463

liver disorders,

I: 691–692;

II: 335;

III: 513–514;

IV: 270

low birthweight outcomes,

I: 628;

III: 458;

V: 425;

VI: 382–383

lung cancer,

III: 302;

IV: 284;

V: 278

male-mediated reproductive outcomes,

I: 593–595;

III: 451;

IV: 413, 416–417, 426

melanoma,

III: 317;

IV: 305;

V: 295;

VI: 260

motor/coordination dysfunction,

I: 661;

III: 475;

IV: 448

multiple myeloma,

I: 12, 563;

III: 383;

IV: 374;

V: 366;

VI: 325

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

I: 460;

III: 292;

IV: 275;

V: 268;

VI: 230

neurobehavioral disorders,

II: 314;

III: 474–475;

VI: 409

neuropsychological disorders,

I: 658;

IV: 457–459;

VI: 429–430

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 549;

III: 366;

IV: 358–359;

V: 355;

VI: 312

parkinsonism,

VI: 419–420

perinatal death,

III: 453, 458;

IV: 413;

V: 422;

VI: 379

peripheral nervous system disorders,

I: 666;

V: 470–472;

VI: 428

porphyria cutanea tarda,

I: 679, 682;

II: 323;

III: 482;

IV: 468;

V: 480

prostate cancer,

III: 343;

IV: 331–332;

V: 323–324;

VI: 282–283

renal cancers,

III: 356;

IV: 348

renal toxicity,

I: 179–180

reproductive outcomes,

I: 123–124, 180–181, 185, 189, 192, 605, 618, 628;

II: 300–301;

III: 458, 460–462;

IV: 411;

VI: 394–397

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

respiratory cancers,

I: 472

respiratory disorders,

I: 713;

III: 486;

V: 482;

VI: 443

sex ratio,

VI: 393–394

skin cancer,

I: 503;

IV: 305, 311;

VI: 260

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 500;

III: 311;

IV: 296;

V: 287;

VI: 251

spontaneous abortion,

V: 420;

VI: 378

squamous cell carcinomas,

IV: 284

testicular cancer,

III: 347;

IV: 337;

V: 327

thyroid homeostasis,

VI: 481

See also TCDD biologic plausibility

Biological samples,

I: 20–21, 729–730

Biomarkers

chloracne as,

I: 4, 10, 172–173, 262, 401, 672–674;

II: 318;

V: 478

exposure assessment and,

I: 259–262, 280–284;

II: 101–104;

sperm parameters as,

I: 631

III: 146–147;

IV: 111, 123, 448, 479

research recommendations,

I: 17, 725;

II: 25

Bionetics Research Laboratory,

I: 30

Birth defects

biologic plausibility,

III: 444;

IV: 403;

V: 404;

VI: 365

definition of,

I: 605–606;

II: 286;

III: 435;

IV: 400;

V: 393–394

epidemiologic studies,

II: 140, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443;

IV: 247, 403;

V: 404;

VI: 355–365

epidemiology,

I: 606;

II: 286;

III: 435–436

evaluation of epidemiologic data,

I: 615–618;

IV: 144–145, 403

herbicide association first reports,

I: 1

herbicide association in,

I: 13–14, 618;

II: 7, 11, 20, 286–296;

III: 436–444;

IV 400–405;

V: 393–405

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 608–609;

II: 140, 287–288, 297;

III: 437;

V: 394, 400–402;

VI: 363

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

I: 607–608;

II: 286–287, 297;

III: 437;

IV: 197;

V: 394–395;

VI: 362

Ranch Hand participants’ children and,

II: 293–296;

III: 436, 438, 439;

IV: 18;

V: 16;

VI: 15

risk factors of,

I: 606–607;

II: 298;

III: 444;

V: 405

scientific literature update,

III: 437, 439–443;

IV: 401–402;

V: 394–403, 433–437;

VI: 362–365

Seveso, Italy, study,

II: 287;

III: 436

summary,

II: 295–296;

IV: 400–401

TCDD association with,

V: 5, 434, 439–441

TCDD biologic plausibility in,

I: 618;

II: 298;

III: 460–461

Vietnam veterans’ children and,

I: 609–615, 618;

II: 288–296, 297, 298;

III: 435, 436, 437–438;

IV: 403;

V: 396–398;

VI: 364

See also Cleft lip/palate;

Neural tube defects;

Reproductive disorders;

Spina bifida;

Teratogenicity

Birth Defects Study,

II: 9, 290–291, 296;

III: 147, 436, 438, 439;

IV: 405, 429

See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Births. See Birth defects;

Low birthweight;

Perinatal death;

Preterm delivery (PTD)

Bladder cancer and disorders

Birthweight. See Low birthweight

biologic plausibility,

III: 351;

IV: 342–343;

V: 333;

VI: 291

epidemiologic studies,

I: 515–517;

II: 225–227;

III: 347–351;

IV: 19, 339–347, 385, 387;

V: 5, 17, 330–332, 333;

VI: 286–292

epidemiology,

II: 223;

III: 347

herbicide association in,

I: 12, 521, 576;

II: 7, 12, 21, 225–227, 250;

III: 3, 10, 21, 132, 347–351;

IV: 19, 31, 40;

V: 17, 21, 328–333;

VI: 16–17

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 349, 350–351;

IV: 341;

V: 329, 331–332

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 348, 350;

IV: 340–341;

V: 329, 330

histopathology,

I: 513

incidence,

I: 513

incidence, data by age/gender/race, for selected age groups,

III: 347;

IV: 340;

V: 328;

VI: 287

risk factors,

I: 513–514;

V: 333

scientific literature update,

II: 226–227;

III: 348–349;

IV: 340;

V: 329, 332;

VI: 291

TCDD association with,

IV: 19, 24;

V: 5

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 513, 517, 522;

II: 223, 226;

III: 349, 351;

V: 333;

VI: 292

See also Genitourinary cancers

Body mass index (BMI),

II: 281;

III: 499, 502

Body weight, loss of and TCDD,

II: 3

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Boehringer-Ingelheim,

I: 313;

III: 153–154;

IV: 111–112;

V: 220;

VI: 172

Bone development effects,

VI: 68–69

Bone/joint cancer

biologic plausibility,

III: 304;

V: 282;

VI: 245

children and,

I: 628

chondrosarcomas of the skull,

III: 2, 10, 266, 304

epidemiologic studies,

III: 303–305;

V: 280–282;

VI: 242–245

epidemiology,

I: 472–473;

II: 204;

III: 302

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 473–474, 577;

II: 6, 11, 20, 204–205, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 303–305;

V: 278–282

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 303, 305;

IV: 289;

V: 280

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 303, 305;

IV: 288;

V: 280

incidence of, data by gender/race, for selected age groups,

III: 302;

IV: 288;

VI: 242

scientific literature update,

II: 204–205;

III: 303;

IV: 288;

V: 279, 281;

VI: 242–244

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 473, 474;

II: 204;

IV: 290;

V: 282;

VI: 245

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 303, 305;

IV: 289;

V: 281

Boston Hospital for Women,

II: 291–292

Brain tumors,

I: 339;

IV: 350

2,4-D exposure and,

I: 119, 176–177

agricultural workers and,

I: 320;

II: 136

biologic plausibility,

III: 362;

IV: 352;

V: 343;

VI: 302

clinical features,

I: 522

epidemiologic studies,

II: 136, 229–230;

III: 356–361;

IV: 198;

V: 340–343;

VI: 296–302

epidemiology,

I: 522–523;

II: 228–229;

III: 356

herbicide association in,

I: 12, 525, 576;

II: 7, 12, 21, 229–230, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21, 356–362;

IV: 19;

V: 17, 338–343

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 358, 361;

IV: 351;

V: 341–342;

VI: 301

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 357–358, 360;

IV: 351;

V: 340–341;

VI: 301

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups,

III: 356;

IV: 351;

V: 339;

VI: 297

research recommendations,

V: 524

scientific literature update,

II: 229–230;

III: 357–359;

IV: 351;

V: 339, 342;

VI: 301–302

TCDD association with,

IV: 19

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 525;

II: 228–229, 230;

IV: 353;

V: 343;

VI: 302

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 358–359, 361;

IV: 352;

V: 342;

VI: 301–302

Breast cancer

agricultural workers and,

I: 510;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility,

II: 217;

III: 327, 329;

IV: 318;

V: 309;

VI: 269–270

epidemiologic studies,

II: 214–216, 217;

III: 324–328;

IV: 318–320;

V: 302–304, 308;

VI: 265–270

epidemiology,

I: 505, 506–507;

II: 213–214;

III: 322, 324;

IV: 144

herbicide association in,

I: 13;

II: 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 213–217, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 324–329;

IV: 24, 29, 38, 73;

V: 300–309

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 511, 512;

III: 328;

IV: 315;

V: 302–303, 304–307

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 214–216;

III: 324–326, 328;

IV: 315;

V: 301, 302, 304

histopathology,

I: 505–506

incidence in US women, data by race, for selected age groups,

III: 324;

IV: 314;

V: 301;

VI: 265

risk, estimated,

II: 218;

V: 300–301

risk factors,

I: 507;

V: 309

scientific literature update,

III: 326–327;

IV: 315;

V: 301, 304–307;

VI: 266

TCDD association with,

V: 5, 65–66, 306–307;

VI: 81

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 213, 216–217, 505, 511;

III: 329;

IV: 318;

V: 309;

VI: 270

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 326, 328;

IV: 316;

V: 304

See also Reproductive system cancers, women

Breast milk,

VI: 50–51, 389

British Columbia, Canada,

III: 10, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 419

Cancer Incidence File,

III: 227

Death File,

III: 227

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Division of Vital Statistics,

III: 452, 457

Health Surveillance Registry,

III: 227, 439

Bronchitis,

I: 708, 711, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Bronchus cancer. See Lung cancer

Brown, Jesse,

II: 24;

III: 24, 25

Bureau of Census,

III: 231

Bureau of Labor Statistics,

I: 79, 80

Burkitt lymphoma,

V: 430

n-Butyl esters,

I: 27;

IV: 117–119

C

Ca Mau peninsula,

I: 100, 104

Cacodylic acid,

I: 88–89;

II: 4;

III: 5, 19, 32, 135, 136, 137, 218;

IV: 22, 117–118, 133;

V: 1, 3, 4;

VI: 1, 3, 11, 20–21, 41–43, 118–119, 201, 276, 436

acute toxicity,

I: 188

animal studies,

I: 185–189;

II: 50–51;

III: 34, 38, 48, 49–50, 396;

IV: 5;

VI: 41–43

carcinogenicity,

I: 118, 119, 187;

II: 40;

III: 396;

V: 39

chemical properties/structure,

I: 111, 114, 186;

II: 38;

III: 32;

V: 21

chronic exposure,

I: 188–189

and circulatory disorders,

V: 503

developmental toxicity,

I: 124, 189

dimethylarsenic radical formation and,

II: 4

disease outcomes,

III: 34, 50;

IV: 25, 31

domestic use,

I: 185–186

genotoxicity,

I: 119, 187–188

kidney toxicity,

I: 125;

II: 42

mechanism of action,

II: 50;

III: 38, 49–50;

VI: 41–43

mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 50–51

metabolism,

I: 115, 116

Operation Ranch Hand, use in,

IV: 117

pharmacokinetics,

I: 186–187

renal toxicity,

II: 50–51

reproductive toxicity,

I: 124, 189;

II: 42;

IV: 403

toxicity update summary,

II: 50;

IV: 23, 33, 38;

V: 38–40, 78;

VI: 33–34, 41–43, 89–90

toxicokinetics,

II: 50;

III: 32–33, 48;

IV: 24, 27–29;

V: 38–39;

VI: 41

Vietnam formulations,

I: 186

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136

Calcium, homeostasis of and 2,4,5-T,

II: 4

California,

I: 341;

III: 232;

VI: 129

See also Irvine, California

Camp Drum, New York,

I: 25–26, 89

Canada,

I: 11, 319–320, 323, 374–375, 443, 467–468, 537–539, 620, 650;

II: 8, 132, 135–136, 140, 219–220, 243, 248;

III: 226, 232, 303, 309, 335, 344, 348, 353;

IV: 141, 199, 209, 257, 296, 333, 353, 360, 374, 381;

V: 352;

VI: 50, 125–126, 176

Census of Agriculture, 1971,

II: 135

Census of Population, 1971,

II: 135

Central Farm Register, 1971,

II: 135

Central Farm Register, 1981,

II: 135

Mortality Data Base,

II: 135;

III: 227

Mortality Study of Canadian Male Farm Operators,

II: 135–136;

III: 224;

IV: 140, 198–200

Saskatchewan Cancer Foundation,

II: 139

Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan,

II: 139

Statistics Canada,

III: 227

See also Alberta, Canada;

British Columbia, Canada;

Manitoba, Canada;

New Brunswick, Canada;

Ontario, Canada;

Saskatchewan, Canada

Cancer

age-specific incidence,

I: 436–438;

IV: 250, 267, 273, 277, 281, 288, 292, 300, 314, 321, 327, 335, 346, 351, 356, 365, 372, 378

agriculture workers and,

I: 320–323, 443;

II: 136, 137–138

biologic plausibility,

I: 116–118, 119, 434;

II: 176;

III: 394–397;

IV: 249, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 322, 323, 331, 332, 337, 342, 343, 348, 352, 358, 359, 367, 374, 380, 381, 385;

VI: 339–341

children and,

I: 14, 594–595, 628–631;

IV: 345, 399, 400, 417–429;

V: 425–432

clinical features,

I: 433–436

epidemiologic studies,

I: 45, 317, 320–323, 325–326, 367, 383–384, 391–393, 443–445;

II: 133–138, 147–148;

IV: 182, 251–255, 268–269, 274–275, 277–278, 282–283, 288–289, 292–295, 302–304, 309–310, 315–316, 321–323, 327–329, 336–337, 340–342, 346–347, 351–352, 356–358, 365–367, 372–373, 379–380;

V: 5, 242–393;

VI: 5, 201–353

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

epidemiology,

I: 433, 435–438, 442, 525;

II: 175;

III: 265–266

herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining,

I: 13–14, 577–578;

II: 249–250;

III: 393;

IV: 268, 270, 274, 279, 286, 302, 305, 311, 314, 318, 321, 323, 336, 337, 338, 340, 342, 346, 348, 374, 378, 380, 384;

VI: 338

herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence of,

I: 10–12, 574–576;

II: 247–249;

III: 393;

IV: 256, 278, 279, 283, 331, 373, 384, 385;

VI: 338

herbicide association, no evidence of,

I: 12–13, 576–577;

II: 250;

III: 393–394;

IV: 254, 256, 269, 289, 317;

VI: 338–339

herbicide association, sufficient evidence of,

I: 8–10, 572–574;

II: 175, 176, 247;

III: 390, 392;

IV: 295, 358, 367, 384;

VI: 337–338

herbicide environmental exposure epidemiologic studies,

I: 444, 469;

II: 147–148;

IV: 254, 269, 274, 278, 282, 289, 293, 302, 309, 315, 321, 329, 336, 341, 347, 351, 357, 366, 372, 379

herbicide exposure measures,

II: 175, 176;

III: 265–266

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134;

IV: 251, 268, 274, 282, 288, 292, 302, 309, 315, 321, 327, 336, 340, 346, 351, 356, 365, 372, 379

herbicide/pesticide applicators and,

I: 320–321, 323, 325–326, 443, 447, 466–468, 488, 491;

II: 137–138;

IV: 276

herbicides, categories of association in,

I: 572

mortality studies,

I: 442–445;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137, 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429;

IV: 251–254, 268–270, 277, 282, 288, 289, 292, 293, 294, 299, 302, 303, 305, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 336, 341, 346, 347, 351, 352, 356, 357, 358, 365, 366, 367, 372, 373, 379, 380

multistage model,

I: 142–143, 434, 439

P450 induction to,

I: 144–145, 170

phenoxy herbicide association in,

I: 483;

III: 422, 423, 429

research priorities,

I: 19, 727

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

risk assessment,

I: 442–443, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 430–431

site groupings for ICD-9 cancer codes,

III: 537–539

TCDD animal studies,

I: 138–142;

II: 176;

III: 394, 396;

IV: 306, 311, 317

TCDD genotoxicity,

I: 143–144

TCDD in initiation/promotion,

I: 116, 142–143, 434, 439

TCDD in P450 induction to,

I: 144–145

Vietnam civilians,

II: 148

Vietnam veterans, expected incidence,

I: 439–440, 442, 452, 460–461, 473, 475, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564;

II: 176–177;

III: 266–267

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 391–393, 401, 402–403, 405, 436–438, 444–445, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 397, 430–431;

IV: 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 388;

VI: 341

See also Carcinogen(s);

Latency effects in cancer studies;

specific cancer sites;

specific cancers;

specific tumors

Carcinogen(s)

2,4-D as,

I: 118–119, 176–178;

II: 40, 48;

III: 47, 396;

IV: 5;

V: 37

2,4,5-T as,

I: 118, 119, 182–184;

II: 40;

III: 396

cacodylic acid as,

I: 118, 119, 187;

II: 40;

III: 396;

IV: 29, 31

herbicides as,

I: 3, 40;

II: 273, 275;

III: 426, 428, 430;

IV: 10, 17, 267, 270, 341, 345, 511;

VI: 340

mechanism of action,

I: 434;

V: 61–62;

VI: 36–40

picloram as,

I: 118, 119, 190–191;

II: 40;

III: 396

TCDD as,

I: 3, 116–118, 434, 439;

II: 3, 39–40, 65–68;

III: 394, 396;

IV: 3, 82–83, 134, 256, 274–275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 330, 332, 337, 342, 348, 352, 358, 367, 374, 380, 385–387, 477;

V: 61–63, 75–76;

VI: 76–78

See also Cancer

Cardiovascular system disorders

cardiomegaly,

I: 703

cardiovascular disease,

V: 6;

VI: 69–70

circulatory disorders,

I: 699–709;

IV: 182;

V: 502–506

developmental, in infants,

V: 5

herbicide association in,

V: 21

lipid abnormalities in,

I: 688

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

TCDD in,

I: 171;

II: 76;

III: 74–75;

IV: 23–26, 135, 156–157;

IV: 76, 135, 156–157;

V: 70

See also Circulatory disorders;

Myocardial infarction

CART. See Classification and regression tree method

CAS. See Chemical Abstract Service

Case-control studies

agriculture/forestry workers,

I: 326–341;

II: 138–140;

III: 185–195, 228–232;

V: 153–166;

VI: 127–128

evidentiary role of,

I: 234–235, 727;

II: 94–95, 178, 179, 180, 188;

III: 130;

IV: 105, 108

herbicide environmental exposure,

II: 144–146, 148–149, 184, 186, 190, 193, 241;

III: 201–204;

IV: 227–231, 322

herbicide exposure assessment for,

I: 256–257, 727;

IV: 9, 137, 144–146, 207–221, 336, 369, 401, 418–420, 428, 444–445, 447

herbicide occupational exposure,

II: 122–127, 138–140, 183, 184, 186, 188, 190, 193, 200, 222, 240;

III: 173, 175, 185–196;

IV: 133, 136, 187, 192, 207–221, 328

paper/pulp workers,

II: 126–127, 200;

IV: 147, 221–223

Vietnam veterans,

II: 155–157, 159–160, 187, 223;

III: 208–217;

IV: 124, 236–245, 247, 420, 423–425, 427

Causality

statistical association vs.,

I: 7, 227, 239, 246;

II: 5, 19, 97, 247;

III: 6, 20, 132–133, 390;

IV: 6;

V: 22–23;

VI: 7

CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDDs. See Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

TCDD and,

II: 69–70

Cell proliferation

TCDD and,

II: 3, 67;

IV: 23, 60, 61, 63, 79, 82

Cell stress responses,

VI: 40

Cellular retinoic acid binding protein, type II (CRABP-II),

II: 73

Census Bureau. See Bureau of Census

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),

I: 19, 40–41, 51;

II: 9;

III: 363, 517;

IV: 115, 123, 133;

VI: 48, 120, 167, 364, 425

Agent Orange action/research,

I: 57–62, 63–64;

II: 28;

III: 25;

IV: 125–126

Agent Orange Study,

I: 276–278;

II: 102;

IV: 124

birth defects research,

I: 387–389, 609–612;

II: 289;

IV: 124;

V: 418

epidemiological studies,

II: 113, 155–156;

III: 26, 207–209, 218, 240;

IV: 156–157, 208, 235, 236, 237;

V: 123, 182–183;

VI: 138–139

exposure opportunity index,

I: 274–276, 611–612;

II: 290–291;

III: 147–148

neural tube defects in children, studies by,

IV: 18;

V: 16;

VI: 15

research methodology,

I: 728

TCDD half-life investigation,

II: 104–105

validation study,

I: 59, 260–261, 281–284, 285, 387, 742–743;

II: 103, 104;

III: 240

See also Birth Defects Study;

Cerebrospinal Malformation (CSM) Study;

General Birth Defects Study (GBDS);

Selected Cancers Study;

Vietnam Experience Study (VES)

Central nervous system (CNS). See Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurologic disorders

Cerebrospinal Malformation (CSM) Study,

I: 610;

II: 289–290

Cerebrovascular disease,

I: 702

stroke,

I: 658, 659, 660

Cervical cancers,

I: 13, 505, 509, 510, 512;

II: 6;

III: 329, 330, 332;

IV: 320–321, 324, 385;

V: 5, 310, 311;

VI: 272

Chance,

VI: 23

Chapaevsk, Russia,

V: 5–6, 117–118, 228, 245, 269, 279, 292, 294, 299, 305, 314, 316, 322, 329, 332–333, 337, 368, 371, 402, 416–417, 436, 504–505;

VI: 133, 180

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS),

VI: 21

Chemical production. See Chemicals and chemical industry;

Herbicides;

Industrial accidents;

Production workers

Chemicals and chemical industry

Agent Orange product liability litigation,

I: 34–35

hexachlorophene production,

I: 40;

II: 128;

IV: 134–135, 138, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

production workers exposure studies,

I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 171–175, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238, 273–274, 275;

III: 170–178, 218, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 420, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 133–140, 194–197, 252, 257, 258, 260, 262, 263, 265, 266, 271, 276, 280, 285, 286, 293, 296, 297, 301, 306, 307, 318, 319, 325, 327, 333, 334, 338, 343, 344, 348, 349, 353, 354, 360, 368, 374, 381, 382;

V: 3

TCDD contamination in production,

I: 91, 126

See also Herbicides;

Industrial accidents

Chemoreception

characteristics of,

I: 133–134

dioxin-responsive enhancers in,

I: 135–136

estrogen-mediated,

I: 145

TCDD dose-response linearity,

I: 137–138

TCDD hepatotoxicity and,

I: 154–155

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and,

I: 164

See also Ah receptor

Child mortality studies,

II: 147

See also Deaths;

Mortality studies

Childhood cancer. See Children, cancer in;

Neuroblastoma

Children

spina bifida in Vietnam veterans offspring,

II: 9–10, 296, 298, 309;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438

See also Child mortality studies;

Children, cancer in

Children, cancer in,

I: 14, 594–595, 628–631;

II: 7, 11, 20;

IV: 399–400, 417–420, 422, 425–426, 427, 428, 432;

V: 425–432

biologic plausibility,

VI: 389

epidemiologic studies,

II: 299;

V: 427–429, 432;

VI: 383–389

epidemiology,

II: 298;

IV: 422–425

herbicide association in,

II: 299–300;

V: 425–432

scientific literature update,

II: 299–300;

IV: 418–422;

V: 429–431;

VI: 384

Seveso, Italy, study,

II: 299;

IV: 428

Vietnam veterans’ offspring,

II: 299;

IV: 426, 429;

V: 431;

VI: 389

See also Wilm’s tumor

China,

I: 458;

II: 188, 320;

III: 159, 289;

IV: 273;

VI: 203, 226

See also Shanghai, China

Chloracne,

I: 39

animal studies,

I: 173–174;

III: 480

biological plausibility,

II: 320–321;

III: 480;

IV: 466;

V: 479;

VI: 438

chemical production workers and,

I: 308, 310, 316;

IV: 464, 466

clinical features,

I: 672–673;

V: 477–478

diet and,

I: 174;

IV: 463–464

epidemiologic studies,

I: 674–678;

II: 318–320;

III: 479–480;

IV: 135–136, 138–139, 147, 152, 186, 189, 194, 233;

V: 478–479;

VI: 7, 437–438

epidemiology,

II: 317–318;

III: 478–479

herbicide association in,

I: 10, 678;

II: 5, 6, 20, 318–321;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 479–480;

IV: 185, 463–464;

V: 14;

VI: 13

scientific literature update,

II: 318–320;

III: 480;

IV: 465;

V: 478;

VI: 437–438

Seveso, Italy, accident and,

I: 366–367;

IV: 464

skin cancer and,

I: 502

TCDD biomarker for,

I: 4, 10, 28, 172–173, 262, 401, 672–674;

II: 3, 318;

V: 478

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 317, 318, 321;

III: 479, 480;

IV: 233, 465–466;

V: 479;

VI: 438

Vietnam veterans compensation for,

I: 50, 51, 55, 56;

II: 24, 28–29, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 438

See also Skin sensitivity

Chlordane,

I: 91

Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs),

II: 63–64, 65

4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA),

II: 113, 133, 188, 193, 195–196, 207;

III: 218, 225;

IV: 133, 197, 258, 259, 260, 262, 264, 265, 267, 276, 280, 286–287, 290, 291, 297, 299, 312, 334, 335, 338, 339, 344–345, 349, 350, 354, 355, 401

2-[4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy]propanoic acid (MCPP),

II: 133, 195–196

Chlorodibenzodioxins,

I: 28

Chlorophenols,

I: 9;

III: 150, 151, 154, 218, 222, 223, 422, 423, 429;

IV: 16;

V: 3, 104

Chondrosarcomas of the skull. See Bone/joint cancer

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL),

III: 384–385;

IV: 208, 211, 377, 417, 422;

V: 7, 366–367, 372–376;

VI: 15–16, 334–337

See also Leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). See Leukemia

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),

II: 129;

IV: 184, 470, 472, 474, 475;

VI: 441

See also Respiratory disorders

Chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

V: 6, 465–469;

VI: 6

scientific literature update,

V: 466–467

TCDD and,

V: 465–469

Circulatory disorders

biologic plausibility,

III: 518;

IV: 510;

V: 505–506;

VI: 471

definition,

II: 335, 337;

III: 514;

IV: 505

epidemiologic studies,

I: 700–707;

II: 335–337;

III: 514–518;

IV: 506–509;

V: 6;

VI: 467–471

epidemiology,

III: 514

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 708;

II: 7, 11, 21, 335–337;

III: 3, 8, 514–518;

VI: 467–469

morbidity studies,

II: 336

mortality studies,

II: 335

research methodology,

I: 699–700;

II: 335

scientific literature update,

II: 336–337;

III: 515–518;

IV: 506–509;

V: 503–504;

VI: 467–469

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 336;

III: 514;

IV: 510;

V: 506;

VI: 468–469, 471

See also Angina;

Cardiovascular system disorders;

Depressive disorders;

Hypertension;

Myocardial infarction

Cirrhosis,

VI: 465

Classification and regression tree (CART) method,

V: 414–415

Cleanup efforts. See Hazardous materials disposal and cleanup

Cleft lip/palate,

I: 373–374, 375, 611, 612;

IV: 402, 433

See also Birth defects

Clinton, William J.,

III: 24

CLL. See Chronic lymphocytic leukemia;

Leukemia

CMGCs. See Congenital morphogenetic conditions

CMI. See Cell-mediated immunity

CML. See Chronic myeloid leukemia;

Leukemia

CNS. See Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction

Coast Guard. See US Coast Guard

Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

covariants in,

V: 449

epidemiologic studies,

II: 148, 307–308;

III: 468–469;

V: 449–451;

VI: 406–410

herbicide association in,

I: 657–658;

II: 7, 11, 20, 307–309;

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–443;

V: 449–451;

VI: 6

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 651–653;

II: 148

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

I: 649–651;

V: 6

scientific literature update,

II: 307–308;

III: 469;

IV: 441–442;

V: 449–451;

VI: 407–409

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 653–656;

II: 308;

V: 449–451

See also Encephalopathy;

Neurasthenia;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurologic disorders;

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Cohort studies

agriculture/forestry workers,

I: 318–323;

II: 118–122, 135–138;

III: 178–182, 224–226;

IV: 140–142, 197–206;

VI: 124–127

definition,

I: 229

herbicide environmental exposure,

II: 141–147, 190, 218;

III: 197–201;

IV: 224–237

herbicide exposure assessment for,

I: 254–256;

II: 105–107, 178, 179, 180

herbicide occupational exposure,

II: 107–108, 114–122, 130–133, 182–183, 186, 190, 192, 193, 218, 222, 240;

III: 170–185, 196;

IV: 134–140, 182–206, 222–230;

VI: 169–174

methodology,

I: 229–232

Ranch Hand cohort,

II: 109, 150–152, 154–156, 201;

IV: 13, 18, 150–156

Vietnam veterans,

II: 149–160, 187, 218;

III: 206–217;

IV: 232–247

Vietnamese civilians cohort,

II: 108–109

Colon cancer

agricultural workers and,

I: 328–329

epidemiologic studies,

III: 276–278;

IV: 250–252, 255–256, 262, 385;

V: 250–253;

VI: 210–213

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide association in,

I: 12–13, 576–577;

II: 7, 12;

III: 8, 21;

V: 17

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Colorado,

III: 47

Colorectal cancer,

I: 446

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 447, 450, 451, 452;

IV: 256

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Committee on the Assessment of Wartime Exposure to Herbicides in Vietnam,

V: 525;

VI: 493

Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides,

II: 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 264–266;

III: 17, 18, 19, 23, 412;

IV: 15;

V: 2–3, 12–13;

VI: 2, 167, 569–570, 575–579

epidemiologic studies of Vietnam Veterans, recommendations,

II: 24–25

Compensation, veterans,

I: 227

congressional legislation,

I: 47, 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Department of Veterans Affairs,

I: 55–56;

II: 24, 30–31;

III: 28

product liability litigation,

I: 34–35

Con Thieu province, Vietnam,

I: 96;

III: 139;

IV: 121

Concentration difficulties,

V: 447

Confidence intervals,

I: 244;

V: 17;

VI: 23

Confounding distortion of measures of association,

V: 22;

VI: 23, 465

Congenital anomalies/malformations. See Birth defects

Congenital morphogenetic conditions (CMGCs),

V: 402–403

Congress. See Congressional hearings;

Legislation;

US Congress

Congressional hearings

Agent Orange and,

II: 27–28;

III: 25

Connecticut, tumor registry,

III: 235, 388

COPD. See Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Corticosterone, TCDD and,

I: 168, 171–172

Cox Proportional Hazard,

III: 499, 502

CRABP-II. See Cellular retinoic acid binding protein, type II

Cretinism. See Thyroid homeostasis

Crohn’s disease,

VI: 444

Cryptorchidism,

V: 324

CSM. See Cerebrospinal Malformation Study

Cyclophosphamide,

V: 40

Cynomolgus monkeys,

V: 60

Cytochrome P450. See P450

Cytogenetics

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies,

III: 365–366

Cytoplasmic inclusions,

V: 464

Czech Republic,

I: 317, 649, 675, 688;

IV: 139;

V: 6, 449–450;

VI: 408

See also Prague, Czech Republic

D

2,4-D. See 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-DB. See 2,4-Dichlorophenoxybutyric acid

Data sources

Agent Orange Registry,

I: 20, 53, 56, 729;

II: 153

agricultural/forestry worker studies,

I: 265–266, 318–341;

IV: 140–142

animal studies,

I: 111–114, 228

biological stored samples as,

I: 20–21, 729–730

Cancerlit,

IV: 253

case reports,

I: 235–236

Centers for Disease Control studies,

I: 387–391;

II: 113, 155–156;

III: 207–209, 218, 240;

IV: 133, 156–157

chemical production workers,

I: 303–318;

IV: 134–140

computerized data bases,

I: 735–736;

II: 24–25, 31

Department of Veterans Affairs epidemiologic studies,

I: 393–399;

II: 152, 153;

III: 209–212, 218, 240–243;

IV: 151, 157–158

epidemiologic controlled studies,

I: 228–237;

II: 150–153

epidemiologic studies as,

I: 737–738

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 267–269, 372–375, 383–384;

IV: 147–150

herbicide exposure reconstruction model,

I: 725–726

herbicide non-military exposures,

I: 4–5, 222–223, 241–242

herbicide/pesticide applicators,

I: 266–267, 323–326;

IV: 142–143

HERBS tapes,

I: 20, 62, 85, 96–98, 273–279, 287, 291, 602, 725;

III: 146, 148;

IV: 123, 125

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

International Register of Workers Exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Their Contaminants,

I: 313–314;

IV: 137

mandated efforts,

I: 20–21

Medline,

IV: 252

organization of,

I: 737

paper/pulp mill workers,

I: 341, 364;

IV: 114, 134

presentations/reports to committee,

I: 739–756;

II: 343–348;

III: 533–536

randomized controlled trials,

I: 227–228

reproductive outcomes,

I: 593–595

research future recommendations,

I: 287–289, 291, 722–725, 729–730;

IV: 13

review of,

I: 244–245

self-reports,

I: 270–271

state government,

I: 60

state-sponsored Vietnam veteran studies,

I: 400–405, 495–496;

III: 213–215, 243–244

TCDD production workers,

I: 264–265;

IV: 134–140

Toxline,

IV: 252

troop location,

I: 273–279, 287;

IV: 121

Vietnam casualties,

I: 82–83

Vietnam military herbicide use,

I: 84–85

Vietnam veteran demographics,

I: 79, 80–84

Vietnam veteran exposure assessment use,

I: 270–287

Vietnam veteran reproductive outcomes,

I: 601

Vietnamese civilian health outcomes,

I: 371–372

women veterans,

I: 83–84;

II: 152–153

See also Death certificates;

Epidemiologic studies;

Military records;

Questionnaires

DBCP. See Dibromochloropropane

DDT,

I: 87, 91;

IV: 141

Death certificates,

I: 236–237;

II: 128, 136, 137–138, 151;

III: 470;

IV: 112

See also Data sources

Deaths

2,4-D lethality,

III: 44–45;

IV: 35

Australian Vietnam veterans lung cancer deaths,

III: 424

female reproductive system cancer deaths, by cancer site,

III: 329

Finland male herbicide applicators respiratory cancer mortality,

II: 271

Germany herbicide/chemical production workers cancer mortality,

III: 423, 429

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma mortality,

III: 429;

IV: 355

prostate cancer mortality,

III: 426, 427;

IV: 326;

V: 319–321

respiratory cancer mortality,

III: 421, 422, 423;

IV: 273

Seveso, Italy, male cancer mortality,

II: 271, 275;

III: 422, 427;

IV: 282

TCDD lethality,

III: 71–73;

V: 69–70;

VI: 67

See also Child mortality studies;

Death certificates;

Mortality studies;

Perinatal death

Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC),

II: 24–25

Defoliants

Agent Orange as,

I: 90;

IV: 38

military applications,

I: 25, 26;

III: 135, 137;

IV: 117

Vietnam herbicide mission maps,

I: 99–100

Vietnam tactical role of,

I: 85

See also Herbicides

Dekonta Company,

II: 329

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ),

IV: 120

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans,

I: 79, 80–84

DEN. See Diethylnitrosamine

Denmark,

I: 317, 443, 444, 454, 463, 477, 480, 509, 510, 537, 553, 565, 567;

II: 131–134, 139–140, 183, 194–195, 207, 209–210, 212, 215, 232, 238;

III: 223, 224, 307, 313, 318, 325, 330–331;

IV: 199–200, 209, 252, 406, 408;

VI: 124, 128–129, 177

Cancer Registry,

III: 232;

VI: 128

Central Population Register,

II: 133, 139, 224;

III: 352

Danish National Institute for Social Research,

II: 140

National Cancer Register,

II: 133, 139, 215, 224;

III: 325, 352;

IV: 144

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA),

II: 45, 48, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57–58, 60, 61, 64, 74, 75;

III: 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58–61, 65, 67, 69, 75, 77, 83, 90, 91, 98, 99, 103, 104, 109;

IV: 29, 33, 40, 47, 48, 49, 53, 60, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77, 85, 458;

V: 4;

VI: 166

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Department of Agriculture, US (USDA),

I: 35, 39, 443;

II: 178, 219, 224, 229, 238–239, 248;

III: 230, 335, 352;

IV: 212, 213, 257, 259, 262, 264, 267, 301, 345, 350, 355, 364, 371, 376, 383

Agricultural Census,

IV: 149

extension agents,

IV: 144

Department of Air Force, US

Vietnam herbicide use by military, response,

II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

Department of Defense, US (DoD),

I: 17, 27, 29, 31, 78;

II: 24;

III: 138, 139, 140;

IV: 119, 121

Environmental Services Group,

III: 148

herbicide spray mission records,

I: 84–85

herbicide use precautions,

I: 95;

IV: 121

military records,

I: 78, 724–725

See also Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)

Department of Veterans Affairs, US (DVA),

I: 2, 8, 17, 18, 20, 50–51, 284;

II: 2, 5, 8, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 26, 27, 89, 153, 176, 181, 187, 218, 249, 260, 278, 305, 312;

III: 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26, 125, 132, 266, 303, 304, 390, 407, 434, 468, 478, 519;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 16, 18, 123, 133, 151, 158, 284, 463;

V: 2, 12–13, 20;

VI: 2, 20, 120, 139–140, 186

Agent Orange controversy and,

I: 33, 53–54;

II: 29–31;

III: 28–29;

V: 1

Agent Orange Coordinator,

II: 31

Death Beneficiary Identification and Record Location System (BIRLS),

II: 151, 152, 153;

III: 238, 241, 242;

IV: 151, 157;

VI: 136

health care in,

I: 54;

II: 28;

III: 27

military records,

I: 78–79, 724–725;

II: 151, 152, 153

mortality studies,

II: 101, 152–153, 156–157;

III: 146;

IV: 151, 157–158

outreach activities,

I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Patient Treatment File (PTF),

III: 242

recommendations for,

I: 724–725, 726–730;

II: 24–25

research efforts,

I: 54–55;

II: 29–30;

III: 27–28

veterans’ advocacy groups and,

I: 61;

VI: 20

Vietnam veteran compensation and benefits,

II: 24, 30–31;

III: 28

Vietnam veteran epidemiologic studies,

I: 50, 393–399, 445, 469–470, 493–495, 543–547, 562;

II: 101, 113, 156–157, 201–202;

III: 209–212, 218, 240–243;

V: 123–126, 183–187

women veterans epidemiological studies,

II: 152–153;

IV: 399

See also Agent Orange Registry (AOR);

Agent Orange Task Force;

Environmental Agents Service (EAS);

Environmental Epidemiology Service (EES)

Depressive disorders,

I: 650, 651

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

Dermal toxicity

TCDD and,

II: 76;

III: 73–74;

IV: 76

Desiccant herbicides,

I: 88–89;

III: 136

See also Herbicides

Detroit, Michigan,

II: 241;

III: 229

Developmental disorders,

VI: 38–39

2,4-D in,

I: 180–181;

II: 42;

III: 46

2,4,5-T in,

I: 185;

II: 42, 49–50

cacodylic acid in,

I: 189;

II: 42

neurological,

I: 660

picloram in,

I: 192;

II: 42

TCDD in,

I: 123–124, 149, 156–157, 159–160, 185;

II: 3, 41–42, 71, 72–73;

III: 92–105;

V: 67–69, 72–73;

VI: 83–87

See also Low birthweight;

Reproductive disorders

Diabetes mellitus,

I: 683–685, 691, 692, 698;

II: 7;

IV: 481;

V: 6

biologic plausibility,

III: 502–503;

IV: 488;

V: 492;

VI: 456

diagnostic criteria,

III: 493, 494

epidemiologic concerns,

III: 494

epidemiologic studies,

II: 330–331;

III: 494–502;

IV: 182, 232;

V: 492;

VI: 448–456

epidemiology,

II: 330;

III: 491–492, 493

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 497;

IV: 484–485;

V: 489, 491;

VI: 15, 450

herbicide exposure and,

II: 332–333;

III: 2, 11–12, 125, 494–503;

IV: 152;

V: 485–492

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 496;

IV: 483–484;

V: 487–491;

VI: 450

pathogenetic diversity of,

III: 494

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

peripheral neuropathy and, relationship,

III: 471–472;

V: 468–469;

VI: 6

prevalence, data by age/race/gender,

III: 492

scientific literature update,

II: 330–331;

III: 496, 497;

IV: 483;

V: 487;

VI: 450–455

TCDD and,

V: 490

type 2 (adult-onset),

IV: 1, 8, 16–18, 21, 150–151, 182–183;

V: 485

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 330;

III: 2, 11–12, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502;

IV: 154–156, 485–487;

V: 492;

VI: 450–455, 456

Diamond Shamrock Corporation,

I: 34, 35

Diazinon,

I: 91

Dibenzofurans,

I: 126;

IV: 41, 64, 138

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP),

II: 279

4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid,

V: 33

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),

II: 4, 18;

III: 5, 19, 135, 136, 137;

IV: 4–5, 110–111, 122, 133;

V: 1, 3, 12;

VI: 1, 3, 20, 34–41, 118–119, 201, 276, 436

acute toxicity,

I: 179

Agent Orange and,

I: 27

Agent White and,

I: 90

altered sperm parameters,

I: 632

animal studies,

I: 174–181;

II: 46–49;

III: 34, 36–37, 38–39, 43–47, 396, 462, 475;

VI: 34–41

carcinogenicity,

I: 118–119, 176–178, 439;

II: 40, 48;

III: 47, 396;

VI: 36–40

cell stress responses,

V: 34;

VI: 40–41

chemical properties,

I: 114, 175;

II: 38;

III: 32

chemical structure,

I: 111, 114

chronic exposure,

I: 179–180

development of,

I: 24, 26, 35

developmental toxicity,

I: 124, 180–181;

II: 42;

III: 46;

VI: 38–39

disease outcomes,

III: 34, 38–39, 44–47;

V: 34–37

domestic use,

I: 174–175, 177–178

energy metabolism,

V: 33–34;

VI: 40

formulations,

I: 175

genotoxicity,

I: 119, 178–179;

V: 33;

VI: 36–40

half-life of,

II: 4

immunotoxicity,

I: 122, 181;

II: 41;

III: 46, 524;

VI: 39

infertility and,

II: 280–282

ingestion of,

I: 653

kidney toxicity,

I: 125;

II: 42

lethality,

III: 44–45

liver toxicity,

I: 125;

II: 42;

III: 524

mechanism of action,

II: 47–48;

III: 44;

V: 33–34;

VI: 40–41

mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 48–49;

VI: 36

metabolism,

I: 115, 116

military field tests,

I: 26

mitochondrial function,

V: 33–34;

VI: 40

neurobehavioral disorders and,

II: 305;

III: 475

neuropsychiatric outcomes and,

I: 649, 650, 653

neurotoxicity,

II: 48;

III: 45–46;

V: 471;

VI: 37

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

I: 256–257, 574

occupational exposure,

I: 36, 37, 310–311, 321;

III: 218, 224, 225, 226;

IV: 117

peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 312;

III: 473

pharmacokinetics,

I: 175

plasma concentrations and,

V: 32

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

II: 322

reproductive toxicity,

I: 124, 180–181, 597–598;

II: 41, 280–282;

III: 46, 460, 461–462;

VI: 38–39

role of,

I: 88

teratogenic potential,

I: 30, 92

therapeutic application,

I: 659

thyroid hormones,

V: 34;

VI: 40

toxicity profiles,

V: 76–77;

VI: 88

toxicokinetics,

II: 46–47;

III: 32–33, 36–37, 43–44;

IV: 27–28;

V: 31–32;

VI: 34–36

toxicologic properties,

IV: 22–25, 27–31, 33–37;

VI: 33–34

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136;

IV: 117–119

See also Herbicides

2,4-Dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB)

differences with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),

IV: 5

Diet

breast cancer and,

I: 507

cancer risk and,

I: 442

chloracne and,

I: 174

gastrointestinal cancers and,

I: 446

TCDD interactions,

II: 64

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)

TCDD and,

II: 67;

IV: 71

Digestive disorders. See Metabolic and digestive disorders

Dimethylarsenic radical

bladder hyperplasia and tumors associated with,

IV: 31, 40

cacodylic acid and formation of,

II: 4

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Dimethylarsinous acid (DMA),

V: 39;

VI: 21

See also Cacodylic acid

Dinoxol,

I: 91;

III: 137;

IV: 119

Dioxin. See 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin;

Dioxin congeners;

Dioxin-responsive enhancers;

Dioxin toxic equivalent factors (TEQ factors)

Dioxin congeners,

II: 105–107;

III: 158–159

Dioxin Registry,

I: 36–37

Dioxin-responsive enhancers,

I: 135–136

Dioxin toxic equivalent factors (TEQ factors),

II: 106, 107;

III: 99, 106, 107, 108, 158, 159;

IV: 139;

VI: 134, 250

Diquat,

I: 91;

III: 137;

IV: 119

Disease-exposure associations,

V: 28

Diseases and disorders. See Health outcomes of herbicide exposure;

Military health care;

Vietnam veterans;

specific cancer sites;

specific cancers;

specific diseases and disorders

DMA. See Cacodylic acid;

Dimethylarsenic radical;

Dimethylarsinous acid;

Pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid

DMDC. See Defense Manpower Data Center

DMZ. See Demilitarized zone

DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid

DoD. See Department of Defense, US

Domestic herbicide use

2,4-D,

I: 174–175

2,4,5-T,

I: 181–182

agricultural use,

I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181

pet cancers and,

I: 119, 177–178

picloram,

I: 189

TCDD contamination in,

I: 91

See also Agricultural/forestry workers

Dopaminergic system,

I: 163–164, 165

Doppler measurement,

VI: 467

Dormagen, Germany,

III: 154;

IV: 112

Dose-response relationship

2,4-D pharmacokinetics,

I: 175

animal fetal mortality,

I: 159

animal studies,

I: 111–114, 118

evidentiary role of,

I: 239–230, 252;

V: 18;

VI: 17

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727;

VI: 406

TCDD-chloracne,

I: 673;

II: 318

TCDD dermal application,

I: 128–129

TCDD-exposed workers and,

I: 445

TCDD-immune system processes,

I: 696

TCDD immunotoxicity,

I: 122

TCDD threshold,

I: 137–138

TCDD tissue distribution,

I: 130

Doubs, France,

IV: 116;

V: 227–228;

VI: 179–180

Dow Chemical Company,

I: 34, 35, 307–312, 461–462, 529, 558, 598, 607, 620, 674;

II: 115–116, 130, 178, 191, 193, 207, 232, 238, 286;

III: 152–153, 172–174, 220–221, 270–271, 357–358, 387, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 136, 186–188;

V: 5, 6, 107–108, 132–135, 221–222, 245–246, 298, 318, 325, 329, 334, 338, 339, 351, 356, 419, 462;

VI: 5, 122–124, 171–173, 235, 310

Drosophila melanogaster

genotoxicity in,

V: 38

DVA. See Department of Veterans Affairs, US

Dystonia,

I: 658

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction

E

EAS. See Environmental Agents Service

East Germany. See German Democratic Republic

EES. See Environmental Epidemiology Service

EGF. See Epidermal growth factor

EGFR. See Epidermal growth factor receptor

Electrical transformers,

I: 364–365, 444, 626, 675

Electrophoretic mobility shift gene (EMSA)

TCDD and,

II: 66

Emphysema,

I: 708, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

EMSA. See Electrophoretic mobility shift gene

Encephalopathy,

I: 649

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

End points

molecular and cellular,

V: 26

nonfunctional,

V: 484

toxic,

V: 55–69;

VI: 36, 41–43, 55–87

Endocrine system,

I: 150–151;

IV: 156

TCDD toxicity,

III: 83–84;

IV: 77, 331;

V: 66–67, 73–74;

VI: 82–83

Endometrial cancer,

IV: 320–324, 385

Endometriosis,

V: 508–510

biological plausibility,

V: 509–510;

VI: 478

clinical features,

V: 508

epidemiologic studies,

V: 509;

VI: 473–478

herbicide association in,

V: 508–510

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

scientific literature review,

V: 508–509;

VI: 474–477

TCDD and,

V: 508

Vietnam veterans and,

V: 510;

VI: 478

Energy metabolism,

VI: 40

England. See United Kingdom

Environmental Agents Service (EAS),

II: 31;

III: 28

See also Department of Veterans Affairs, US (DVA)

Environmental Epidemiology Service (EES),

II: 29

See also Department of Veterans Affairs, US (DVA)

Environmental herbicide exposure

accidental exposures,

I: 364–365, 368–370;

II: 141–143, 144, 148;

IV: 114–116

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 312–313

agricultural areas exposure,

I: 372–375

Alsea, Oregon,

I: 39, 42–43, 372–373, 598;

II: 149

assessment strategies,

I: 262–263, 267–270;

III: 144–145, 156–157

basal/squamous cell skin cancer and,

III: 323;

V: 297–298, 299

birth defects and,

I: 608–609;

II: 140, 287–288;

III: 437;

V: 394, 400–402;

VI: 363

birthweight, low, and,

III: 459

bladder cancer and,

I: 516–517;

III: 349, 350–351;

V: 329, 331–332

bone/joint cancer and,

III: 303, 305;

V: 280

brain tumors and,

I: 523;

III: 358, 361;

V: 341–342;

VI: 301

breast cancer and,

III: 328;

V: 302–303, 304–307

breast cancer estimated risk,

II: 218;

V: 300–301

cancer risk factor,

I: 442

cancer studies,

I: 442, 444, 454–455, 469;

II: 147–148, 179–180, 184

chloracne and,

I: 676–677

circulatory disorders and,

I: 701–702;

VI: 468

colon cancer and,

V: 251–252

diabetes and,

III: 497;

V: 489, 491;

VI: 450

epidemiologic studies,

I: 3, 301, 365–384, 469;

II: 3, 6–7, 140–149;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 147–150, 224–231, 254;

V: 226–229;

VI: 129–134, 177–182, 540–550

evidentiary role of research on,

I: 4–5, 222–223, 241–242

female reproductive system cancers and,

I: 511;

III: 333;

V: 311, 312, 313, 314

gastrointestinal/digestive disorders and,

V: 245

gastrointestinal tract tumors and,

II: 179–180;

III: 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281;

IV: 254;

V: 245;

VI: 219–220

hepatobiliary cancers and,

I: 454–455;

II: 184, 185, 186;

III: 283, 285, 287–288;

V: 262–263, 269

Hodgkin’s disease and,

II: 236;

III: 373, 375;

V: 358–359, 366;

VI: 318

immune modulation and,

I: 693–694

immune system disorder and,

VI: 445–446

infant death and,

III: 456

infertility and,

VI: 366–371

laryngeal cancer and,

V: 270–271;

VI: 233

leukemia and,

I: 568–570;

III: 388–389, 392;

IV: 379;

V: 368, 370–371;

VI: 332

lipid/lipoprotein disorders and,

III: 520;

IV: 493;

VI: 458

low birthweight,

VI: 381–382

lung cancer and,

III: 297–298, 301;

IV: 282–283;

V: 275–276;

VI: 240

melanoma and,

III: 316;

IV: 302–303;

V: 291–292;

VI: 256

motor/coordination dysfunction and,

I: 658–659

multiple myeloma and,

I: 562;

II: 243;

III: 380, 382;

V: 364–365;

VI: 324

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274–275;

V: 266;

VI: 229

neonatal death and,

I: 621;

III: 455

neural tube defects,

II: 297;

III: 437;

IV: 18

neurobehavioral disorders association

studies,

II: 306;

III: 467

neuroblastoma,

V: 429–431

neuropsychiatric outcomes and,

I: 651–653;

II: 148

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 365, 369;

IV: 17;

V: 347–348, 351–354;

VI: 310–311

ovarian cancer and,

III: 333;

IV: 321–322

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

pancreatic cancer and,

V: 258

peripheral nervous system disorders and,

I: 663–665

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

I: 680–681

preterm birth and,

III: 459

prostate cancer and,

II: 221, 222;

III: 336, 338, 342;

IV: 329;

V: 320–321, 322;

VI: 281

rectal cancer and,

V: 255–256

renal cancers and,

III: 353, 354;

IV: 347

respiratory cancers and,

I: 469;

II: 190, 193, 200–201

skin cancers and,

VI: 256

soft-tissue sarcomas and,

I: 491–492;

II: 207–208;

III: 319;

IV: 116;

V: 285–286;

VI: 246–250

spontaneous abortion and,

I: 598–599;

V: 414–417

stillbirth and,

I: 620;

III: 454

stomach cancer and,

V: 248–249

testicular cancer and,

III: 344, 345;

V: 327

thyroid homeostasis and,

VI: 480

uterine cancer and,

III: 333

Vietnam exposure studies,

III: 156–157

Washington residents,

II: 149

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides;

Seveso, Italy;

Times Beach, Missouri

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),

I: 39, 59–60, 93;

V: 27;

VI: 132

Alsea, Oregon,

I: 42–43

directives,

IV: 117

Science Advisory Board (SAB),

II: 32;

III: 29

TCDD cancer potency estimate,

I: 138

Times Beach, Missouri,

I: 41;

III: 234;

IV: 148

Vietnam military use of herbicides, response,

II: 32;

III: 29–30, 136

Enzyme induction

liver,

I: 155–156

lung,

I: 170

porphyria,

I: 153–154

TCDD and,

II: 3, 66–67

EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency

Epidemiologic studies

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy,

II: 312–314

aging effects control,

II: 261–262;

III: 409

agricultural/forestry workers,

I: 318–323, 326–341;

II: 118–120, 135–137, 183, 197–198, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 134, 140, 144–145, 197–206;

VI: 124–128

Air Force personnel involved in herbicide spraying,

II: 31–32;

III: 28–29;

IV: 232–235

altered sperm parameters,

I: 632;

III: 445–449, 450

amyloidosis,

IV: 512;

V: 507

autoimmunity,

I: 697–698;

II: 7;

III: 488–491

basal/squamous cell skin cancer,

III: 317–322, 323;

V: 296, 297–298, 299;

VI: 261–265

birth defects,

I: 607–618;

II: 7, 140, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443;

IV: 400–405;

V: 404;

VI: 355–365

bladder cancer,

I: 515–517;

II: 7, 225–227;

III: 7, 10, 347–351;

IV: 340–342;

V: 330–332, 333;

VI: 286–292

bone/joint cancer,

I: 472–473;

II: 6, 204–205;

III: 7, 10, 303–305;

IV: 288–289;

V: 280–282;

VI: 242–245

brain tumors,

I: 523;

II: 7, 136, 229–230;

III: 8, 12, 356–361;

IV: 351–352;

V: 340–343;

VI: 296–302

breast cancer,

II: 6, 176, 213–217, 218;

III: 7, 10, 324–328;

IV: 315–316;

V: 302–304, 308;

VI: 265–270

cancer,

I: 45, 59, 317, 320–323, 367, 383–384, 391–393, 401, 402–403, 435–445, 574;

II: 133–138, 147–148, 175, 176;

III: 265–266;

VI: 5, 201–353

cancer latency issues,

II: 260–276;

III: 407–431

case-control studies,

I: 326–341;

II: 94–95, 118–127, 138–140, 144–146, 148–149, 155, 157, 159–160, 183–184, 186–187, 188, 190, 193, 200, 222–223, 240–241;

III: 173, 175, 185–195, 201–204, 208–217, 228–232;

IV: 143–146, 207–220, 227–231, 236–245, 247;

VI: 127–128

cervical cancer,

III: 332

Chapevsk, Russia,

VI: 180

chemical industry production workers,

I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 218, 219–224, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387;

IV: 134–140, 182–197

childhood cancer,

I: 628–630;

II: 7, 299–300;

VI: 383–389

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

chloracne,

I: 674–678;

II: 5, 6, 318–320;

III: 6, 7, 479–480;

VI: 7, 437–438

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

II: 310–311

circulatory disorders,

I: 700–707;

II: 7, 335–337;

III: 8, 514–518;

IV: 510;

V: 505;

VI: 467–471

cleft lip/palate,

I: 373–374, 375

cofounders, possible,

V: 527

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders,

II: 7, 307–308;

III: 468–469;

V: 449–451;

VI: 406–410

cohort studies,

I: 229–232;

II: 105–109, 135–138, 141–147, 154–160, 178, 179, 180, 182–183, 186, 187, 190, 192–193, 204, 218, 222, 240;

III: 170–185, 196, 197–200, 206–208, 217;

IV: 140–143, 182–206, 222–230, 232–247;

V: 25–26;

VI: 124–127

colon cancer,

I: 12, 328–329, 576–577;

II: 7;

III: 8, 276–278

congressionally mandated,

I: 50;

II: 5

controlled observational,

I: 228

cost of,

I: 727

cross-sectional studies,

IV: 187, 188, 196, 197, 199, 204, 226, 228, 229, 238, 242

cytogenetic studies,

III: 365–366

developmental studies,

IV: 196, 227, 229, 231, 242;

VI: 6, 354–403

diabetes mellitus,

I: 684–685;

II: 7, 330–331;

III: 494–502;

IV: 482, 488–492;

V: 492;

VI: 448–456

Doubs, France,

VI: 179–180

ecological design studies,

IV: 231

endometriosis,

VI: 473–478

environmental exposure,

VI: 129–134, 540–550

evaluation of,

I: 300–301, 591–592, 737–738;

II: 5, 93–94;

III: 129–130;

VI: 2

evidentiary role of,

I: 224–225, 228–237, 300, 305;

II: 175, 176;

III: 265, 266;

IV: 104–105

female reproductive system/breast cancers,

I: 508–511;

II: 6, 211–213;

III: 7, 10, 330–334;

V: 311–316;

VI: 265–275

gastrointestinal tract cancers,

I: 446–447;

II: 7, 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 268–281;

V: 246;

VI: 203–221

gastrointestinal ulcers,

I: 691;

II: 334;

III: 510–513;

IV: 505;

V: 502

hepatic enzyme disorders,

I: 686–688

hepatobiliary cancers,

I: 453–455;

II: 6, 176, 181–187;

III: 7, 10, 282–288;

V: 261–263;

VI: 221–226

herbicide environmental exposures,

I: 365–384;

II: 140–149, 189, 190, 193, 200–201, 207–208, 218, 221, 222, 234, 236, 241, 243, 287–288, 297, 306, 312–313;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 275, 277, 279–281, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 147–149, 224–231, 255, 269, 274–275, 278, 282–283, 289, 293, 294, 302–303, 315–316, 321–322, 329, 336, 341, 347, 351–352, 357, 366, 372–373, 379;

V: 2–3

herbicide exposure assessment for,

I: 251–259;

II: 99–109;

III: 142–146;

VI: 165–169

herbicide exposure indices development,

II: 107–109

herbicide exposure levels,

II: 175

herbicide exposure reconstruction model and,

I: 725, 726–728

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 107–108, 112, 113–140, 188–189, 190, 191–199, 206–207, 214–216, 218, 219–220, 222, 232–234, 235–236, 237–243, 286–287, 297, 306, 312;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 274–280, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496, 510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 134–143, 182–223, 251–254, 268–269, 274, 277–278, 282, 288–289, 292–293, 302, 321, 327–329, 336, 340–341, 346, 351, 356, 365–366, 372, 379

herbicide/pesticide applicators,

I: 323–326;

II: 31–32, 120–122, 137–138, 198–200;

III: 182–185, 226–228;

IV: 202–206

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 9, 329, 331, 335–336, 341, 384, 391, 393, 549–556, 574;

II: 5,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

6, 138, 235–236;

III: 6, 7, 372–376;

V: 357–360;

VI: 313–319

immune modulation,

I: 693–696

immune system disorders,

II: 7, 327–329;

III: 488–491;

IV: 480–481;

V: 484–485;

VI: 443–448

infant death,

III: 456

infertility,

I: 632–633;

II: 7, 280–282;

III: 445–449, 450;

VI: 365–372

kidney cancer,

I: 515;

II: 7, 139–140, 224–225;

III: 352–355;

VI: 292–296

laryngeal cancer,

II: 202–203;

III: 293–295;

V: 270–271;

VI: 230–234

latency (cancer) issues,

II: 260–276;

III: 407–431

leukemia,

I: 13, 332–333, 334–335, 564–571, 577–578;

II: 7, 136, 245–247;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 379–380;

V: 369–372;

VI: 325–337

limitations,

I: 4, 223;

VI: 23

lipid abnormalities,

I: 688–690;

II: 7, 333–334;

III: 504–506, 520–521;

IV: 493, 495;

VI: 457–463

liver cancer,

I: 13, 329, 391, 393

liver toxicity,

II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV: 499;

VI: 463–466

low birthweight,

I: 626–627;

II: 7;

III: 456–457, 459;

V: 425;

VI: 379–383

lung cancer,

III: 296–298, 300–301;

IV: 282–283;

V: 274–277;

VI: 234–241

melanoma,

III: 313–317;

V: 288–294;

VI: 251–261

meta-analysis,

I: 225, 237–238, 242–243, 244

metabolic and digestive disorders,

II: 7, 330–337;

VI: 463–466

molecular and cellular end points,

V: 26

motor/coordination dysfunction,

I: 658–661;

II: 7, 309–310;

III: 469–470;

VI: 410–422

multiple myeloma,

I: 11–12, 331, 334, 335, 336, 341, 557–563, 576;

II: 6, 138–139, 176, 237–244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 377–383;

V: 363–366;

VI: 319–325

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

I: 459;

II: 6, 176, 187–189;

III: 7, 10, 290–291;

V: 267;

VI: 226–230

neonatal death,

III: 455

neural tube defects numbers,

II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders,

II: 305–308, 309–311, 312–314;

III: 457;

VI: 406–410

neurological disorders,

I: 365–366, 642–648;

II: 141;

VI: 6, 404–435

neuropsychiatric disorders,

I: 649–657;

II: 7, 148;

III: 468–469

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 9, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333–334, 335–338, 383, 384, 391–393, 401, 528–548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 134–135, 136, 138, 139, 231–234;

III: 6, 7, 362–371, 428–430;

IV: 356–358;

V: 345–355;

VI: 303–312

NRC Commission on Life Sciences,

I: 63

occupational exposures,

VI: 496–539

ovarian cancer,

III: 333

pancreatic cancer,

III: 280–281

paper/pulp workers,

II: 126–127, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 134, 252;

VI: 128–129

parkinsonism,

VI: 410–420

perinatal death,

I: 620–624;

II: 7, 285–286;

III: 451–453, 454, 455, 456;

V: 421–422;

VI: 378–379

peripheral nervous system disorders,

I: 662–666;

II: 6, 7, 310–311, 312–314;

III: 7, 8, 470–471, 473;

VI: 423–429

porphyria cutanea tarda,

I: 680–682;

II: 5, 6, 129, 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 481–482;

V: 480;

VI: 439–440

proportionate mortality studies,

I: 232–233

prostate cancer,

I: 11, 518–519, 575–576;

II: 6, 176, 219–223;

III: 7, 8, 9, 335–342, 426–428;

IV: 327–329;

V: 319–323;

VI: 275–283

Quail Run, Missouri,

VI: 132

Ranch Hand cohort,

II: 31, 32, 109, 150–152, 154–156, 201, 209, 280, 283–284, 286, 293–295, 321–322, 330, 332, 336;

III: 28–29, 218, 206–207, 237–240, 309–310, 313–314, 318, 321, 322, 339, 340, 385, 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458, 481, 486, 495, 498, 502;

IV: 13, 232–235;

VI: 5–6

rare diseases in,

I: 231, 499

recommendations,

I: 15–20, 721–725, 731;

II: 24–25;

III: 23;

V: 523–527;

VI: 10

rectal cancer,

III: 278–279

renal cancer,

VI: 292–296

reproductive outcomes,

I: 41–42, 311–312, 321, 364–365, 368, 370, 371–375, 387–388, 389–390, 591–592;

II: 280–282, 283–284, 285, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443, 445–449, 450, 451–453, 454, 455, 456–457, 459;

IV: 401–402, 406–407, 410–411;

VI: 354–403

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

resolution in,

I: 242–243;

IV: 513

resolving power of,

V: 23

respiratory cancers,

I: 10–11, 364, 461–472, 575;

II: 6, 176, 189–203;

III: 7, 8, 9, 418, 420–426;

IV: 273, 278, 282, 284

respiratory disease,

I: 709–713;

II: 7, 324–326;

III: 483–486;

IV: 475;

VI: 440–443

Seveso, Italy, population studies,

I: 44–45, 365–368, 444, 454–455, 469, 491–492, 503, 511, 517, 523, 540, 568–570, 571, 598–599;

II: 141–143, 148, 200–201, 206, 207–208, 209, 210, 211–212, 213, 216, 221, 225, 226–227, 228, 230, 234, 236, 243, 245, 246, 287, 299–300, 312–313;

III: 197–200, 218, 232–233, 283, 285, 290, 296, 297–298, 299, 303, 307, 309, 314, 318, 324–326, 327, 330, 331, 332, 336, 338, 344, 348, 349, 352, 353, 356, 358, 363, 365, 372, 373, 380, 385, 386, 388–389, 390, 408, 414, 420, 422, 427, 436, 449, 495, 505;

IV: 114–115, 464, 468, 472–475, 484, 487, 491, 501, 507, 509;

VI: 129–132, 177–179

skin cancer,

I: 502–503;

II: 7, 209–211;

III: 8, 10, 312–313;

IV: 302–303;

VI: 251–265

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 8, 311, 326–328, 329–330, 335–336, 337, 339–340, 384, 391, 393, 395–396, 401, 403, 476, 477–500, 572–573, 574;

II: 5, 6, 132, 134–135, 205–208;

III: 6, 7, 306–311;

IV: 116, 292–296;

V: 284–287;

VI: 245–251

sperm abnormal parameters,

II: 7;

III: 445–449, 450

spina bifida,

II: 6;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 437–438;

IV: 404–405

spontaneous abortion,

I: 42, 336–337, 372–373, 405–406, 596–605;

II: 7, 283–284;

IV: 410–411;

V: 420;

VI: 372–378

state-sponsored,

I: 399–405, 495–496, 546;

II: 153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292;

III: 213–215, 243–244

stillbirth,

III: 454

stomach cancer,

III: 274–275;

IV: 251–255

strength of evidence in assessment of,

I: 238–241

tables of,

VI: 495–568

TCDD biomarkers,

I: 259–262;

II: 101–105, 318

testicular cancer,

I: 405, 519;

II: 7, 153, 227–228;

III: 7, 10, 343–346;

IV: 336;

V: 325–327;

VI: 283–286

thyroid homeostasis,

VI: 478–481

Times Beach, Missouri,

I: 368–370;

II: 144;

III: 200–201, 218, 234, 283;

IV: 115–116, 133, 148;

VI: 132, 179

uroporphyrins,

VI: 7

usefulness of,

IV: 103–108

uterine cancer,

III: 333;

IV: 321–324

Vietnam environmental herbicide exposure,

II: 144–145;

III: 201–202, 218, 234, 283;

VI: 132–133, 181–182

Vietnam veterans in,

I: 50, 57–59, 62–63, 384–418;

II: 149–161, 189, 190, 201–202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 221, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 244, 245, 246, 278, 283, 285, 286, 288–296, 299, 300–301, 305, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 317, 318, 321–322, 323, 330, 332, 333, 336;

III: 206–217, 236–245, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 283, 285–286, 288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358–359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 475, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 523;

IV: 150–160, 232–247, 255, 269, 275, 278, 282–283, 289, 294–295, 303–304, 309–310, 316, 322–323, 329, 336–337, 342, 347, 352, 357–358, 366–367, 373, 380;

VI: 551–568

Vietnamese in,

I: 370–372, 599–601;

II: 108–109, 144–145, 148, 287–288;

III: 217, 245, 283;

IV: 116–117, 227–228

Epidemiology,

VI: 5–7, 118–164

acute lymphocytic leukemia,

III: 383

acute myeloid leukemia,

III: 383–384

birth defects,

I: 606;

II: 286;

III: 435–436

bladder cancer,

II: 223;

III: 347

bone/joint cancer,

I: 472–473;

II: 204;

III: 302

brain tumors,

I: 522–523;

II: 228–229;

III: 356

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

breast cancer,

I: 505, 506–507;

II: 213–214;

III: 322, 324

cancer,

I: 433, 435–438, 442, 525;

II: 175;

III: 265–266;

VI: 5

children, cancer in,

II: 298

chloracne,

II: 317–318;

III: 478–479

chronic lymphocytic leukemia,

III: 384–385

chronic myeloid leukemia,

III: 385

circulatory disorders,

III: 514

diabetes mellitus,

II: 330;

III: 491–492, 493

female reproductive system cancers,

I: 505, 506–508;

II: 211;

III: 329–330

gastrointestinal tract cancers,

I: 445–447;

II: 177;

III: 267–268

gastrointestinal ulcers,

II: 334;

III: 508–509

hepatobiliary cancers,

I: 452–455;

II: 181–182;

III: 282

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 526, 527–528;

II: 231;

III: 371–372

immune system disorders,

II: 326–327;

III: 487–488

infertility,

II: 279;

III: 444–445

kidney cancer,

I: 513, 514;

II: 223;

III: 351–352;

V: 335–338

laryngeal cancer,

III: 292

leukemia,

I: 564;

II: 245;

III: 383–385

lipid abnormalities,

II: 333;

III: 503–504

liver disorders,

II: 331–332;

III: 509–510

low birthweight,

I: 625–626;

III: 454, 455, 456

lung cancer,

III: 295–296

malignant lymphomas,

II: 231;

IV: 137

multiple myeloma,

I: 526, 528;

II: 236–237;

III: 377

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

I: 458–459;

II: 187–188;

III: 288–289

neurobehavioral toxicity,

II: 304–305, 307;

III: 466

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 526, 527;

II: 231;

III: 362

porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT),

II: 321;

III: 480–481;

IV: 10

prostate cancer,

I: 513, 514–515;

II: 217, 219;

III: 334

respiratory cancers,

I: 460–461;

II: 189–191

respiratory disorders,

III: 482–483

skin cancer,

I: 501–502;

II: 209;

III: 312, 313

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 475;

II: 205;

III: 304, 306;

IV: 116

spontaneous abortion,

II: 282–283

stillbirth/neonatal deaths/infant death,

III: 451

testicular cancer,

I: 515;

II: 223–224;

III: 343

See also Epidemiologic studies

Epidermal growth factor (EGF),

I: 145, 154;

II: 59, 73–74;

III: 77, 97;

IV: 51, 64, 66

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),

II: 67;

III: 78, 80, 97;

IV: 64, 67, 70

Epigenetic events. See Apoptosis;

Cell proliferation;

Enzyme induction;

Intracellular communication

Epstein-Barr virus,

I: 528;

II: 188;

V: 344, 352;

VI: 226

Erbon®,

I: 309;

II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134;

V: 105

EROD. See Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

Error in design, conduct, or analysis of an investigation,

V: 22

Erythrocyte sedimentation,

I: 696

Escherichia coli,

VI: 30

Esophageal cancer,

VI: 209

Estrogen

hepatic binding,

I: 154

receptor mediated responses,

I: 145

receptor signaling,

III: 65–67

transduction pathway, TCDD interaction,

II: 4;

VI: 58

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD),

I: 153, 155;

II: 52, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 69, 74;

III: 40, 42, 51, 52, 53, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 91, 96;

IV: 386

Europe,

III: 108, 308, 471

European registry,

II: 197

Evidence of herbicide association. See Herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining;

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence;

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive negative evidence;

Herbicide association, sufficient evidence

Executive Order 11850,

II: 27;

III: 25

Experimental studies

evaluation of,

II: 92–93

Exposure assessment. See Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

Exposure reconstruction model. See Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

F

Farmers. See Agricultural/forestry workers

Fecundity Ratio (FR),

IV: 406

Federal government in herbicide management/research,

I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30;

IV: 13

Federal Register,

II: 30;

III: 28

Federation of American Scientists,

I: 29

Female reproductive system cancers. See Reproductive system cancers, women

Fertility. See Infertility

Fetotoxicity

cacodylic acid,

V: 39

Fibrosarcoma. See Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Finland,

I: 324, 364, 383–384, 443, 444, 467, 492, 541, 561;

II: 134, 137, 140, 179, 183, 188–189, 198, 207, 220, 222, 226, 229–230, 233, 235, 243, 246, 269, 271;

III: 226, 232, 234, 348, 372, 422, 472;

IV: 142, 146, 149, 344, 353, 359, 361, 362, 368–369, 374–375, 381, 415;

V: 117;

VI: 129, 133, 246, 250

Finnish Cancer Registry,

II: 137

Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations,

II: 140

Social Insurance Institution,

II: 137

Florida,

I: 324, 467;

II: 199;

III: 226;

IV: 142, 258, 260, 263, 266, 286, 297, 327–328, 330, 333–334, 336, 338, 344, 349, 354

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),

II: 279, 280, 282;

III: 41, 68, 72–73, 444, 445;

IV: 399–400, 405, 408;

V: 405

Food crops,

I: 89

Agent Orange in destruction of,

I: 62, 90

as military target,

I: 27, 31, 87, 97, 98–100, 106

Ford, Gerald,

II: 27;

III: 25

Foreign veterans,

II: 113, 160, 202, 293;

III: 9, 216–217, 218, 244–245, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 339, 340, 343, 346, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 413, 423, 424, 469, 485, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517

Forest Service, US,

I: 42;

IV: 410

Forestry workers. See Agricultural/forestry workers

Forests

2,4,5-T spraying,

I: 42–43

defoliant early field tests in,

I: 26

Vietnam forests,

I: 31–32, 62, 90, 104;

III: 137

See also Agricultural/forestry workers;

Lumber industry;

Mangrove forests

Fort Detrick, Maryland,

I: 25

FR. See Fecundity Ratio

France,

IV: 116;

V: 227–228;

VI: 50, 179–180, 310

Free radicals,

II: 4

TCDD and,

II: 60

Frierfjord, Norway,

III: 236;

IV: 117, 149

FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone

Fungicides,

I: 91

G

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT),

II: 331–332;

III: 509, 510;

IV: 499, 503;

V: 499–501

Gamma rays

respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

Gardner’s syndrome,

V: 283;

VI: 246

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders,

III: 508–514;

IV: 498–505;

V: 498–502;

VI: 463–466

biologic plausibility,

VI: 221

cacodylic acid in,

I: 188

science literature update,

VI: 465

TCDD in,

I: 169–170;

IV: 19, 135, 156;

V: 60

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 466

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers;

Ulcers, gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

biologic plausibility,

I: 451;

III: 281–282;

IV: 256;

V: 502;

VI: 221

colon cancer, epidemiologic studies,

VI: 210–213

epidemiologic studies,

III: 268–273, 274–281;

IV: 251–255;

V: 243–259;

VI: 203–221

epidemiology,

I: 445–447;

II: 177;

III: 267–268

esophageal cancer, epidemiologic studies,

VI: 209

herbicide association in,

I: 12, 447–451, 576–577;

II: 7, 12, 21, 177–180, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21, 268–282;

V: 17

herbicide environmental exposure and,

II: 179–180;

III: 271–272, 275, 277–278, 279, 280–281;

IV: 254;

V: 501

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 178–179;

III: 268–271, 274–275, 276–277, 278–279, 280;

IV: 251;

V: 500–501

incidence, data by type/gender/race/selected

age group,

III: 267;

IV: 250

pancreatic cancer, epidemiologic studies,

III: 280–281;

IV: 250–254, 256, 385–386;

V: 257–259;

VI: 72, 217–219

rectal cancer, epidemiologic studies,

III: 278–279;

IV: 250–251, 255–256, 262n, 264n, 385;

V: 254–256;

VI: 214–216

scientific literature update,

II: 178–180;

III: 268–273;

IV: 251–255;

V: 245;

VI: 219–220

stomach cancer, epidemiologic studies,

VI: 205–208

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 446, 452;

II: 177, 180, 181;

III: 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281;

IV: 255;

V: 502;

VI: 221

See also Colon cancer;

Colorectal cancer;

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders

GBDS. See General Birth Defects Study

Gender

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by gender,

III: 384;

VI: 326

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data by gender,

III: 384;

VI: 326

bladder cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 347;

IV: 339;

V: 328;

VI: 287

bone/joint cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 302;

IV: 387;

V: 279;

VI: 242

brain cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 356;

V: 339;

VI: 297

cancer studies and,

II: 180, 181, 183, 190, 191, 204–205, 234, 242, 243, 246;

IV: 199, 249

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by gender,

III: 384;

VI: 326

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data by gender,

III: 384;

VI: 326

diabetes prevalence, data by gender,

III: 492

female reproductive system cancer incidence, data by type, for selected age groups,

III: 329, 330;

IV: 321;

V: 310;

VI: 261

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by type and gender,

III: 267;

IV: 145–146;

V: 244;

VI: 204

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data by gender,

III: 372;

IV: 356;

V: 355;

VI: 313

kidney cancer,

V: 334

laryngeal cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 292;

IV: 277;

V: 268;

VI: 231

leukemia incidence, data by type and gender,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

V: 367;

VI: 326

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancers incidence, data by gender,

III: 282;

IV: 267;

V: 260;

VI: 222

lung cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 296;

IV: 281;

V: 272;

VI: 235

melanoma incidence, data by gender,

III: 313;

IV: 300;

V: 288;

VI: 252

multiple myeloma incidence, data by gender,

III: 377;

V: 361;

VI: 320

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 289;

IV: 273;

V: 265;

VI: 227

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data by gender,

III: 362;

IV: 356;

V: 344;

VI: 303

renal cancers incidence, data by gender,

III: 352;

VI: 292

Seveso, Italy, in,

IV: 148

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data by

gender,

III: 306;

IV: 292;

V: 282;

VI: 245

See also Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Women veterans

General Accounting Office,

I: 52–53, 96;

III: 139, 140;

IV: 121

General Birth Defects Study (GBDS),

I: 610, 626;

II: 289, 290;

III: 438, 439

See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

General Services Administration,

I: 77

Genetic alteration

2,4-D in,

I: 119, 178–179

2,4,5-T in,

I: 119, 184

cacodylic acid in,

I: 119, 187–188

cancer mechanism,

I: 433–434

picloram in,

I: 191

reproductive outcomes, male-mediated,

I: 593–594

TCDD in,

I: 118, 142, 143–144, 439;

V: 52–53

Genetic factors

Ah receptor-mediated events and,

I: 134;

VI: 60–66

cancer risk and,

I: 10;

IV: 249, 273, 300, 364, 386;

V: 264

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

I: 10, 679

Genetics. See Cytogenetics;

Genetic alteration;

Genetic factors

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Geneva Protocol,

I: 45;

II: 27;

III: 25

Genitourinary cancers,

II: 223–224

See also Bladder cancer and disorders;

Kidney cancer;

Prostate cancer;

Testicular cancer

Genotoxicity,

V: 38;

VI: 36–40

Geographic information system (GIS),

VI: 190–191

Georgia. See Atlanta, Georgia

German Democratic Republic,

III: 226;

VI: 126

Germany,

I: 312–313, 326, 443, 477, 508–509, 530, 565, 675–676;

II: 105, 108, 130–131, 149, 308, 319–320, 322, 323, 328, 331, 333;

III: 221, 222, 223, 224, 232, 234, 235, 240, 269, 284, 308, 326, 332, 337, 357, 364, 365, 379, 386, 422, 423, 429, 470, 481, 483, 490, 506, 510–511, 515;

IV: 137, 149, 156, 191, 195, 208, 420;

V: 117;

VI: 47, 50, 124, 126, 133

German Cancer Research Center,

III: 495, 506

herbicide exposure assessment,

III: 153–154, 158, 159–160;

IV: 124, 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 285, 297, 301, 319, 333, 349, 353, 359, 368, 374, 381

See also Aktiengesellschaft, Germany;

Dormagen, Germany;

Hamburg, Germany;

Ludwigshafen, Germany;

Uerdingen, Germany

GGT. See Gamma-glutamyltransferase

GI. See Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders;

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

GIS. See Geographic information system

Givaudan Company,

I: 43

Glioblastomas,

V: 11, 525

Glucocorticoid receptor,

I: 154

Golgi apparatus,

VI: 428, 430

Grave’s disease. See Thyroid homeostasis

Great Britain. See United Kingdom

Ground/perimeter spraying,

I: 20, 24, 74, 85, 90, 91, 94–96, 100, 272, 286, 287, 288–289;

III: 138–140;

VI: 175–177, 185

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

Growth factors

epidermal,

I: 145, 154;

II: 59

TCDD induction of,

I: 136–137;

II: 4, 59;

III: 62–63;

IV: 66

transforming,

I: 145;

II: 59

tumor necrosis,

II: 59

Guillain-Barre syndrome,

II: 10, 312

H

Half-life studies,

VI: 51–54

Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons,

I: 125, 126, 151;

IV: 41, 58, 68, 77

hepatic enzyme induction and,

I: 155

Halsted Reitan (HR) neuropsychologic test battery,

V: 450

Hamburg, Germany,

II: 195, 214–215, 329;

III: 153, 223, 324–325, 515;

IV: 191

Hamburg Boehringer Company,

IV: 138

Hancock County, Ohio,

III: 229;

IV: 213

Hanoi, Vietnam,

II: 148

Hawaii,

I: 60, 400, 603;

II: 292;

III: 243;

V: 6

Hazardous materials disposal and cleanup

Agent Orange surplus disposal,

I: 93–94

Nitro, West Virginia, accident efforts,

I: 38;

IV: 136

Seveso, Italy,

I: 43–44, 367–368

See also Incineration, of Agent Orange

HBV. See Hepatitis B virus

HC. See Hydrocortisone

HD. See Hodgkin’s disease

HDLP. See High-density lipoprotein receptors

Headaches,

I: 650, 660;

V: 447

Health and Human Services, US, Department of,

I: 57–59

Health care. See Military health care

Health outcomes of herbicide exposure

2,4-D outcomes,

II: 48–49;

III: 34, 38–39, 44–47

2,4,5-T outcomes,

II: 49;

III: 48;

IV: 185

cacodylic acid outcomes,

II: 50–51;

III: 34, 50

categories of evidence for assessing,

I: 227–237

categories of herbicide association in,

I: 5–8, 221, 223–225, 246–247;

II: 4–14, 19–22, 97;

III: 6–15, 19–22, 132, 390, 392–394;

IV: 6–12;

V: 7

choice of,

VI: 20

disease outcomes of,

II: 37;

III: 33–35, 38–43, 44–47, 48, 50, 71–105;

IV: 22, 27, 110

early herbicide research,

I: 29–32, 35–36;

II: 19–23;

III: 19–23

early TCDD research,

I: 28–29

evaluating exposure reconstruction model and,

I: 289–290;

IV: 85

evidence inadequate/insufficient for determining herbicide association in,

I:

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

13–14, 19, 247, 457, 460, 473–474, 512, 521, 571, 577–578, 605, 618, 624, 627, 630, 634, 657, 666, 691, 699, 708, 713, 727;

II: 6–7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 181–187, 249–250, 282, 284, 285–286, 298, 300, 325, 329, 334–335, 337;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 132, 133, 292, 304, 316, 322, 327, 332, 334, 346, 349, 351, 355, 390, 393, 444, 449, 453, 458, 459, 473–474, 486, 491, 503, 507, 513, 518, 522;

IV: 11;

V: 8–9, 15, 16–17, 377–378, 515–516;

VI: 8–9, 16, 338, 483

evidence limited/suggestive of herbicide association in,

I: 10–12, 19, 247, 472, 519–521, 563, 574–576, 727;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 247–249, 298, 300, 323;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 295, 299, 340, 342, 383, 393, 444, 458, 474, 482, 519;

IV: 6, 7–11, 384;

V: 8, 14, 15, 16, 377, 515;

VI: 8, 15–16, 338, 482

evidence of no association of herbicides in,

I: 12–13, 224, 247, 447–451, 503, 521, 525, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21–22, 97, 177–181, 250–251;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 359, 393–394, 522;

IV: 7, 11, 384–385;

V: 9, 15, 17, 378, 516;

VI: 9, 16–17, 338–339, 483

evidence sufficient for herbicide association in,

I: 8–10, 246–247, 500, 548, 556–557, 572–574, 678, 682;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 247, 320;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 311, 366, 373, 374, 390, 392, 480, 519;

IV: 8, 384;

V: 8, 14, 15, 377, 514–515;

VI: 8, 13–15, 337–338, 482

research priorities,

I: 19, 726–727

research update,

II: 37

statistical association of herbicide exposure,

II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 124, 126–127;

IV: 6–12;

V: 22–23

TCDD outcomes,

III: 34–35, 71–105;

IV: 20

toxicity potential health risks, estimation of,

III: 105–108;

IV: 20

Vietnam veterans’ increased risk of disease,

II: 14, 22–23, 88, 91, 218, 223, 251, 276, 283, 298, 300–301, 321, 323;

III: 12–13, 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 397, 430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525;

IV: 12, 403, 407, 411, 413, 417–418, 421–422, 424, 426, 431, 435, 459, 468, 475;

VI: 17–18

See also Epidemiologic studies;

specific cancer sites;

specific cancers;

specific diseases and disorders

Healthy worker effect,

I: 230

Hearing loss,

I: 659–660

Heart disease,

VI: 7

Heart neoplasms. See Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Heat shock protein (HSP90),

IV: 30

Helicobacter pylori,

II: 334;

III: 268, 362, 509;

IV: 145;

V: 344;

VI: 27, 303, 464

Helicopters

herbicide delivery use,

I: 26, 86, 87, 93, 94;

III: 135, 137, 138;

IV: 117

Hematopoietic cancers,

IV: 198

Hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK),

II: 63, 75–76, 77;

III: 71, 72, 82

Hepatitis B infection,

I: 453

Hepatitis B virus (HBV),

II: 182, 183

Hepatitis C infection,

I: 453

Hepatitis C virus,

II: 182

Hepatobiliary cancers

biologic plausibility,

III: 286, 288;

V: 263–264;

VI: 225–226

epidemiologic studies,

III: 282–288;

IV: 268–269;

V: 259–264;

VI: 221–226

epidemiology,

I: 452–455;

II: 181–182;

III: 282

herbicide association and,

I: 13, 577;

II: 2, 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 182–187, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 282–288;

V: 259–264

herbicide environmental exposure and,

II: 184;

III: 283, 285, 287–288;

IV: 269;

V: 262–263

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 182–184;

III: 282–283, 284, 287;

IV: 268–269;

V: 261

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups,

III: 282;

IV: 267;

VI: 222

risk estimates,

II: 186–187;

V: 164;

VI: 226

scientific literature update,

III: 284–286;

IV: 268;

V: 260–263;

VI: 222

TCDD and,

IV: 77;

V: 264

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 181, 185, 187;

III: 283, 285–286, 288;

IV: 269;

V: 264

See also Liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma,

II: 148;

IV: 149

Hepatomegaly,

V: 6, 517

Hepatotoxicity

TCDD and,

II: 3, 73–75;

III: 76–79;

IV: 23, 71, 77;

V: 58–60, 71;

VI: 70–72

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Herbicide application methods

military early research,

I: 25–26

Operation Ranch Hand use,

I: 85–87;

III: 135, 136, 137, 138, 139

Vietnam use,

I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 85–87, 94–96;

III: 135–142;

V: 229–232

See also Aerial spraying;

Ground/perimeter spraying;

Herbicides;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining

altered sperm parameters and,

I: 14, 634;

II: 7, 20;

III: 449, 458;

IV: 7;

VI: 8, 14

amyloidosis,

IV: 7;

V: 507;

VI: 9, 14

basal/squamous cell skin cancer and,

III: 322, 393;

IV: 311;

V: 299–300

basis for finding of,

I: 13, 247, 577;

II: 6–7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 249–250;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 133, 393

birth defects and,

I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 298, 300;

III: 444, 458;

IV: 7;

V: 404;

VI: 9, 14

bladder cancer and,

III: 7, 10, 132, 349, 351, 393;

IV: 7, 19;

V: 333;

VI: 8, 14

bone/joint cancer and,

I: 13, 473–474, 577;

II: 6, 20, 205;

III: 7, 10, 304, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 281–282;

VI: 8, 14

breast cancer and,

II: 217;

III: 7, 10, 327, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 308;

VI: 8, 14

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

II: 311, 314;

IV: 7;

VI: 9, 14

circulatory disorders and,

I: 14, 708;

II: 7, 21, 337;

III: 518, 522;

IV: 7;

V: 505;

VI: 9, 14

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders and,

I: 14, 657–658;

II: 7, 20, 308–309, 314;

III: 473–474;

IV: 441;

VI: 9, 14

diabetes mellitus and,

I: 14, 691;

II: 7, 21, 335;

III: 503, 522;

V: 492;

VI: 8, 14

female reproductive system/breast cancers and,

I: 13, 14, 512, 577;

II: 6, 20, 213;

III: 7, 10, 332, 334, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 316;

VI: 8, 14

gastrointestinal tract ulcers and,

I: 14, 691;

II: 335;

III: 513, 522;

V: 502;

VI: 9, 14

genitourinary tract cancers and,

I: 13, 521, 577

hepatic enzyme abnormalities and,

I: 14, 691

hepatobiliary cancers and,

I: 13, 577;

II: 6, 20, 187;

III: 7, 10, 286, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 263;

VI: 8, 14

immune system disorders and,

I: 14, 699;

II: 7, 21, 329;

III: 491, 522;

IV: 7;

V: 484–485;

VI: 9, 14

infertility and,

I: 14, 634;

II: 7, 282, 300;

III: 449, 458;

IV: 7

leukemia and,

I: 13, 571, 577–578;

II: 7, 20, 247;

III: 7, 10, 390, 393;

IV: 7, 198;

V: 372;

VI: 8, 14

lipid abnormalities and,

I: 14, 691;

II: 7, 21, 335;

III: 507, 522

liver cancer and,

I: 13, 457, 577

liver toxicity and,

II: 335;

III: 513, 522

low birthweight and,

I: 14, 627;

II: 7, 20;

III: 458;

IV: 7;

VI: 9, 14

melanoma and,

III: 316;

V: 294

metabolic and digestive disorders and,

II: 334–335;

IV: 7;

VI: 9, 14

motor/coordination dysfunction and,

I: 14, 661;

II: 7, 21, 310, 314;

III: 474;

IV: 7;

VI: 9, 14

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and,

I: 13, 460, 577;

II: 6, 20, 189;

III: 7, 10, 292, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 267;

VI: 8, 14

neonatal/infant deaths and stillbirths,

IV: 7

neurobehavioral disorders,

II: 314;

III: 473–474;

VI: 9, 14

neuropsychiatric outcomes and,

I: 14, 657, 666;

II: 7, 20, 308–309, 314;

III: 473–474;

IV: 7;

VI: 8, 14

perinatal death and,

I: 14, 624;

II: 7, 20, 285–286, 300;

III: 453, 458;

V: 421–422;

VI: 9, 14

peripheral nervous system disorders and,

I: 14, 666;

II: 21;

III: 474;

VI: 8, 14

renal cancer and,

I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 20, 225;

III: 7, 10, 355, 393;

IV: 7;

VI: 9, 14

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

respiratory disorders and,

I: 14, 713;

II: 7, 21, 325;

III: 486, 522;

IV: 7;

V: 482;

VI: 8, 14

skin cancers,

II: 210–211;

III: 8, 10, 21, 393;

IV: 7, 19;

VI: 8, 14

spontaneous abortions and,

I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 284, 300;

IV: 7;

VI: 8, 14

testicular cancer and,

I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 20, 228;

III: 7, 10, 346, 393;

IV: 7;

V: 325, 327;

VI: 8, 14

Vietnam veterans’ children, cancer in,

I: 14, 630;

II: 7, 20, 300;

IV: 7;

V: 430–431

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy,

II: 314;

III: 7, 8, 21, 474;

IV: 6, 18–19;

VI: 15

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML),

IV: 7;

V: 372

basis for finding of,

I: 10–12, 247, 574–575;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 247–249;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 393

birth defects,

IV: 6, 18–19;

V: 405

cancer,

I: 10–12, 519–521, 574–576;

II: 247–249;

III: 393

diabetes, type 2,

IV: 6;

VI: 8, 14

laryngeal cancer,

III: 295, 393;

V: 268–272

lung cancer,

III: 299, 393;

V: 278

multiple myeloma,

I: 10, 11–12, 563, 574, 576;

II: 6, 20, 244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 383, 393;

IV: 6, 18–19;

V: 365;

VI: 15

neurobehavioral disorders,

II: 314

peripheral neuropathy,

II: 6;

VI: 15

porphyria cutanea tarda,

II: 6, 323;

III: 7, 8, 20, 482, 519;

IV: 6, 18–19;

V: 480;

VI: 15

prostate cancer,

I: 11, 519–521, 575–576;

II: 6, 20, 223;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 340, 342, 393;

IV: 6, 10, 18–19;

V: 316;

VI: 15

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

respiratory cancers,

I: 10–11, 472, 574, 575;

II: 6, 20, 203;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20;

IV: 6, 18–19;

VI: 15

spina bifida,

II: 6, 298, 300;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 444, 458;

IV: 7, 18–19;

VI: 8, 14

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive negative evidence

basis for finding of,

I: 12–13, 224, 247, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21, 97, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 393–394, 522;

IV: 7, 19–20

brain tumors,

I: 12, 525, 576;

II: 7, 21, 230;

III: 8, 12, 21, 359, 394;

IV: 7;

V: 343

gastrointestinal tract cancers,

I: 12–13, 447–451, 576–577;

II: 7, 21, 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 21, 268, 273, 282, 394;

IV: 7, 19

skin cancer,

I: 12, 503, 576;

III: 21

urinary bladder cancer,

I: 12, 521, 576;

II: 7, 21, 227;

III: 21;

V: 333

Herbicide association, sufficient evidence

basis for finding of,

I: 8–10, 246–247, 572;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 247;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 390, 392;

IV: 6, 17–18

cancer and,

I: 8–10, 572–574;

II: 247;

III: 390, 392;

IV: 6, 17–18

chloracne and,

I: 10, 678;

II: 5, 6, 20, 320;

III: 6, 7, 20, 480, 519;

IV: 6, 17–18;

V: 479;

VI: 13

Hodgkin’s disease and,

I: 8, 9–10, 556–557, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 236;

III: 6, 7, 20, 373, 374, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18;

V: 360;

VI: 13

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

I: 8–9, 10, 548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 234;

III: 6, 7, 20, 366, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18;

V: 354–355;

VI: 13

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

I: 10, 682;

II: 5, 6, 20;

III: 20;

IV: 6, 17–18;

V: 479;

VI: 13

soft-tissue sarcoma and,

I: 8, 9–10, 500;

II: 5, 6, 20, 208;

III: 6, 7, 20, 311, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18;

V: 287;

VI: 13

Herbicide exposure assessment,

VI: 4–5, 165–200

agricultural/forestry workers studies,

III: 154–155;

IV: 111–113

biomarkers for,

I: 17, 259–262, 280–284;

II: 101–104;

IV: 111

cancer studies use,

I: 436–439

case-control studies use,

I: 256–257;

IV: 124

Centers for Disease Control Agent Orange Study,

I: 58;

II: 102;

IV: 124–125

Centers for Disease Control exposure opportunity index,

I: 274–276, 611–612;

III: 147–148;

IV: 124–125

Centers for Disease Control validation study,

I: 59, 260–261, 281–284, 387;

II: 103, 104;

IV: 125–126

Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Experience Study,

II: 101;

III: 240;

IV: 123

cohort studies use,

I: 254–256;

II: 107–109

cumulative exposure,

III: 144

current estimates,

I: 284–287

data sources (existing) limitations,

I: 14–15, 290–291

definition of, methodological issues,

II: 4–5;

III: 5–6;

IV: 16, 20;

V: 4, 215–216

Department of Veterans Affairs mortality studies,

II: 101;

IV: 123;

IV: 151, 157–158

difficulties in,

I: 14–15, 222, 247–248, 284, 286–287;

VI: 28–29

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

dioxin congeners, recent literature,

II: 106–107;

III: 158–159

environmental studies use,

I: 262–263, 267–270;

III: 156–157;

IV: 111, 114–116

epidemiologic studies evaluation and,

II: 99–101;

III: 142–146;

VI: 165–169

evidentiary role of,

I: 4, 15, 250–253;

VI: 4–5, 28–29,

exposure-dose relationship,

I: 252–253

ground spraying,

I: 288–289;

III: 138–140

historic exposure reconstruction,

I: 17–18, 19–20, 254, 255–256, 725–726, 728;

III: 143

indices development,

II: 107–109;

III: 161–162

individual differences,

I: 261, 286

industrial exposure,

VI: 177–181

job exposure matrix,

I: 259–262

literature update,

II: 104–109;

III: 157–162

methodological issues,

II: 4–5;

III: 5–6

misclassification bias in,

I: 17, 257–259, 724

non-military settings and,

I: 4–5, 15, 222–223, 241–242

occupational studies use,

I: 262–267, 269–270;

II: 107–108;

III: 150–156;

V: 217–225;

VI: 169–177

paper/pulp mill workers,

I: 266–267;

III: 155–156;

IV: 114, 134

process perspective,

I: 252–253

Ranch Hand study use,

I: 386;

II: 109;

III: 145–147

research recommendations,

I: 16–18, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 724–725

risk assessment use,

I: 14–15, 247–248, 250, 578;

III: 14–15

sawmill workers,

IV: 10, 114, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457

self-reports,

I: 270–271;

IV: 113

serum TCDD in,

I: 19, 20–21, 261, 282–285, 289, 290, 725, 742–743;

III: 159–161;

IV: 135, 400

Seveso, Italy, accident,

I: 267–268, 285, 598–599;

III: 156;

IV: 400

state-sponsored studies,

I: 400, 401–402, 403–404

Stellmans’ study,

I: 278–279, 284

strategies for,

I: 253–254;

III: 144–145

TCDD exposure levels for epidemiological studies,

II: 105–106;

III: 159–161

TCDD half-life investigation,

II: 104–105;

III: 157–158;

IV: 112, 115–116, 125–126

Times Beach, Missouri, case,

I: 268, 368–369

Vietnam military records in,

I: 271–280;

IV: 125

Vietnam service as element of,

I: 271, 284–287;

II: 101–104;

III: 146–150

Vietnam spray data,

I: 273–279

Vietnam troop movement data in,

I: 95–96, 273–279, 287

Vietnamese population,

I: 108–109, 269, 731;

III: 156–157;

IV: 148–149

workshop on,

I: 746–747

See also Environmental herbicide exposure;

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Herbicides;

Occupational herbicide exposure

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

data sources,

I: 725–726

epidemiologic research and,

I: 726–728

evaluation of,

I: 18, 289–290, 726;

II: 25

recommendations,

I: 15–16, 17–20, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 725–728;

II: 25

Request for Proposals (RFP),

II: 25–26;

IV: 5

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides

Herbicide/pesticide applicators. See Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Herbicides

action of,

I: 88

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 2, 312–313;

III: 7, 8, 473;

IV: 441, 457

agricultural role of,

I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181

Air Force research activities,

II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

basal/squamous cell skin cancer association,

III: 317–322, 323;

IV: 311;

V: 295–300

biologic plausibility,

II: 88, 92, 176, 217, 282, 298, 300;

III: 2, 23, 124, 128, 281–282, 286, 288, 292, 295, 302, 304, 311, 317, 322, 327, 329, 334, 343, 347, 351, 356, 362, 366, 377, 383, 390, 444, 451, 453, 458, 460–462, 467, 480, 482, 486, 491, 502–503, 507, 513–514, 518, 522–525;

IV: 22, 26, 29, 48, 85, 86, 249,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 306, 311, 318, 322, 323, 331, 332, 337, 342, 343, 348, 352, 358, 359, 367, 374, 380–381, 385;

V: 25

birth defects association,

II: 286–298;

III: 436–444;

IV: 403

bladder cancer association,

II: 225–227;

III: 7, 10, 132, 347–351;

IV: 342;

V: 328–333

bone/joint cancer association,

II: 204–205;

III: 7, 10, 303–305;

IV: 289;

V: 278–282

brain tumors association,

II: 229–230;

III: 8, 12, 356–362;

IV: 352

breast cancer association,

II: 213–217;

III: 7, 10, 324–329;

IV: 318;

V: 300–309

cancer latency issues,

II: 2, 13–14, 175, 260–276;

III: 3, 12–14, 407–431;

IV: 289

cancer risk and development,

II: 13–14, 175;

III: 12–14, 265–266

carcinogenicity,

I: 118–119;

II: 175;

III: 265–266;

IV: 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 337, 342, 348, 352, 358, 367, 374, 380, 387

cervical cancer association,

III: 332;

IV: 323

chemistry of,

II: 38

childhood cancer association,

II: 299–300;

IV: 424–425

chloracne association,

II: 318–320;

III: 6, 7, 479–480;

IV: 466

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 310–311

circulatory disorders association,

II: 335–337;

III: 3, 514–518;

IV: 510

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders and,

II: 307–309;

III: 468–469;

IV: 443;

V: 449–451

congressional hearings,

II: 27–28;

III: 25

congressional legislation on,

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Department of Veterans Affairs activities,

II: 29–31;

III: 27–28;

IV: 151, 157–158

developmental toxicity,

I: 124;

IV: 403, 413, 416, 431, 434

diabetes mellitus association,

II: 330–331, 334–335;

III: 2, 11–12, 125, 494–503

disease outcomes of exposure,

III: 6–15, 33–35, 38–43, 44–47, 48, 50, 71–105

early concerns about,

I: 17–19, 29–32, 35–36;

II: 26;

III: 25

environmental exposure studies,

I: 140–149, 184, 186, 189, 190, 193, 200–201, 221, 222, 234, 236, 241, 243, 287–288, 306, 312–313;

II: 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 249, 254–255, 258, 261, 263, 266, 269, 271, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282, 286, 289, 291, 293, 297, 302, 305–306, 309, 312, 314–316, 319, 321, 323, 325–326, 328–329, 334, 336, 338, 341, 344, 347, 349, 351, 354, 356–357, 361, 366, 369, 372, 375, 379, 382–383

Environmental Protection Agency research activities,

II: 32;

III: 29–30

evidence insufficient for determining association in health outcomes,

I: 13–14, 19, 247, 457, 460, 473–474, 512, 521, 571, 577–578, 605, 618, 624, 627, 630, 634, 657, 666, 691, 699, 708, 713, 727;

II: 7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 181–187, 189, 205, 210–211, 213, 217, 225, 228, 247, 282, 284, 285–286, 298, 300, 308–309, 310, 311, 314, 325, 329, 334–335, 337;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 132, 133, 286, 292, 304, 316, 322, 327, 332, 334, 346, 349, 351, 355, 390, 393, 444, 449, 453, 458, 473–474, 486, 491, 503, 507, 513, 518, 522;

IV: 268, 270, 274, 275, 279, 288, 289, 302, 305, 308, 311, 314, 318, 321, 323, 329, 336, 337, 342, 348, 374, 380, 384, 400, 403, 406, 407, 410–414, 416, 418, 424, 425, 426, 430–432, 441–443, 448, 454–457, 475, 480, 495, 500, 505, 506, 510, 512, 514

evidence limited/suggestive of association in health outcomes,

I: 10–12, 19, 247, 472, 519–521, 563, 574–576, 727;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 203, 223, 244, 298, 300, 314, 323;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 295, 299, 340, 342, 383, 393, 444, 458, 474, 482, 519;

IV: 7

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

evidence of no association in health outcomes,

I: 12–13, 224, 247, 447–451, 503, 521, 525, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21, 22, 97, 181, 227, 230;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 268, 273, 282, 359, 393–394, 522;

IV: 251, 256, 340, 351, 352, 385, 514

evidence sufficient of association in health outcomes,

I: 8–10, 246–247, 500, 548, 556–557, 572–574, 678, 682;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 208, 234, 236, 320;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 311, 366, 373, 374, 390, 392, 480, 519;

IV: 6

exposure assessment issues,

II: 4–5, 99–109;

III: 5–6, 135–162

federal government response to concerns over military use of in Vietnam,

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

female reproductive cancers association,

II: 211–213;

III: 7, 10, 330–334

gastrointestinal tract cancers association,

II: 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 268–282;

IV: 256

gastrointestinal ulcers association,

II: 334–335;

III: 510–514

hepatobiliary cancer and,

II: 2, 176, 181–187;

III: 7, 10, 282–288;

IV: 270;

V: 259–264

Hodgkin’s disease association,

II: 235–236;

III: 6, 7, 372–376;

IV: 367;

V: 355–361

immune system disorders and,

II: 327–329;

III: 3, 488–491;

IV: 480

immunotoxicity,

I: 122–123

infertility association,

II: 280–282;

III: 445–451;

IV: 407

International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities,

III: 30;

IV: 17, 133, 137–139, 252

laryngeal cancer and,

II: 202–203;

III: 292–295;

IV: 279

latency and cancer risk,

II: 13–14, 175, 260–276;

III: 3, 12–14, 265, 407–431

leukemia association,

II: 245–246;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 380;

V: 366–372

lipid abnormalities association,

II: 333–335;

III: 504–508, 520–521;

IV: 495

liver toxicity association,

II: 332–333, 334–335;

III: 510–514;

IV: 505

low birthweight and,

III: 456–458, 459;

IV: 416

lung cancer and,

III: 296–302, 421, 422, 423, 424;

IV: 284;

V: 272–278

mechanism of action,

II: 36;

III: 33, 38, 44, 47–48, 49–50, 53–71

mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 37

melanoma association,

III: 313–317;

IV: 306;

V: 287–295

metabolic and digestive disorders association,

II: 330–335;

III: 3

military research and development,

I: 25–26

military (US) use ban,

I: 32, 45;

VI: 182–186

motor/coordination dysfunction and,

II: 309–310;

III: 469–470

multiple myeloma assocation,

II: 237–244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 377–383;

IV: 512;

V: 361–366

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and,

II: 2, 176, 187–189;

III: 7, 10, 290–292;

IV: 275;

V: 264–268

neural tube defects associated with herbicides, numbers,

II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders and,

II: 305, 306, 314;

III: 3, 467, 468, 473–476;

IV: 457

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma association,

II: 231–234;

III: 6, 7, 362–371, 428–430;

IV: 358;

V: 343–355

occupational exposure settings,

I: 36–38;

III: 150–156

occupational exposure studies,

II: 113–140, 182–184, 186, 188–189, 190, 191–200, 214–216, 219–220, 222, 232–234, 235–236, 237–243, 286–287, 306, 312;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 268–271, 274–281, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 357–358, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496, 510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 114, 249, 251, 253, 255–257, 259, 262, 265, 268, 270–271, 273–274, 276–282, 285, 288–290, 292, 296, 300–303, 305–307, 309, 312, 315, 317–318, 321, 324–325, 327–329, 331–333, 336, 338, 340–342, 346–348, 351, 353, 356, 358–361, 364–365, 368–369, 371–374, 377, 379, 381, 383

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Operation Ranch Hand volume use, data by herbicide type,

III: 136

ovarian cancer association,

III: 333

perinatal death association,

II: 285–286;

III: 451–454, 455, 456;

IV: 413;

V: 421–422

porphyria cutanea tarda association,

II: 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 481–482;

IV: 468

preterm birth and,

III: 456–458, 459

prostate cancer association,

II: 2, 176, 217–223, 273–275;

III: 7, 8, 9, 335–343, 426–428;

IV, 10;

V: 316–324

renal cancer association,

II: 224–225;

III: 7, 10, 352–356;

IV: 348

reproductive toxicity,

I: 124;

II: 278–301;

III: 434–435

research recommendations,

II: 23–24;

III: 23;

IV: 13

respiratory cancers and,

II: 189–203, 268–273;

III: 7, 8, 9, 418, 420–426

respiratory disorders association,

II: 335–337;

III: 3, 483–486

skin cancers association,

II: 209–211;

III: 8, 10, 312;

IV: 305

soft-tissue sarcomas association,

II: 205–208;

III: 6, 7, 306–311;

IV: 384;

V: 282–287

spontaneous abortions association,

II: 283–284;

IV: 411;

V: 409–421

statistical association with diseases,

II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 124, 126–127;

V: 22–23

TCDD contamination of,

I: 2, 3, 27, 91–92, 114, 126–127;

II: 2, 3, 26;

III: 3, 4, 5, 140–142

testicular cancer association,

II: 227–228;

III: 7, 10, 343–347;

IV: 337;

V: 324–328

time-related factors and cancer risk,

II: 263–264, 270, 271, 273, 274;

III: 411–412, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429

toxicity profiles update,

II: 45–77;

III: 43–108

toxicokinetics,

II: 35, 36, 38–39;

III: 32–33, 36–37, 43–44, 47, 48, 50–53

toxicology,

III: 3–5, 32–110

types of,

I: 88

uterine cancer association,

III: 333

Vietnam use by US military,

I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 84–96, 98–107, 286;

II: 1, 2, 26–27;

III: 135–142

Vietnam veterans’ cancer risk and latency,

II: 276;

III: 12–13, 430–431

Vietnam veterans’ disease increased risk,

II: 14, 22–23, 88, 91, 298, 300–301, 321, 323;

III: 12–13, 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525;

IV: 2, 9, 12, 20, 103, 105–106, 124

Vietnam veterans’ exposure concerns,

II: 26–32

Vietnam veterans’ exposure studies,

II: 149–161, 185, 187, 189, 190, 201–202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216–217, 218, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 244, 245, 246, 278, 280, 283, 285, 286, 288–296, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 318–320, 321–323, 324–326, 327–329, 330–337;

III: 206–217, 236–245, 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 282–283, 287–288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358–359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 475, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 521;

IV: 249–250, 255–256, 259, 262, 264, 266–267, 269–270, 272, 275–276, 278–281, 283–284, 287, 289–292, 294, 296, 298–299, 301, 303–311, 313–314, 316–320, 322–327, 329–332, 334–336, 338–340, 342–343, 345, 347–348, 350, 352–353, 355–359, 362–364, 366–367, 370–371, 373–374, 376–378, 380–381, 383, 387–388;

VI: 182–191

See also 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D);

2,3,7,8–Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD);

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T);

Aerial spraying;

Agent Orange;

Agricultural herbicides;

Chemicals and chemical industry;

Defoliants;

Desiccant herbicides;

Domestic herbicide use;

Environmental herbicide exposure;

Ground/perimeter spraying;

Herbicide application methods;

Herbicide exposure assessment;

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Occupational herbicide exposure;

Phenoxy herbicides;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators;

Selective herbicides

HERBS tapes,

I: 20, 97–98, 602, 725;

II: 108–109;

IV: 123, 125;

VI: 190

contents,

I: 96–97, 273

deficiencies,

I: 97, 104–105

exposure assessment use,

I: 273–279, 287, 291;

III: 146, 148

source of,

I: 62, 85, 96

Hercules Inc.,

I: 35

1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD),

II: 64, 65, 67

2,2',4,4,'5,5'–Hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB),

II: 64, 65

Hexachlorophene,

I: 40;

II: 128;

III: 218, 219, 234;

IV: 133–135, 138, 148;

V: 104

HI. See Humoral immunity

High-density lipoprotein (HDLP) receptors,

II: 333, 334;

III: 501, 503, 520–521

Highway workers,

I: 326

Historic exposure reconstruction,

I: 17–18, 19–20, 254, 255–256, 725–726, 728;

III: 143;

IV: 126–127

HIV-I. See AIDS/HIV

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

II: 108;

IV: 228

Hodgkin’s disease (HD)

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 328, 329, 331, 335–336, 341, 550–553;

II: 138

biologic plausibility,

I: 557;

III: 377;

IV: 367;

V: 361;

VI: 319

chemical industry workers and,

I: 549–550

epidemiologic studies,

II: 138, 235–236;

III: 372–376;

IV: 199, 211, 212;

V: 357–360;

VI: 313–319

epidemiology,

I: 526, 527–528;

II: 231;

III: 371–372

herbicide association in,

I: 8, 9–10, 556–557, 574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 138, 235–236, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 372–376;

IV: 17;

V: 14, 355–361

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 384;

II: 236;

III: 373, 375;

IV: 366;

V: 358–359;

VI: 13, 16, 318

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 235–236;

III: 372–373, 374–375;

IV: 365;

V: 357–358;

VI: 318

histopathology,

I: 526–527

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 372;

IV: 365;

V: 355;

VI: 313

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

scientific literature update,

II: 235–236;

III: 372–373;

IV: 365;

V: 356

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 258, 526, 554–556;

II: 231, 236;

III: 372, 373, 376;

IV: 366;

V: 359–360, 361;

VI: 318

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

II: 24, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 319

See also Malignant lymphomas

Hoffman-Taff,

I: 40

Honolulu Heart Program, 461

Hormonal effects

Biologic plausibility,

VI: 394

Hormonal system

estrogen-mediated responses,

I: 145, 154

TCDD carcinogenesis and,

I: 116, 145

TCDD in,

I: 156–159;

IV: 71

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and,

I: 165

Hormones. See Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH);

Hormonal system;

Luteinizing hormone (LH);

Testosterone

Hourglass spray system,

I: 25

House Committee on Veterans Affairs,

II: 27;

III: 25

HR. See Halsted Reitan neuropsychologic test battery

H.R. 1565,

II: 28

HSP90. See Heat shock protein

Human health studies,

VI: 25–28, 47–51, 93–94

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I). See AIDS/HIV

Human milk. See Breast milk

Humoral immunity (HI)

TCDD and,

II: 69–70

HxCB. See 2,2',4,4,'5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB)

HxCDD. See 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin

Hydatidiform mole,

I: 30, 600–601

See also Reproductive disorders

Hydrocephalus,

I: 609, 611

See also Reproductive disorders

Hydrocortisone (HC),

II: 73

Hypercholesterolemia,

I: 690

See also Lipid and lipoprotein disorders

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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Hyperlipidemia,

I: 152–153, 688, 692

See also Lipid and lipoprotein disorders

Hypertension,

I: 705, 706, 707, 708;

IV: 135;

VI: 7, 469

See also Circulatory disorders

Hyperthyroidism

TCDD-induced,

I: 168

See also Metabolic and digestive disorders;

Thyroid homeostasis

Hypoglycemia

TCDD-induced,

I: 166–168

See also Metabolic and digestive disorders

Hypospadias,

I: 609, 611

See also Reproductive disorders

I

IARC. See International Agency for Research on Cancer

ICD. See International Classification of Diseases

Iceland,

III: 228, 319, 338, 339, 344, 353;

IV: 142, 312, 333, 338

Association of Vegetable Farmers,

III: 228

Cancer Registry,

III: 228, 338

Committee on Toxic Substances,

III: 228

Farmers’ Association of Iceland,

III: 228

Horticultural College,

III: 228

Horticulturist’s Association,

III: 228

Market Gardeners Association Pension Fund,

III: 228

National Registry,

III: 228

Register of Deaths,

III: 228

I Corps,

I: 52, 96, 98, 394, 493–494, 542, 543, 546;

II: 201;

III: 139, 140, 241

mortality study,

I: 233;

IV: 121

II Corps,

I: 542

III Corps,

I: 59, 104, 276, 281–282, 542, 543;

II: 228;

III: 148, 344;

IV: 125–126

IV Corps,

I: 81, 98, 542

IL. See Interleukin-1;

Interleukin-4

ILO. See International Labor Organization

Immune system disorders

2,4-D toxicity,

I: 181;

II: 41;

III: 46, 524;

IV: 197;

V: 37

biologic plausibility,

VI: 447–448

cell-mediated immunity,

II: 69–70

cellular immunity,

I: 147

endocrine system and,

I: 150–151

epidemiologic studies,

II: 327–329;

III: 488–491;

IV: 79, 195;

V: 484–485;

VI: 443–448

epidemiology,

II: 326–327;

III: 487

herbicide toxicity,

I: 122–123;

II: 7, 11, 21, 327–329;

III: 3, 488–491;

V: 483–485;

VI: 445–446

humoral immunity,

I: 147–148;

II: 69–70

immune modulation in,

I: 692–696, 698–699;

VI: 7, 39

macrophage function,

I: 148

picloram toxicity,

I: 192;

II: 41;

IV: 5

research methodology,

I: 692

scientific literature update,

II: 328–329;

III: 489–491;

V: 484;

VI: 445–446

suppression in,

I: 693;

II: 326, 329

TCDD toxicity,

I: 119–122, 146–151, 338;

II: 3, 40–41, 68–71, 328–329;

III: 85–92, 488, 489, 490, 491;

IV: 26, 31–32, 77–81;

V: 61, 74–75, 484, 517–518;

VI: 73–76

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 448

See also Allergies;

Autoimmune disease;

Autoimmunity;

Systemic autoimmune disease;

Systemic lupus erythematosus;

Viral infection

Immunoglobulin antibodies,

I: 693, 696, 697

2,4-D and,

IV: 31

Incineration

of Agent Orange,

I: 93–94;

IV: 116

of municipal waste,

V: 6

Incoordination. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

Indiana,

III: 47

Industrial accidents,

I: 316–317;

III: 224, 232–233

BASF,

I: 312–313, 444, 530, 550, 558;

III: 153, 221;

IV: 188–189

Nitro, West Virginia,

I: 38–39, 305–307, 597, 607, 686, 700;

III: 152–153, 220;

IV: 136

Industrial exposure,

VI: 177–181

Industrie Chimiche Meda Societa Anonima,

I: 43

Infant death. See Perinatal death

Infertility,

I: 631–634;

II: 7, 11;

V: 405–409

biologic plausibility,

II: 282;

III: 451;

V: 409;

VI: 372

epidemiologic studies,

II: 280;

III: 445–449, 450;

V: 409;

VI: 365–372

epidemiology,

II: 279;

III: 444–445

herbicide association in,

II: 278, 280–282;

III: 445–451;

IV: 405–409;

V: 405–409;

VI: 366–371

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

new studies summary,

II: 280–281;

III: 446–449, 450

scientific literature update,

V: 406–408;

VI: 366–371

Vietnam veterans and,

III: 445, 446, 450;

V: 408;

VI: 371–372

See also Reproductive disorders

Influenza,

I: 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Insecticides,

I: 87–88, 91

Insomnia. See Sleep disorders

Institute of Medicine (IOM),

I: 2, 20, 57, 62–64, 742, 743–744;

II: 1, 2, 17, 24, 25, 27;

III: 1, 2, 5–6, 17, 23, 24, 25, 125, 150;

IV: 1, 15, 126;

V: 1, 12–13;

VI: 2, 492

Interactions,

VI: 23, 58–59

Interagency Working Group on the Long-Term Health Effects of Phenoxyherbicides and Contaminants,

I: 46

Interleukin-1,

I: 148;

II: 59

Interleukin-4,

II: 70–71

Internal Revenue Service (IRS),

II: 152, 153

Social Security database,

II: 151;

III: 238;

IV: 151;

VI: 136

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),

I: 8, 12–13, 246, 264–265, 270, 313–314, 478, 479, 499, 565, 573, 577, 731;

II: 101, 107, 131–135, 178–179, 196, 206, 212, 215, 220, 226, 232, 269;

III: 20, 151, 175–177, 218, 222–223, 268, 269, 284, 290, 293, 296, 303, 306, 307, 308, 310, 311, 314, 319, 325, 326, 331, 337, 344, 348, 353, 357, 364, 378, 379, 386, 422–423, 424, 425, 429, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 17;

V: 14, 108–109, 136–140, 219–221;

VI: 13, 120, 123–124

herbicide exposure assessment in occupational studies,

III: 151–152, 154;

IV: 111, 137–139, 189–194, 252, 257, 259–260, 262–263, 265, 271, 276, 280, 290, 293, 296–297, 300, 306, 312, 318–319, 324–325, 333, 338, 341, 343, 348–349, 353, 359–360, 368, 374–375, 381;

VI: 171–172

Vietnam military use of herbicides, response,

III: 30

International Classification of Diseases (ICD),

II: 325;

III: 265;

IV: 248, 249;

V: 242, 531–533;

VI: 26, 201, 463, 571–574

ICD-9 cancer codes, SEER program site groupings for,

III: 537–539;

IV: 524–526;

VI: 572–574

International Labor Organization (ILO),

II: 324

International Register of Workers Exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Their Contaminants,

I: 313–314;

II: 131–135, 220, 232, 235, 238, 245;

III: 175–177, 218, 222–223

International Society of Exposure Analysis,

II: 25

Intracellular communication

TCDD and,

II: 3, 67–68

Intrahepatic bile duct cancers,

VI: 222

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR),

I: 625, 626;

III: 455, 457;

IV: 413–414;

V: 422

See also Reproductive disorders

Involuntary movements. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

IOM. See Institute of Medicine

Iowa,

I: 11, 37, 60, 318–319, 332, 333, 334–335, 374, 400, 447, 495, 534, 550, 560, 567, 603, 660, 677;

II: 8, 138–139, 219, 239, 248, 292;

III: 224, 229, 234, 243, 335;

IV: 140, 142, 143, 144, 149, 158, 210, 258, 261, 266, 290, 300, 334, 344, 349, 354, 361, 369, 375, 382;

V: 6, 117;

VI: 124–126, 133, 175, 384

Iowa Health Registry,

II: 138–139

See also Agricultural Health Study (AHS)

Ireland, Republic of,

II: 136, 230, 233, 242, 246;

III: 224–225, 363;

IV: 198

Agricultural Institute,

II: 136

Central Statistics Office of Ireland,

II: 136

IRS. See Internal Revenue Service

Irvine, California,

III: 533

Ischemic heart disease,

VI: 7

Israel. See Jerusalem, Israel

Italy,

I: 320–321, 338–341, 384, 486–487, 492, 523, 537, 552, 553, 561, 566, 632;

II: 183, 229;

III: 9, 224, 230, 232, 234, 235, 271, 284–285, 294, 297, 299, 337, 358, 364, 373, 379–380, 387, 388, 516;

IV: 133, 140, 144, 147–148, 149, 208, 212, 214, 230, 278, 282, 315, 325, 336, 341, 347, 351, 354, 357, 360, 368, 372, 375, 379, 381, 425, 430, 445, 464, 472, 501, 507;

V: 5, 117;

VI: 124–125, 181, 246, 476–477

Forli Province,

III: 230

National Statistics Institute,

II: 141

Novara Province,

III: 225;

IV: 197;

VI: 124

Piedmont area,

III: 224, 232;

VI: 125, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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See also Lombardy, Italy;

Mantua, Italy;

Milan, Italy;

Palermo, Italy;

Seveso, Italy

IUGR. See Intrauterine growth retardation

J

Japan,

II: 237;

IV: 414;

V: 6, 436;

VI: 47, 91, 134, 203

Jerusalem, Israel,

V: 508–509

Job exposure matrix,

I: 256

Johnston Island,

I: 93

Joint cancer. See Bone/joint cancer

Judgment, role of,

VI: 31

K

Kansas,

I: 9, 37, 335–336, 487, 490, 550;

II: 231;

III: 363;

IV: 215, 260, 297, 361, 369, 446

Kaposi’s sarcoma,

I: 338, 487, 695;

IV: 144, 214

See also Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Khe Sanh-Thonh Son Lam area,

I: 96;

III: 140;

IV: 121

Kidney cancer

biologic plausibility,

III: 356;

IV: 348;

V: 338;

VI: 293

children and,

I: 628;

IV: 417, 420, 428

epidemiologic studies,

I: 515;

II: 224–225;

III: 352–355;

IV: 346–348;

V: 335–338;

VI: 292–296

epidemiology,

I: 513, 514;

II: 223;

III: 351–352;

IV: 345–346

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 11, 20, 139–140, 224–225, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 352–356;

IV: 342, 346–348, 385;

V: 333–338

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 353, 354;

IV: 347;

V: 336, 337

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 353, 354;

IV: 346;

V: 334, 335, 337

histopathology,

I: 513

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 352;

IV: 334, 345–346;

VI: 292

risk factors,

I: 514;

IV: 342, 345;

V: 338

scientific literature update,

II: 224–225;

III: 353, 355;

IV: 346–347;

V: 334, 337;

VI: 293

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 522;

II: 223, 224, 225;

III: 353, 355;

IV: 348;

V: 338;

VI: 296

See also Genitourinary cancers;

Wilm’s tumor

Kidneys

2,4-D toxicity in,

I: 125, 179–180;

II: 42;

IV: 28, 37, 42, 43, 66, 68, 73, 76;

V: 518

arsenic toxicity in,

IV: 39

cacolydic acid toxity in,

II: 42;

IV: 387

Korean War,

II: 150;

III: 237;

IV: 150;

VI: 135

See also South Koreans

L

Laos,

I: 106

Large-cell lymphoma,

V: 430

Laryngeal cancer,

I: 461, 470–471;

II: 202–203;

IV: 277–280;

V: 268–272;

VI: 230–234

biologic plausibility,

III: 295;

IV: 279;

V: 271–272;

VI: 234

epidemiologic studies,

III: 293–295;

IV: 277–278, 280–281;

V: 270–271;

VI: 232–233

epidemiology,

III: 292;

IV: 277

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

V: 270;

VI: 233

herbicide exposure and,

III: 293–295;

IV: 9, 277–278;

V: 268–272

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

III: 293–294;

IV: 277–278;

V: 270;

VI: 231–233

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 292;

IV: 277;

VI: 231

larynx,

IV: 6, 8, 9

scientific literature update,

III: 293–294, 295;

IV: 277–278;

V: 269;

VI: 231–234

TCDD association with,

V: 5

Vietnam veterans studies,

III: 294–295;

IV: 278;

V: 269;

VI: 233–234

See also Respiratory cancers

Latency effects in cancer studies,

I: 231–232, 434, 435, 436–438, 494, 495, 727;

II: 2, 13–14, 175;

III: 3, 12–14, 266, 407–408

aging effects control,

II: 261–262;

III: 409

arsenic and,

II: 268;

III: 420

asbestos and,

II: 268;

III: 420

data limitations,

III: 413, 414, 415, 416

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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data requirements,

II: 264, 265, 266;

III: 412, 414, 415, 416;

IV: 283

epidemiological studies, analysis of,

II: 261–266;

III: 408–412

epidemiological studies, new,

III: 419;

IV: 148, 254, 256, 269, 293, 329, 473, 483, 484, 506

gamma rays and,

II: 268;

III: 418

literature review results,

II: 266–267;

III: 416–418, 420–424, 426–427, 429;

IV: 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 297, 333, 343, 353, 368, 375

measurement errors,

II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

mortality and incidence studies for examining,

II: 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429

nickel and,

II: 269;

III: 420

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

III: 428–430

potential problems with,

II: 264, 265, 266;

III: 413, 414, 415, 416

prostate cancer,

II: 273–275;

III: 426–428

radon daughters and,

II: 268;

III: 418

random misclassification and,

II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

relative risks,

II: 264, 265, 266, 271, 275, 351;

III: 412, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 426–427, 428, 430–431

respiratory cancer,

II: 268–273;

III: 418, 420–426;

IV: 284, 285;

VI: 2

smoking and,

II: 268;

III: 418;

IV: 250, 273

time-related factors,

II: 262, 263–264;

III: 411–412, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429;

IV: 464, 465

Vietnam veterans, relevancy for,

II: 276, 351;

III: 12–13, 430–431;

IV: 466

See also Cancer

Lawn care,

I: 119, 177–178;

IV: 274

LDL. See Low-density lipoprotein receptors

Leather tanners,

I: 486, 514

Legal issues

Agent Orange manufacturers’ liability,

I: 34–35

federal government liability,

I: 34

South Korean Vietnam veterans,

I: 62

Times Beach, Missouri,

I: 41;

IV: 133

Legislation

epidemiologic studies on Agent Orange,

II: 28;

III: 26

federal,

I: 45–60;

III: 26–27

health care associated with Agent Orange,

II: 28

Public Law 91-441,

I: 47, 62

Public Law 96-151,

I: 50, 52, 57;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 97-72,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 98-181,

I: 51

Public Law 98-542,

I: 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Public Law 99-272,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 100-687,

I: 51

Public Law 101-239,

I: 51

Public Law 102-4,

I: 2, 7, 20, 21, 51, 572, 721, 728–730;

II: 1, 5, 17, 19, 29, 97, 247;

III: 1, 6, 14, 17, 20, 124, 132, 390, 397, 462, 475, 519, 525;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 103, 132, 388;

VI: 1, 7, 11, 20, 341

Public Law 102-585,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 103-452,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 104-110,

III: 26

Public Law 104-204,

III: 24, 26

Public Law 104-262,

III: 26

Public Law 105-114,

III: 25

Public Law 107-103,

VI: 1

Veterans’ Education and Benefits Expansion Act of 2001,

VI: 1

Veterans’ Health Programs Extension and Improvement Act of 1979,

III: 240

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

I: 47, 50–51, 55–56;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Leiomyosarcomas,

I: 475

See also Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Lethality. See Deaths

Leukemia

acute lymphocytic leukemia,

III: 383, 384;

IV: 377;

V: 366

acute myelogenous leukemia,

IV: 417–429, 432;

V: 16, 366

acute myeloid leukemia,

III: 383–384;

IV: 9, 377;

V: 366

agricultural workers and,

I: 13, 332–333, 334–335, 566–568;

II: 136;

III: 387–388;

IV: 140, 143–144, 216

biologic plausibility

I: 571;

III: 390;

IV: 380–381;

V: 372, 376;

VI: 333, 337

categories of herbicide association in,

V: 7

children and,

I: 628;

IV: 18, 417–424

chronic lymphocytic leukemia,

III: 384–385;

IV: 208, 211, 377, 417, 422;

V: 7, 366–367, 372–376;

VI: 15–16, 334–337

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

chronic myeloid leukemia,

III: 384, 385;

IV: 377–378, 417;

V: 367

epidemiologic studies,

I: 564–572;

II: 136, 245–247;

III: 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 149, 198;

IV: 379–380, 381–383, 418–422, 427–429;

V: 369–372;

VI: 325–337

epidemiology,

I: 564;

II: 245;

III: 383–385;

IV: 377–378

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 571, 577–578;

II: 7, 11, 20, 245–247, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 379–380, 385, 418–422;

V: 366–372

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 388–389, 392;

IV: 379, 419–420;

V: 368, 370–371;

VI: 332

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 386–388, 391–392;

IV: 379, 418–419;

V: 368, 369–370;

VI: 331–332

incidence, data by type/race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 384;

IV: 377–378;

V: 367;

VI: 326

production workers and,

I: 564–566;

III: 386–387;

IV: 379

pulp/paper workers and,

I: 568;

IV: 379

risk factors,

I: 564;

V: 372

scientific literature update,

II: 245–246;

III: 386–389;

IV: 379–380, 418–422;

V: 368, 371;

VI: 331–333, 335

Seveso, Italy, studies,

I: 13, 568–570, 571, 577;

III: 385, 386, 388–389, 390;

IV: 379

TCDD biologic plausibility in,

I: 571;

III: 390;

IV: 380–381, 426

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 564, 570, 571–572;

II: 245, 246;

IV: 381, 426;

V: 372;

VI: 333, 337

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 385, 386, 389, 392;

IV: 373, 380, 420–422;

V: 371;

VI: 332–333

Lewy bodies,

V: 464;

VI: 410

Leydig cells,

II: 71, 279;

III: 445;

IV: 405;

V: 405

LH. See Luteinizing hormone

Li-Fraumeni syndrome,

V: 283;

VI: 246

Lindane,

I: 91

Lipid and lipoprotein disorders,

I: 688–690, 692;

IV: 492–497

biologic plausibility,

III: 507;

IV: 495;

V: 498;

VI: 459–463

epidemiologic studies,

I: 45;

II: 333, 334;

III: 504–506, 520–521;

IV: 479, 493–494, 496–497;

V: 494, 498;

VI: 457–463

epidemiology,

II: 333;

III: 503–504;

IV: 492–493

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 520;

IV: 493–494;

V: 496;

VI: 458

herbicide exposure association with,

II: 7, 21, 333–334;

III: 504–508, 520–521;

IV: 493–494

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 520;

IV: 493–494;

V: 495–496;

VI: 458–459

scientific literature update,

II: 334;

III: 504–506, 520, 521;

IV: 493–494;

V: 494;

VI: 458–459

TCDD in,

I: 152–153, 259–260;

II: 333, 334;

III: 505, 506, 507;

IV: 471, 474, 493–495;

V: 498

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 333;

III: 505–506, 521;

IV: 494;

V: 496–498;

VI: 463

See also Hypercholesterolemia;

Hyperlipidemia;

Liver disorders;

Metabolic and digestive disorders

Liposarcoma. See Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Listeria

TCDD exposure and,

II: 68

Literature, identifying,

VI: 20–22

See also Data sources;

Scientific literature update;

specific topics

Liver cancer

background,

IV: 267

biologic plausibility,

IV: 270

children and,

I: 628

epidemiologic studies,

I: 453–455;

IV: 268–270

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 457, 577;

IV: 143, 157, 385

incidence,

VI: 222

picloram in,

I: 190

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

risk factors,

I: 453

Seveso, Italy, studies,

I: 454–455;

IV: 269

TCDD in,

I: 116, 138–139, 142, 143;

IV: 267, 386–387, 515

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 391, 393, 455, 457;

IV: 269

See also Hepatobiliary cancers

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Liver disorders

2,4-D in,

I: 179;

III: 524;

IV: 505

2,4,5-T in,

II: 42;

III: 524;

IV: 500, 505

arsenic and,

IV: 39–41

biologic plausibility,

III: 513–514, 524;

IV: 505;

V: 502

enzyme activity,

I: 155–156, 685–687, 691–692

epidemiologic studies,

I: 45;

II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 502;

VI: 463–466

epidemiology,

II: 331–332;

III: 509–510;

IV: 498–500

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501

herbicides in,

I: 125;

II: 332–333;

III: 510–514;

IV: 135, 139, 141, 500–505

picloram chronic toxicity,

I: 191–192;

II: 42;

III: 524

scientific literature update,

II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 500–501;

VI: 465–466

Seveso, Italy, studies,

I: 367;

IV: 501–502

TCDD in,

I: 115, 124, 129–130, 151–156, 165–166;

II: 42, 331–333;

III: 509;

IV: 25–30, 34, 37, 41–44, 56–60, 66–73, 77, 83, 498–505;

V: 499–500, 516–517

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 332;

III: 512–513;

IV: 502–504;

V: 501

See also Hepatomegaly;

Lipid and lipoprotein disorders;

Metabolic and digestive disorders

Lombardy, Italy,

II: 147, 299;

IV: 329

Low birthweight

biologic plausibility,

III: 458;

IV: 416–417;

V: 425;

VI: 382–383

definition,

I: 625;

IV: 413–414;

V: 422

epidemiologic studies,

III: 456–457, 459;

IV: 414–416;

V: 425;

VI: 379–383

epidemiology,

I: 625–626;

III: 454, 455, 456;

IV: 413–414

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 627–628;

II: 7, 11, 20;

III: 456–458, 459;

IV: 413–417;

V: 422–425

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 459;

IV: 414–416;

V: 423;

VI: 381–382

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 459;

IV: 414–416;

V: 423;

VI: 380–381

risk factors,

I: 625–626;

IV: 412;

V: 425

scientific literature update,

III: 457, 459;

IV: 414–416;

V: 423–424;

VI: 380–382

Vietnam veterans exposure studies,

III: 457, 459;

IV: 417;

V: 423–424, 425;

VI: 382, 383

See also Preterm delivery (PTD);

Reproductive disorders

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors,

I: 154–155;

II: 333, 334;

III: 503;

IV: 489, 492

Ludwigshafen, Germany,

III: 153, 154, 269, 297, 484, 511

Lumber industry

lumberjacks pesticide exposure,

V: 5

sawmill workers herbicide exposure,

III: 10, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 114, 142, 290, 296, 306, 307, 312, 333, 338, 343, 368, 404, 408, 418, 419, 422, 427;

V: 225;

VI: 177

See also Forests

Lung cancer

2,4-D in,

I: 177

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 466;

IV: 142

biologic plausibility,

III: 302;

IV: 284;

V: 278;

VI: 241

cacodylic acid and,

I: 187;

IV: 24;

V: 21

environmental exposure studies,

III: 297–298, 301;

IV: 282–283;

V: 275–276;

VI: 240

epidemiological studies,

II: 139;

III: 296–298, 300–301;

IV: 157, 210, 278, 282–284, 285–287, 473;

V: 274–277;

VI: 234–241

epidemiology,

III: 295–296;

IV: 281

herbicide association in,

I: 472;

II: 6;

III: 296–302;

IV: 282–284;

V: 21

herbicide/pesticide applicators and,

I: 326, 466–468;

II: 139;

IV: 142

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups,

III: 296;

IV: 281;

VI: 235

latency and,

III: 421, 422, 423, 424

occupational exposure studies,

III: 296–297, 300–301, 421, 423;

IV: 142, 144, 282;

V: 274–275;

VI: 235–239

paper/pulp mill workers and,

I: 364, 468

production workers and,

I: 461–466;

III: 421, 423;

IV: 282

Ranch Hands,

IV: 9, 283

scientific literature update,

III: 296–298;

IV: 282–284;

V: 273, 277;

VI: 235–240

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Seveso, Italy, studies,

I: 469;

III: 296, 297–298, 299, 422;

IV: 278, 282–283

TCDD and,

V: 277

TCDD association with,

V: 5

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 469–470, 472;

III: 298, 301, 424;

IV: 283, 284;

V: 278;

VI: 240–241

See also Respiratory cancers

Luteinizing hormone (LH),

II: 182, 279, 280, 281;

III: 41, 72–73, 444–445;

IV: 34, 399, 405;

V: 405

Lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia

Lymphopoietic cancers,

V: 5

M

Maine,

I: 60, 400, 603;

II: 292;

III: 243;

IV: 158

Malathion,

I: 87, 88, 91

Male reproductive function. See Infertility

Malignant lymphomas

2,4-D exposure and,

I: 119, 177–178

epidemiology,

II: 231;

IV: 137, 140, 143

See also Hodgkin’s disease (HD);

Multiple myeloma (MM);

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)

Malignant neoplasms of heart. See Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Mammary gland effects,

VI: 81

See also Breast cancer

Mangrove forests,

I: 31, 62, 90, 104

See also Forests

Manitoba, Canada,

II: 135–136, 232, 242, 246;

IV: 198

Mantua, Italy,

V: 229, 283

March of Dimes,

II: 286;

III: 435;

IV: 400;

V: 393;

VI: 355

Marine Corps. See US Marine Corps

Maryland. See Baltimore, Maryland;

Fort Detrick, Maryland

Massachusetts,

I: 60, 400–401, 405–406, 445, 470, 496, 602–603, 613, 620, 621, 622;

II: 202, 291;

III: 243, 244, 303, 310, 315, 339, 346, 349, 353;

IV: 158, 291, 298, 299, 308, 334, 339, 345, 350, 363

Cancer Registry,

III: 244

Mast cells,

I: 693

Maternal toxicity,

VI: 396

no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL),

V: 35

MC-1 spray system,

I: 25

MCMI. See Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

MCPA. See 4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid;

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid

MCPP. See 2-[4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy]-propanoic acid

Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System,

I: 735

Mekong Delta,

II: 104

Melanomas

biologic plausibility,

III: 317;

IV: 305;

V: 295;

VI: 260

epidemiologic studies,

III: 313–317;

IV: 299–302, 306–308;

V: 288–294;

VI: 251–261

herbicide association with,

III: 313–317;

IV: 302–308;

V: 287–295

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 316;

IV: 302, 303;

V: 291–292;

VI: 256

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 316, 317;

IV: 302;

V: 288, 289, 290, 291, 292;

VI: 254–256

incidence of,

III: 313, 315;

IV: 299–300;

VI: 252

morbidity studies,

VI: 257–258

mortality studies,

III: 314–315, 316;

IV: 306–307;

V: 291–292;

VI: 255–256

scientific literature update,

III: 314–315;

IV: 302–304;

V: 290, 292;

VI: 254–259

Vietnam veterans studies,

III: 316, 317;

IV: 303–306;

V: 288, 289, 292, 293–294;

VI: 256–259, 261

See also Basal/squamous cell skin cancer;

Skin cancer

Melatonin, TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and,

I: 165

Meta-analysis,

I: 243, 244;

VI: 25

Meta risk ratio (MRR),

IV: 253, 265, 267n

Metabolic and digestive disorders

biological plausibility,

II: 335;

III: 513–514;

IV: 505;

V: 502

epidemiological studies,

II: 330–331, 332–335;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 502;

VI: 463–466

epidemiology,

III: 508;

IV: 498–500

herbicides association in,

II: 7, 11, 21, 330–331, 332–335;

III: 3, 510–514;

IV: 500–505

herbicides occupational exposure and,

III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501;

V: 500–501

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

scientific literature update,

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 500–501

Vietnam veterans and,

III: 510, 512–513;

IV: 502–504;

V: 502

See also Diabetes mellitus;

Hyperthyroidism;

Hypoglycemia;

Lipid and lipoprotein disorders;

Ulcers, gastrointestinal

Metabolism

energy of,

VI: 40

and half-life studies,

VI: 51–54

Methodological bias

biological stored samples, analysis,

I: 20–21, 729–730

cancer studies,

I: 436

controlling for,

I: 33, 226–227, 234–235, 242–246;

IV: 105, 108–109

healthy worker effect,

I: 230

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 17, 257–259, 286–287, 291, 724

latency studies,

II: 263–264;

III: 408–412

proportionate mortality studies,

I: 233

recall bias,

I: 256, 601

reproductive outcome studies,

I: 591–592, 601

self-reports,

I: 270–271;

II: 109, 150

See also Methodology

Methodology

Agent Orange Study,

I: 58–59, 63–64;

II: 2

Agent Orange Working Group,

I: 19, 728

Alsea, Oregon, investigation,

I: 372–373, 598

American Legion Agent Orange study,

I: 602

assessment of strength of evidence,

I: 238–241;

II: 88–97;

III: 124–133

BASF study,

I: 312–313

biologic plausibility,

II: 88, 92;

III: 124, 128

burden of proof approach,

I: 226–227, 245

cancer expected incidence,

I: 439–440

cancer studies,

I: 435–440, 442–443, 445;

II: 175, 176;

III: 265–266

case-control studies,

I: 234–235, 256–257, 326–341;

II: 94–95;

III: 130;

VI: 9

case reports,

I: 235–236

Centers for Disease Control Birth Defects Study,

I: 611–612

Centers for Disease Control epidemiologic studies,

I: 19, 387–393, 498, 728

circulatory disease studies,

I: 699–700, 705–706, 707;

II: 335;

IV: 11, 463, 502, 506

cohort studies,

I: 229–232, 254–256, 318–323;

IV: 8–13, 28, 43, 46, 111, 114, 123–161 passim, 182–247 passim, 251–253, 256–388 passim, 402, 409, 418–422, 425–431, 473–474, 478–479, 483, 486–492, 500–509

confidence intervals,

I: 244;

IV: 19, 43, 251, 278, 342, 385, 419, 445, 472, 483, 515

consistency in,

VI: 26

controlled observational studies,

I: 228

Department of Veterans Affairs studies,

I: 393–399, 494–495;

IV: 1, 15, 133, 151, 157–158, 255, 284, 399, 421

disease latency effects,

I: 231–232, 434, 436–438, 494, 495, 727;

II: 351–357

dose-response relationship,

I: 239–230, 252;

II: 89;

IV: 40

Dow studies,

I: 307–312

epidemiologic studies evaluation,

I: 300–301;

II: 93–94;

III: 129–130;

IV: 103–109, 132–161, 182–247

evidence categories,

I: 227–237;

III: 132;

IV: 103–109 passim

experimental studies evaluation,

II: 92–93

health outcome categories for herbicide association,

I: 5–8, 223–225, 246–247;

II: 97;

III: 132;

IV: 6–12

herbicide environmental exposure assessment,

I: 262–263, 269–270;

III: 156–157

herbicide exposure, statistical association with diseases,

II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 126–127;

IV: 103;

V: 22–23

herbicide exposure assessment strategies,

I: 251–259, 270–287;

III: 144–145

herbicide exposure reconstruction model evaluation,

I: 18, 289–290, 726;

II: 25

herbicide occupational exposure assessment,

I: 262–264, 269–270;

III: 150–156

immune system research,

I: 692

indirect adjustment,

I: 229

information management,

I: 735–738

judgment in,

I: 245–246;

II: 96;

III: 131–132

latency and cancer studies,

II: 261–266, 351;

III: 407–416

meta-analysis,

I: 225, 237–238, 242–243

neurological assessment,

I: 14, 641–642, 649

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

neuropsychiatric studies,

I: 657

new evidence integration,

II: 96;

III: 132

NIOSH studies,

I: 303–305;

II: 350–351, 356, 357;

IV: 111, 136

Nitro, West Virginia, industrial accident studies,

I: 305–307

NRC Commission on Life Sciences,

I: 63

odds ratio determination,

I: 234, 239;

II: 90;

III: 126–127;

IV: 105

Office of Technology Assessment,

I: 19, 728

paper/pulp mill worker studies,

I: 341, 364

publication bias,

II: 95–96;

III: 131;

IV: 108;

V: 27–28

Ranch Hand study,

I: 230–231, 385–386, 498, 757–762

random misclassification and latency,

II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

relative risk assessment,

I: 229, 239, 258;

II: 90, 351, 356;

III: 126, 127;

IV: 105

reproductive outcome studies,

I: 591–592

respiratory disease studies,

I: 708–709, 712–713;

II: 324

risk assessment,

I: 225–226;

II: 89;

III: 127–128

sample size and disease frequency,

I: 231, 242–243, 440, 499

Selected Cancers Study,

I: 234–235, 498

self-reports,

I: 270–271;

II: 109;

IV: 9, 113, 122, 125–126, 135, 141, 154–157, 159, 255, 262, 287, 297, 299, 304, 308, 310, 313, 320, 324, 325, 326, 335, 336–337, 339, 364, 380, 383, 402, 406, 418–419, 421–425, 484, 487, 492, 503–504, 507–509

soft-tissue sarcoma studies,

I: 482–490, 497–500

standardized mortality ratio,

I: 229–230

statistical significance/power,

I: 226–227, 243;

V: 23

TCDD biomarkers,

I: 259–262

Times Beach studies,

I: 368–370

toxicologic studies evaluation,

III: 128–129

type I error,

I: 243

type II error,

I: 243

Vietnam veterans disease risk estimation and latency,

II: 349–357

Vietnam veterans serum TCDD mean maximum estimation,

II: 349–350

See also Data sources;

Methodological bias;

Research needs;

Risk assessment methodology

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA),

I: 700;

V: 104

6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran,

I: 153

Michigan,

I: 374, 375, 383;

II: 113, 153, 161, 202, 308;

III: 159, 160, 218, 221, 234, 235, 243, 270, 357–358, 363, 373, 387, 388, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 133, 136, 149, 158, 231, 266, 335, 350, 355, 363, 368, 370, 381, 383, 414;

V: 117;

VI: 133

Department of Management and Budget’s Vietnam-era Bonus List,

II: 153, 161, 202, 208, 221, 225, 230, 234, 236, 246;

III: 308, 336, 353, 489

Department of Public Health,

II: 161

See also Detroit, Michigan;

Midland, Michigan;

Tecumseh, Michigan

Midland, Michigan,

III: 152, 221, 234;

IV: 149;

V: 117

Midwest Research Institute,

I: 29–30

Milan, Italy,

II: 243;

III: 232;

IV: 144

Military health care

Agent Orange legislation,

II: 28;

III: 26, 27

Department of Veterans Affairs activities,

II: 29;

III: 27

Military occupation specialty code (MOS),

II: 153;

III: 242

Military operations

Agent Orange surplus disposal,

I: 93–94

herbicide early research,

I: 25–26;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

herbicide (strategic) use ban,

I: 32, 45

herbicide use precautions,

I: 95

South Vietnam tactical zones,

I: 98

Vietnam distribution of personnel,

I: 81, 82

Vietnam herbicide applications,

I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 84–96, 98–107, 286;

II: 26–27;

III: 135–142;

V: 229–232;

VI: 182–186

Vietnam herbicides aerial spraying,

I: 27, 85–91;

II: 26;

III: 135, 137, 138;

VI: 185

Vietnam herbicides ground spraying,

I: 94–96;

II: 26;

III: 138–140;

VI: 185

Vietnam herbicides use early objections,

I: 29, 31–32;

II: 26–27

Vietnam troop movements,

I: 52–53, 96, 273–279, 287

Vietnam US involvement,

I: 75–76, 84

See also Military records;

Operation Ranch Hand

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Military personnel. See Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Foreign veterans;

Military health care;

Military occupation specialty code (MOS);

Military operations;

Military records;

Operation Ranch Hand;

US Air Force;

US Army;

US Army Chemical Corps (ACC);

US Coast Guard;

US Marine Corps;

US Navy;

US Special Forces;

Vietnam veterans;

Women veterans

Military records,

I: 742–743

herbicide exposure assessment use,

I: 271–280, 287–288;

II: 101;

III: 138, 140;

IV: 125

herbicide spray missions records,

I: 27, 62, 84–85, 104–106

HERBS tapes,

I: 62, 96–98;

III: 146, 148;

IV: 123–125

research recommendations,

I: 17, 724–725

Vietnam casualties,

I: 82–83

Vietnam herbicide ground spraying,

I: 94, 95;

IV: 110–111, 113–114

Vietnam service identification in,

II: 24–25, 175

Vietnam veterans in,

I: 75–80, 106;

II: 150–153

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI),

V: 449;

VI: 137, 406

Milk. See Breast milk

Minnesota,

I: 37, 326, 332, 333, 468;

II: 47, 137–138, 178, 199, 325;

III: 226–227, 229, 440–441;

IV: 144, 210, 286, 306, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382;

VI: 126, 128

Department of Agriculture,

II: 137;

III: 226, 440;

IV: 149

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory,

I: 641;

VI: 137, 407

Miscarriages. See Spontaneous abortion

Missouri,

I: 621, 626, 664–665, 681;

II: 280;

III: 500;

IV: 133, 135, 148, 227, 272, 404, 484, 487, 493

See also Times Beach, Missouri;

Verona, Missouri

Mitochondrial function,

VI: 40

Mixed-function oxidase activity,

I: 131, 155, 156

MM. See Multiple myeloma

MMA. See Pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid;

Trivalent monomethylarsonous acid

Mobility factor analysis,

VI: 183

Models and modeling. See Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models

Monsanto Company,

I: 34, 35, 38, 305–307, 444, 674, 700;

II: 114–115, 179, 182, 193, 204, 207, 220, 236;

III: 152, 171–172, 220, 348;

IV: 136, 185–186, 257, 260, 271, 290, 301, 333, 343;

V: 106–107, 131–132;

VI: 122

Montagnards,

I: 31, 371, 599

Montana,

II: 268;

III: 420;

IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Mortality. See Child mortality studies;

Deaths;

Mortality studies;

Perinatal death

Mortality of Vietnam Veterans: The Veteran Cohort Study,

III: 273, 285–286

Mortality studies,

II: 130;

IV: 140, 141, 144, 146, 149, 156, 157, 159, 184–194, 252, 253

basal/squamous cell skin cancer,

III: 319, 321;

V: 296

cancer,

I: 442–445;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137, 185;

IV: 137, 140, 142, 143, 150, 199–200–206

circulatory disorders,

II: 335;

V: 504

death certificate data,

I: 236–237;

II: 136, 137–138

female reproductive cancers statistics,

II: 211

Finland respiratory cancer mortality and latency,

II: 271;

III: 422

Germany, in,

IV: 137, 138

latency results,

II: 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423

melanoma,

III: 314–315, 316;

V: 291–292

methodology,

I: 229–233, 435

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted by,

IV: 105, 136, 251

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and latency,

III: 429

prostate cancer and latency,

II: 273, 274, 275, 276;

III: 426, 427;

V: 319–321

Ranch Hand baseline mortality studies,

II: 151;

IV: 151–153

respiratory cancer mortality and latency,

II: 270, 271;

III: 421, 422, 423, 424

Seveso, Italy, children study,

II: 147;

IV: 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Seveso, Italy, males cancer mortality and latency,

II: 271, 275;

III: 422, 427;

IV: 148

standardized mortality ratio,

I: 229–230

women veterans,

II: 152–153, 201

See also Child mortality studies;

Deaths;

Perinatal death

MOS. See Military occupation specialty code

Motor/coordination dysfunction

epidemiological studies,

II: 309–310;

III: 469–470;

IV: 445–447;

VI: 410–422

herbicide association in,

I: 661–662;

II: 4, 7, 11, 21, 309–310;

III: 469–470;

IV: 443–447;

V: 452–465

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 658–659;

IV: 445–447

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

I: 658;

IV: 445–447

scientific literature update,

II: 309–310;

III: 470;

IV: 445–447

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 662;

II: 309, 310

See also Ataxia;

Dystonia;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurologic disorders;

Parkinsonism;

Stroke

Motor neuron disease,

V: 461

Motor/sensory/coordination problems,

I: 14, 658–662

Movement disorders. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

MPTP,

I: 661;

IV: 445, 448

MRR. See Meta risk ratio

Multiple myeloma (MM),

I: 331, 334, 335, 336, 341;

IV: 6, 8, 10, 144, 149

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 558–561;

II: 138–139, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 379–380;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility,

I: 563;

III: 383;

IV: 374;

V: 366;

VI: 325

epidemiologic studies,

I: 331, 334, 335, 336, 341, 557–563;

II: 138–139, 237–244;

III: 377–383;

IV: 199, 209, 211, 212, 215, 372–373, 374–376;

V: 363–366;

VI: 319–325

epidemiology,

I: 526, 528;

II: 236–237;

III: 377;

IV: 371–372

herbicide association in,

I: 10, 11–12, 563, 574, 576;

II: 6, 8, 20, 89, 236–244, 247;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 24, 377–383;

IV: 18, 143;

V: 14, 361–366;

VI: 15

herbicide environmental exposure and,

II: 241, 243;

III: 380, 382;

IV: 372–373;

V: 364–365;

VI: 324

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 237–243;

III: 378–380, 381–382;

IV: 372;

V: 363–364;

VI: 320

histopathology,

I: 527

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 377;

IV: 371–372;

V: 361;

VI: 320

paper/pulp workers and,

II: 143

production workers and,

II: 237–238;

III: 378–379;

IV: 373

risk estimates,

II: 240–241;

V: 366

scientific literature update,

III: 378–380;

IV: 372–373;

V: 362;

VI: 320–324

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

II: 24, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 563;

II: 231, 244;

IV: 374;

V: 366

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 380, 382;

IV: 373;

V: 365;

VI: 324

See also Malignant lymphomas

Myelogenous leukemia,

VI: 12, 15–16

Myeloid leukemia. See Leukemia

Myocardial fibrosis,

V: 505

Myocardial infarction,

I: 708;

IV: 135, 507–510

See also Cardiovascular system disorders;

Circulatory disorders

N

NAS. See National Academy of Sciences

Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer

biologic plausibility,

III: 292;

IV: 275;

V: 268;

VI: 230

clinical description,

I: 457–458

epidemiologic studies,

II: 6, 187–189;

III: 290–291;

IV: 143, 274–276;

V: 267;

VI: 226–230

epidemiology,

I: 458–459;

II: 187–188;

III: 288–289;

IV: 273

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 19, 460, 577;

II: 2, 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 187–189, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 290–292;

IV: 7, 11;

V: 264–268

herbicide environmental exposure and,

II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274–275;

V: 266;

VI: 229

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 188–189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274;

V: 266;

VI: 227

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 289;

IV: 273;

VI: 227

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

scientific literature update,

III: 290;

IV: 274–275;

V: 265–267;

VI: 227–230

TCDD association with,

V: 5

treatment,

I: 458

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 460;

IV: 275;

V: 268

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 275;

V: 266–267;

VI: 229–230

Nasal olfactory mucosa,

I: 130

National Academy of Sciences (NAS),

I: 2, 28–29, 31, 43, 47, 51, 55, 57;

II: 1, 17, 25, 29, 30, 63;

III: 1, 23, 28, 146;

IV: 1, 15;

V: 1, 12;

VI: 1, 1–12, 182

National Cancer Institute (NCI),

I: 9, 30, 37, 439;

II: 231;

III: 218, 363;

VI: 120

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS),

III: 266;

IV: 249

ICD-9 cancer codes, SEER program site groupings for,

III: 537–539;

IV: 524–526;

V: 243, 531–533;

VI: 572–574

National Death Index,

II: 130, 152, 153

National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG),

III: 492, 493

National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III (NHANES III),

III: 498

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS),

III: 499;

IV: 411

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),

I: 8, 12, 36–37, 260, 264, 270, 285, 303–305, 443, 478, 479, 499, 564, 573, 577, 650–651, 686, 731;

II: 13, 95, 101, 103, 105, 114–115, 128–129, 132, 178, 196, 206, 221, 229, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 280, 309, 322, 350–351, 356, 357;

III: 11, 12, 131, 144, 162, 170–171, 218, 219–220, 306, 310, 420, 421, 424, 425, 426, 428, 445, 449, 469, 481, 500, 502;

IV: 10, 111, 133–134, 136, 182–184, 251, 257, 260, 263, 265, 268, 270–271, 277, 280, 282–283, 288, 290, 292, 295, 297, 300, 327, 331, 333, 341, 343, 346, 349, 351, 353, 356, 358, 366, 368, 372, 375, 379;

V: 10, 104–106, 128–131, 218–219, 410, 419, 487;

VI: 53, 120–122, 167, 169–171, 282, 493

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS),

V: 526

National Institutes of Health (NIH),

I: 92

National Library of Medicine,

I: 735

National Medical Expenditures Survey (NMES),

III: 243;

IV: 238

National Occupational Mortality Surveillance System,

III: 231, 470

National Personnel Records Center,

I: 17, 77, 385, 724;

II: 150, 152;

III: 237, 242

National Research Council,

I: 20, 62–64

National Survey of the Vietnam Generation,

IV: 411

National Technical Information Service,

III: 29

National Toxicology Program (NTP),

I: 139–141;

IV: 284;

VI: 82, 225, 481

National Veterans Legal Services Project,

I: 60

National Vietnam Veterans Birth Defects/Learning Disabilities Registry and Data Base,

I: 741–742;

II: 292–293

National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study,

I: 79, 83, 655

Natural killer (NK) cells,

VI: 443

Nature,

IV: 511

Navy. See US Navy

NCHS. See National Center for Health Statistics

NCI. See National Cancer Institute

NDDG. See National Diabetes Data Group

Nebraska,

I: 9, 37, 332, 333–334, 535;

II: 139, 231, 233–234, 241;

III: 229, 363;

IV: 143–144, 211, 216, 360, 375, 382;

VI: 127–128

Nebraska Lymphoma Study,

II: 139

Neonatal death. See Perinatal death

Nerve conduction studies,

V: 466;

VI: 423

Netherlands,

I: 316–317, 323, 325–326, 443, 464, 468, 477, 558;

II: 132–133, 179, 196, 199, 220, 226, 232, 238, 243, 269;

III: 10, 223, 226, 230, 236, 348, 441–442, 490;

IV: 252–253, 256–257, 259–260, 262, 265, 293, 295–296, 302, 306, 333, 340, 343, 346, 348, 351, 353, 356, 358–360, 365, 368, 372, 374–375, 379, 381, 404–405;

V: 5;

V: 117;

VI: 127, 133, 181, 239, 242, 254, 259, 293, 331, 447, 468

Central Bureau of Statistics,

II: 133

herbicide exposure assessment,

III: 150–151

National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection,

II: 132–133

See also Amsterdam, Netherlands;

Rotterdam, Netherlands

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Neural tube defects,

II: 297;

III: 437–438;

IV: 18, 400–405;

V: 16, 399–400;

VI: 15

See also Birth defects;

Reproductive disorders;

Spina bifida

Neurasthenia,

I: 649;

IV: 440;

V: 447

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

Neurobehavioral toxicity

2,4-D,

I: 180;

II: 305;

III: 473, 474

biological plausibility,

II: 314;

III: 474–475;

VI: 409

definition,

II: 304

epidemiological studies,

II: 306, 307–308, 309–310, 311, 312–313, 314;

III: 467–473;

VI: 406–410

epidemiology,

II: 304–305, 307;

III: 466, 468

evidence in epidemiological studies,

II: 314;

III: 473–474

herbicide association,

II: 305–314;

III: 3, 467–475

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

II: 306;

III: 467

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 306;

III: 467

TCDD,

II: 305, 307–308, 309, 310–311, 314;

III: 469, 470–471, 474, 475;

IV: 25–26;

V: 71–72

Vietnam veterans increased risk,

II: 305, 306, 314;

III: 475–476;

VI: 410

See also Ataxia;

Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Depressive disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurologic disorders;

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders;

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD);

Stroke

Neuroblastoma,

I: 594;

V: 5

children and,

I: 628;

IV: 422, 425;

V: 425–432

Neurofibromatosis,

V: 283;

VI: 246

Neurologic disorders

2,4-D in,

I: 179;

II: 48;

III: 45–46, 473, 474

assessment issues,

I: 14, 641–642;

IV: 440–441

biologic plausibility,

III: 474–475;

IV: 457–459;

VI: 429–430

childhood cancer,

I: 628

classification of,

I: 640;

II: 304–305;

V: 447–448

cognitive/neuropsychiatric effects,

I: 649–658;

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–443;

V: 448–452

epidemiologic studies,

I: 44–45, 643–648;

II: 141, 305, 307, 309;

III: 467–473;

IV: 441–459;

VI: 6, 404–435

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 657, 661, 666;

III: 467–476;

IV: 441–459

herbicide occupational exposure studies and,

I: 649–651, 658, 662–663;

III: 467

motor/coordination dysfunction,

I: 14, 658–662;

III: 469–470;

IV: 443–448

neurotoxicity,

VI: 37, 72–73

peripheral nervous system disorders,

I: 662–666;

III: 470–473;

IV: 454–459

Seveso, Italy, studies,

I: 365–366, 523;

II: 141;

IV: 227

TCDD in,

I: 160–166;

II: 3, 75;

III: 84–85, 469, 470–471, 474, 475;

IV: 441–443, 445;

V: 60–61

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

I: 55

Vietnam veterans’ offspring and,

I: 609, 660

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 658, 662, 666;

III: 475–476;

IV: 459;

VI: 430–431

See also Chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy;

Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders

Neuropathies. See Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders

New Brunswick, Canada,

III: 234;

IV: 149

New Hampshire,

I: 341, 364;

III: 232;

IV: 146, 222

New Jersey,

I: 656, 695;

II: 280;

III: 243, 500;

IV: 158, 483, 487, 493

Agent Orange Commission,

I: 60, 280–281, 401–402, 741;

II: 292

See also Newark, New Jersey

New Mexico,

I: 60, 402;

III: 243;

IV: 159

New York,

II: 202;

IV: 149, 159, 230, 291, 298, 355, 364, 371;

V: 429;

VI: 60, 364–365, 402–403, 444, 470, 495, 626

See also Binghamton, New York;

Camp Drum, New York

New York City,

V: 5

New Zealand,

I: 329–331, 373, 486, 490, 535–536, 552, 560–561;

II: 132, 134, 242;

III: 226, 229;

IV: 113, 142, 143, 149, 206, 215, 216, 297, 361, 369, 375, 404;

VI: 127, 133, 176

See also Northland, New Zealand

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Newark, New Jersey,

II: 128–129;

III: 219, 220;

IV: 134–135;

V: 105

NHANES III. See National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III

NHIS. See National Health Interview Survey

NHL. See Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Nickel, respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 269;

III: 420

NIEHS. See National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

NIH. See National Institutes of Health

NIOSH. See National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Nitro, West Virginia

industrial accident,

I: 38–39, 305–307, 597, 607, 686, 700;

II: 287;

III: 152, 220, 318;

IV: 136

NK. See Natural killer cells

NMES. See National Medical Expenditures Survey

No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL),

V: 35

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)

2,4-D in,

I: 256–257

age of onset,

I: 436

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 530–540;

II: 135, 138, 139, 232–234;

III: 364–365;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility,

III: 366;

IV: 358–359;

V: 355;

VI: 312

cytogenetic studies,

III: 365–366

epidemiologic studies,

I: 328, 329, 330, 331, 333–334, 335–338, 383, 384, 391–393, 401, 528–540, 573–574;

II: 134–135, 138, 139, 231–234;

III: 362–371;

IV: 116, 137, 199, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 294, 356–358, 359–364;

V: 5, 345–355;

VI: 303–312

epidemiology,

I: 526, 527;

II: 231;

III: 362;

IV: 355–356

herbicide association in,

I: 8–10, 548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 102, 108, 231–234, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 362–371;

IV: 6, 8, 17, 384, 422, 425;

V: 14, 343–355;

VI: 16

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 365, 369;

IV: 149, 357;

V: 5, 347–348, 351–354, 430–431;

VI: 13, 310–311

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 232–234;

III: 363–365, 367–369;

IV: 142, 143–144, 146, 356;

V: 344, 345–347, 350–351;

VI: 310

histopathology,

I: 526

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 362;

IV: 355–356;

V: 344;

VI: 303

latency issues,

III: 428–430

paper/pulp workers and,

I: 540

production workers and,

I: 9, 529–530, 548;

II: 232;

III: 363–364, 429

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

scientific literature update,

II: 232–234;

III: 363–366;

IV: 356–358;

V: 344, 350–351;

VI: 310–312

Selected Cancers Study and,

I: 234–235

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 9, 401, 526, 541–548, 549;

II: 231, 234;

III: 363, 365, 370–371;

IV: 156–157, 357–358, 359;

V: 348–350, 354, 355

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

I: 51, 55–56;

II: 24, 29, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 312

See also Malignant lymphomas

Nonmelanoma skin cancer. See Basal/squamous cell skin cancer;

Skin cancer

North America,

II: 197;

III: 510

North Carolina,

IV: 202;

V: 6;

VI: 125–126, 175

See also Agricultural Health Study (AHS)

North Dakota,

IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Northeast Pharmaceutical and Chemical Corporation,

I: 40

Northland, New Zealand,

III: 234;

IV: 149;

VI: 133

Norway,

III: 10, 225, 442–443;

IV: 197, 209, 404;

VI: 125, 133

Central Population Register,

III: 225, 442

Medical Birth Registry,

III: 225, 442

Population Registry,

III: 236

See also Frierfjord, Norway

NTP. See National Toxicology Program

Null hypothesis,

I: 225

O

Occupational herbicide exposure,

I: 5, 303;

VI: 9, 120–129, 169–177

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 312;

IV: 10

agricultural/forestry workers,

II: 183–184, 197–198, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 284–285, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 112–113, 140–142;

VI: 124–128, 174–175

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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basal/squamous cell skin cancer and,

III: 321, 323;

IV: 309;

V: 296, 297, 298–299

birth defects and,

II: 286–287;

III: 437;

IV: 404;

V: 394–395;

VI: 362

bladder cancer and,

III: 348, 350;

IV: 341–342;

V: 329, 330

bone/joint cancer and,

III: 303, 305;

IV: 288–289;

V: 280

brain tumors and,

III: 357–358, 360;

IV: 351;

V: 340–341;

VI: 301

breast cancer and,

II: 214–216;

III: 324–326, 328;

IV: 317;

V: 301, 302, 304

breast cancer estimated risk,

II: 218;

V: 300–301

cancer mortality,

I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137

cancer risk factor,

I: 442;

II: 133–135

cervical cancer and,

III: 332

childhood cancer,

IV: 418–419, 427

circulatory disorders and,

III: 515–516;

IV: 506–507;

V: 503;

VI: 467–468

colon cancer and,

V: 250–251

diabetes mellitus and,

III: 496;

IV: 483–484;

V: 487–491;

VI: 450

epidemiologic studies,

I: 303–365;

II: 3, 6–7, 113–140;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 268–271, 274–280, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 357–358, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496, 510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 134–147, 251–254, 257–258, 259–260, 262–263, 265–266, 268–269, 276, 277–278, 280, 285–286, 290, 292–293, 306, 307, 312, 318–319, 324, 325, 333–334, 338, 343–344, 348–349, 353–354, 359–361, 368–369, 374–375, 381–382, 404, 408, 418–419, 427, 445, 446, 473–474, 483–484, 489–490, 500–501, 506–507;

V: 104–115;

VI: 120–124, 496–539

exposure assessment strategies,

I: 253–256, 258–259, 262–267, 269–270;

II: 5, 99–101, 107–108;

III: 144–145, 150–156

exposure indices development,

II: 107–108;

III: 161–162

female reproductive system cancers and,

III: 332–333;

IV: 321;

V: 311, 312, 313

gastrointestinal/digestive disorders and,

III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501;

V: 245;

VI: 465–466

gastrointestinal tract tumors and,

II: 178–179;

III: 268–271, 274–280;

IV: 251–254;

V: 245;

VI: 219

hepatobiliary cancer and,

II: 182–184, 185, 186;

III: 282–283, 284, 287;

IV: 268–269;

V: 261

Hodgkin’s disease and,

II: 235–236;

III: 372–373, 374–375;

IV: 365–366;

V: 357–358;

VI: 318

immune system disorders and,

III: 489, 491;

VI: 445

infant death and,

III: 456

infertility and,

III: 450;

IV: 406–407;

VI: 366

laryngeal cancer and,

III: 293–294;

IV: 277–278;

V: 270;

VI: 231–233

leukemia and,

III: 386–388, 391–392;

IV: 198, 379;

V: 368, 369–370;

VI: 331–332

lipid abnormalities and,

III: 520;

IV: 114–115, 117, 493;

VI: 458–459

low birthweight and,

III: 459;

IV: 414–416;

V: 423;

VI: 380–381

lung cancer and,

III: 296–297, 300–301, 421, 422, 423, 424;

IV: 282;

V: 274–275;

VI: 235–239

melanoma and,

III: 316, 317;

IV: 302;

V: 288, 289, 290, 291, 292;

VI: 254–256

multiple myeloma and,

II: 237–243;

III: 378–380, 381–382;

IV: 372;

V: 363–364;

VI: 320

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and,

II: 188–189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274;

V: 266;

VI: 227

neonatal death and,

III: 455

neural tube defects numbers,

II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders association studies,

II: 306;

III: 467

non-Hodgkin’s disease and,

II: 232–234;

III: 363–365, 367–369, 429;

IV: 356;

V: 344, 345–347, 350–351;

VI: 310

ovarian cancer and,

III: 333

production workers,

II: 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 420, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 111–112,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

134–140, 251–254, 271, 282, 288–289, 296–297, 302, 321, 327–329, 336, 340–341, 346–347, 351, 356, 365–366, 372, 379;

VI: 120–124, 169–174

professional herbicide/pesticide applicators,

II: 198–200;

III: 182–185, 226–228;

IV: 113–114, 142–143, 404

prostate cancer and,

II: 219–220, 222;

III: 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 426, 427;

IV: 327–329;

V: 319–320;

VI: 280

pulp/paper workers,

I: 37–38, 267, 341, 364, 443, 447, 454, 468, 516, 523, 540, 561–562, 568;

II: 126–127, 184, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 114, 134, 252, 268

renal cancers and,

III: 353, 354;

IV: 346–347

research recommendations,

I: 15–16, 731

respiratory cancers and,

II: 190, 191–200;

IV: 282

respiratory disorders and,

III: 483–485;

IV: 473–474

sawmill workers,

III: 10, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 114

skin cancer and,

III: 312;

IV: 300, 301;

VI: 254–256

soft-tissue sarcomas,

II: 206–207;

III: 308–309;

IV: 292–293;

V: 284–285;

VI: 246

stillbirths and,

III: 454

stomach cancer and,

V: 247–248

testicular cancer and,

III: 344, 345;

IV: 336;

V: 326

thyroid homeostasis and,

VI: 479–480

uterine cancer and,

III: 333

Vietnam veteran exposure vs.,

I: 4, 285, 290

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides

Occupations. See Agricultural/forestry workers;

Highway workers;

Leather tanners;

Paper/pulp industry workers;

Production workers;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators;

Railroad workers;

Tannery workers

Odds ratio,

I: 224, 234;

II: 90;

III: 126–127;

IV: 105;

V: 22;

VI: 3, 22

Office of Technology Assessment,

I: 19, 50, 52, 57, 728;

II: 28;

III: 26

OGTT. See Oral glucose tolerance test

Ohio,

I: 336, 550

See also Hancock County, Ohio

Olshan, Andrew,

III: 25

Ontario, Canada,

II: 199;

V: 5, 305, 414, 435

Ontario Farm Family Health Study,

V: 414, 435

Operation Ranch Hand,

I: 3, 4, 15, 16–17, 24, 74;

II: 5, 14, 18, 23, 54, 251, 293;

III: 6, 11, 12, 22, 23, 37, 50, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139;

IV: 13, 18, 117–119, 150–156, 160–161;

V: 10, 18;

VI: 4–6, 17, 51, 120, 134–138, 182, 220, 233, 240, 258–259, 291, 301–302, 311–312, 318, 324, 332, 406, 450, 455, 480

application techniques,

I: 25, 85–86, 87–88;

IV: 120–122

Army Chemical Corps and,

IV: 123–124

birth defects in offspring of,

IV: 18, 403–404, 408, 430;

V: 16

categorization based on potential exposure,

V: 120

chloracne and,

IV: 8, 464–466

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

V: 465–466

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders,

V: 449–451

continuation of,

IV: 21, 160–161

diabetes mellitus,

V: 491–492

epidemiological studies,

II: 31, 32, 150–152, 154–156;

III: 28–29, 237, 438–439, 498;

IV: 9, 10, 150–156, 255, 262, 269, 272, 275–276, 278, 280, 283–284, 287, 291, 295, 298–299, 301, 303–305, 308–310, 313, 327, 329, 331–332, 334–336, 339, 342–343, 345, 347, 350, 352, 355, 357, 359, 362–363, 366, 370, 373, 376, 380, 383, 430–431, 435, 474, 479, 480, 485–488, 494, 502–504, 508–510;

V: 118–123, 177–181;

VI: 135–138, 187–188

exposure assessment,

V: 232–233

herbicide formulations,

I: 88–91;

V: 230

herbicide surplus disposal,

I: 93–94

herbicide volume used, data by type,

III: 136

neurological disorders in,

IV: 442, 454–455, 459

number of military personnel in,

I: 94, 273

objectives,

I: 85

operations data,

I: 86, 87, 92, 106–107

porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT),

IV: 466–467;

V: 480

questionnaires, self-administered,

II: 109, 151;

IV: 124

research recommendations,

V: 524

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

spontaneous abortion,

V: 418

start of,

I: 84, 85

suspension of,

I: 27, 31, 32, 92–93;

II: 109

targeting procedures,

I: 86

TCDD half-life in,

IV: 24, 28, 43;

VI: 90

thyroid homeostasis and,

V: 513

See also Air Force Health Study (AFHS)

Operational Report Lessons Learned,

IV: 125

Oral, nasal, and pharyngeal cancer. See Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT),

III: 498, 500

Oregon,

I: 336–337, 341;

II: 149;

III: 230, 232, 234;

IV: 149, 231;

V: 117;

VI: 129–133

See also Alsea, Oregon

Outreach activities

Vietnam Veterans and,

II: 31;

III: 28

Ovarian cancer,

I: 338–339, 506, 510–511;

III: 333;

V: 313;

VI: 79–80

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 512;

II: 6;

III: 333;

IV: 320–323, 326, 385;

VI: 224

See also Reproductive system cancers, women

P

P450,

I: 130, 144–145, 170, 709;

II: 56, 70, 72, 74, 76;

III: 220;

IV: 27, 41–42, 47–48, 50–52, 54–55, 58–60, 63, 65, 67–69, 72–76, 78;

V: 379

PACER HO,

I: 93

PAI-2. See Plasminogen activator inhibitor

Palermo, Italy,

V: 462

Pancreatic cancer,

VI: 72, 217–219

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Paper/pulp industry workers,

VI: 119–120, 177

cancers in,

I: 443, 454, 468, 516, 523, 540, 568;

II: 200;

IV: 114, 134, 252, 268

chemical exposures in,

I: 37–38, 267;

III: 155–156;

IV: 134, 252

epidemiologic studies,

I: 38, 341, 364;

II: 126–127, 184, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 134, 221–223, 252, 268;

V: 114–115, 166–167, 225;

VI: 128–129

hepatobiliary cancer,

II: 184

multiple myeloma and,

II: 243

Parkinson’s Disease (PD). See Parkinsonism

Parkinsonism,

I: 661;

II: 140, 149, 309–310;

III: 469–470, 475;

IV: 144, 443–445, 448, 458;

V: 6, 453–461, 524;

V: 453–461;

VI: 6

biologic plausibility,

VI: 419–420

epidemiologic studies,

V: 454–459;

VI: 410–420

herbicide association in,

V: 453–460, 464

scientific literature update,

V: 460–461;

VI: 411–420

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

VI: 420

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction

Parma, Italy,

IV: 445

See also Italy

PBPK. See Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCDDs. See Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

PCDFs. See Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

PCMR. See Proportionate cancer mortality ratio

PCP. See Pentachlorophenol

PCT. See Porphyria cutanea tarda

PD. See Parkinson’s Disease

Pennsylvania,

I: 60, 403, 562;

II: 244;

III: 243;

IV: 186

1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PnCDD),

II: 64, 65

2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF),

II: 64, 65

Pentachlorophenol (PCP),

II: 320;

III: 221, 511, 516;

IV: 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 285, 290, 296, 338, 353, 359, 368, 381

Pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA),

V: 39

Pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA),

V: 39

Pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD)

TCDD and,

II: 64

PEPCK. See Hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase

Peptic ulcer disease,

VI: 464

Perimeter spraying. See Ground/perimeter spraying

Perinatal death

biologic plausibility,

III: 453, 458;

IV: 413;

V: 422;

VI: 379

definitions,

I: 618–619;

II: 284;

III: 451;

IV: 412

descriptive epidemiology,

I: 619–620;

II: 284–285;

III: 451

epidemiological studies,

I: 620–624;

II: 285–286;

III: 451–453, 454, 455, 456;

V: 421–422;

VI: 378–379

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 624;

II: 7, 11, 20, 278, 285–286;

III: 451–454, 455, 456;

IV: 413;

V: 421–422

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 454, 455, 456

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 454, 455, 456

risk factors,

I: 619–620;

V: 422

scientific literature update,

II: 285;

III: 452–453, 454, 456;

V: 421–422;

VI: 379

TCDD biologic plausibility in,

I: 624;

V: 422

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 285;

III: 454, 455, 456;

IV: 413;

V: 422;

VI: 379

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders,

I: 55, 662–666;

II: 304, 312;

IV: 440;

VI: 426–427

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy,

II: 2, 6, 89, 311–314;

III: 7, 8, 473;

IV: 10, 18, 457–459;

V: 14, 16, 27

biologic plausibility,

V: 470–472;

VI: 428

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy,

II: 89, 310–311;

III: 470–472;454–456;

VI: 6

diagnosing,

V: 467–468

epidemiological studies,

II: 310–311, 312–314;

III: 470–473;

IV: 135, 454–455, 457;

V: 465–470;

VI: 423–429

herbicide association with,

I: 666;

II: 2, 6, 10, 11, 21, 89, 310–314;

III: 7, 8, 21, 470–473;

V: 454–457, 465–469;

VI: 15

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 663–665;

II: 312–313

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

I: 662–663;

II: 312

methodology,

II: 311–312

scientific literature update,

II: 310–311;

III: 471, 473;

IV: 454–455, 457;

V: 466–467, 469;

VI: 426–427

Seveso, Italy, residents and,

II: 312–313

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 666;

II: 311, 313;

IV: 457, 459;

VI: 429

See also Chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurologic disorders

Pesticide/herbicide applicators. See Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Pesticides. See Agricultural herbicides;

Desiccant herbicides;

Fungicides;

Herbicides;

Insecticides;

Phenoxy herbicides;

Selective herbicides

Pharmacokinetics

2,4-D,

I: 175

2,4,5-T,

I: 182

cacodylic acid,

I: 186–187

picloram,

I: 190

TCDD,

I: 127–133, 260–261, 284;

II: 53–54;

III: 161;

IV: 41, 42, 47

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome,

I: 162–166

See also Toxicokinetics

Phenoxy herbicides,

I: 8, 9, 10, 11, 27;

III: 150, 151, 154, 222, 223, 422, 423, 429;

V: 3, 5

action of,

I: 27;

IV: 16

IARC registry and,

IV: 137

See also Herbicides

Phenoxyacetic acid,

V: 415

Phenoxyenolpyruvate carboxykinase,

I: 172

Phenoxypropionic acids,

I: 327

Philadelphia chromosome,

V: 367

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model,

V: 32

Phytar 560-G,

I: 89

Picloram,

I: 88, 90, 91;

II: 4;

III: 5, 19, 135, 136, 137, 218;

IV: 5, 117–119, 133;

V: 1, 3;

VI: 1, 3, 11, 20–21, 118–119, 201, 276, 436

acute toxicity,

I: 191

animal studies,

I: 189–192;

III: 50, 396, 460

biologic plausibility,

III: 460, 524;

IV: 426

carcinogenicity,

I: 118, 119, 190–191;

II: 40;

III: 396;

V: 40

chemical properties/structure,

I: 111, 114–115, 189;

II: 38;

III: 32

chronic exposure,

I: 191–192

developmental/reproductive toxicity,

I: 192;

II: 42;

III: 460;

IV: 416, 426, 431, 434–435

domestic use,

I: 189

genotoxicity,

I: 191

immunotoxicity,

I: 122–123, 192;

II: 41

liver toxicity,

I: 125;

II: 42;

III: 524

metabolism,

I: 115, 116

neurologic effects,

V: 40

pharmacokinetics,

I: 190;

IV: 27–28

toxicity profile update,

II: 51;

III: 50;

IV: 22–24, 31, 33–34, 40–41;

V: 40, 79;

VI: 33–34, 90

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136;

IV: 117

PKC. See Protein kinase C

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Plantation workers. See Agricultural/forestry workers

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-2),

II: 74

Plasmodium, TCDD exposure and,

II: 68

Plausibility. See Biologic plausibility

Pleurisy,

I: 711, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

PMR. See Proportionate mortality ratio

PnCDD. See 1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

PnCDF. See 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-furan

Pneumoconiosis,

I: 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Pneumonia,

I: 710, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

PNS. See Peripheral nervous system disorders

Pointman Project,

I: 60, 280, 401–402, 656

Poland,

VI: 380

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

II: 64, 67, 68, 182, 329;

III: 236, 515;

IV: 138, 399;

V: 27, 305, 478

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs),

I: 126, 327;

II: 53, 64, 133, 149, 320, 329;

III: 153, 154, 156, 160, 221, 223, 236, 511, 515, 516;

IV: 111–112, 114;

V: 487, 503;

VI: 131, 167, 172

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs),

II: 53, 64, 68, 149, 320, 329;

III: 153, 154, 160, 223, 236;

VI: 131, 167, 172

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils,

I: 148

Population characteristics. See Age and aging;

Deaths;

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Gender;

Perinatal death;

Race/ethnicity

Porphyria,

I: 153–154

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)

biological plausibility,

II: 323;

III: 482;

IV: 468;

V: 480;

VI: 440

clinical features,

I: 679;

IV: 466–467;

V: 479

epidemiologic studies,

I: 680–682;

II: 6, 129, 321–323;

III: 481–482;

IV: 194, 467–468;

V: 480;

VI: 439–440

epidemiology,

II: 321;

III: 480–481;

IV: 10, 466–467

herbicide association in,

I: 10, 682;

II: 5, 6, 10, 20, 129, 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 20, 24, 481–482;

IV: 17, 18, 135, 183, 467, 468;

V: 14;

VI: 13, 15

scientific literature update,

II: 322–323;

III: 482;

IV: 467–468;

V: 480;

VI: 439–440

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

I: 50, 55;

II: 24, 28–29, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 682–683;

II: 321, 322, 323;

III: 481, 482;

IV: 468;

V: 480;

VI: 439–440

See also Skin sensitivity

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),

I: 397–398, 653–656, 658;

II: 304, 308;

IV: 440;

V: 447;

VI: 379–383

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

PR. See Prevalence ratio

Prague, Czech Republic,

III: 224

Preterm delivery (PTD),

III: 454, 455, 456–458, 459;

IV: 400, 413, 416, 432;

V: 422–425;

VI: 379–383

See also Low birthweight

Prevalence ratio (PR),

V: 460

PROD. See Pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase

Production workers

bladder cancer,

I: 513–517;

IV: 341–342

brain cancer,

I: 523;

IV: 351

cancer mortality,

I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134, 270, 273, 274;

III: 423, 426, 429;

IV: 251, 268

chemical industry production workers studies,

I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 171–175, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238, 273–274, 275;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 422, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 270, 292;

V: 3

chloracne,

I: 674–676

circulatory disorders,

I: 700–701;

IV: 506–507

diabetes mellitus,

I: 684;

IV: 483–484

epidemiologic studies,

I: 36–37, 303–318;

II: 113, 114–118, 128–135, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387;

IV: 182–197, 300, 312;

V: 105–109, 128–142, 218–222;

VI: 119–124, 169–174

female reproductive/breast cancer,

I: 508–510;

IV: 317, 321

gastrointestinal tract cancers,

I: 447;

IV: 251–254

gastrointestinal ulcers,

I: 691

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

German herbicide employees, exposure assessment,

II: 4–5, 105, 108;

III: 423, 429

hepatic enzyme dysfunction,

I: 686, 687

hepatobiliary cancers,

I: 453–454, 455;

II: 182–183;

III: 284;

IV: 268–269

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 264–265;

II: 103, 105, 107–108;

III: 150–154

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 9;

IV: 365–366

immune system disorders,

I: 697–698

international register of workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides,

II: 131–135;

III: 175–177, 222–223

latency and cancer,

II: 269, 270, 272, 273–274, 275;

III: 422, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 284, 293

leukemia,

I: 564–566, 570–571;

III: 386–387;

IV: 379

lipid abnormalities,

I: 688–689;

IV: 493

multiple myeloma,

I: 557–578;

II: 237–238;

III: 378–379;

IV: 372

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancers,

I: 458, 459;

IV: 274

neurologic/neuropsychiatric disorders,

I: 649, 650–651, 662–663

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 9, 529–530, 548;

II: 134, 135, 232;

III: 363–364, 429;

IV: 356

porphyria cutanea tarda,

I: 680;

II: 129

prostate cancer,

I: 518;

II: 273–274, 275;

III: 426, 427;

IV: 327–329

renal cancer,

I: 515;

IV: 346–347

reproductive outcomes,

I: 596–598, 607, 620, 621

respiratory cancer,

I: 10, 461–466, 471;

II: 191, 193–197, 269, 270, 272;

III: 423;

IV: 282

respiratory disorders,

I: 709–710;

IV: 273–274

skin cancer,

I: 502;

IV: 300, 301

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 8, 477–479, 499;

II: 132, 134–135, 206–207;

IV: 292–293

testicular cancer,

I: 519;

IV: 336

See also Industrial accidents

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

cancer in,

I: 320–321, 323, 325–326, 443, 447, 466–468, 488, 491;

II: 137–138, 198–200;

III: 422;

IV: 321, 327–328, 330, 336

cohort studies,

IV: 202–206;

V: 112–113;

VI: 125–127

epidemiologic studies,

I: 323–326, 447, 466–468;

II: 120–126, 137–140;

III: 182–185, 226–228;

IV: 142–143, 144–145;

V: 224–225;

VI: 119

Finland respiratory cancer mortality and latency,

II: 271;

III: 422

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 266–267;

II: 107–108;

III: 155;

IV: 113–114

reproductive outcomes,

I: 324–325;

IV: 410

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

Prolactin,

I: 165

Proportionate cancer mortality ratio (PCMR),

II: 179, 183, 197–198, 203, 204–205, 207, 210, 212, 216, 219, 224, 226, 227, 229, 233, 235, 246

Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR),

I: 232–233;

II: 161, 180, 185, 208, 225, 230, 234, 236, 242, 246;

III: 417–418, 428;

IV: 253, 369

Prostate cancer

biologic plausibility,

III: 343;

IV: 332;

VI: 282–283

epidemiologic studies,

I: 518–519;

II: 6, 219–223;

III: 335–342;

IV: 202, 327–329, 330–331, 333–335;

V: 319–323;

VI: 275–283

epidemiology,

I: 513, 514–515;

II: 217, 219;

III: 334;

IV: 326–327

herbicide association in,

I: 10, 11, 519–521, 575–576;

II: 2, 6, 8–9, 20, 89, 217–223, 247;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 335–343;

IV: 6, 8, 10, 18;

V: 14, 316–324;

VI: 15

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

II: 221, 222;

III: 336, 338, 342;

IV: 329;

V: 320–321, 322;

VI: 281

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 219–220, 222;

III: 335–336, 337, 338, 341;

IV: 202, 327–329;

V: 319–320;

VI: 280

histopathology,

I: 513

incidence, data by race, for selected age groups,

III: 334;

IV: 249, 326–327;

V: 317;

VI: 276

latency issues,

II: 13, 14;

III: 426–428

morbidity and mortality,

VI: 277–280

mortality and latency,

II: 273, 274, 275;

III: 426, 427;

V: 319–321

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727;

V: 524

risk, estimated,

II: 222–223;

V: 324

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

scientific literature update,

III: 336–339;

IV: 74, 327–331;

V: 318, 322;

VI: 280–281

Seveso, Italy, male mortality and latency,

II: 275;

III: 336, 338, 427;

IV: 329

TCDD association with,

V: 63–64;

VI: 79

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 11, 518, 519, 522;

II: 221, 223;

III: 343, 431;

IV: 332;

V: 324;

VI: 283

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 336, 338, 339, 340, 342;

IV: 329;

V: 321, 322;

VI: 281

See also Genitourinary cancers

Protein kinase C (PKC),

II: 4, 52, 59, 60, 61, 62;

III: 65–67, 105;

IV: 69–71, 72

Psychiatric disorders

assessment for,

I: 641

epidemiological studies,

I: 649–657

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 657;

IV: 135, 151

posttraumatic stress disorder,

I: 397–398, 653–656, 658;

IV: 440

PTD. See Preterm delivery

PTSD. See Posttraumatic stress disorder

Public concern,

I: 1, 2, 23–24, 29–32, 35–36, 39

federal government response to,

I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

Public Law 91-441,

I: 47, 62

Public Law 96-151,

I: 50, 52, 57;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 97-72,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 98-181,

I: 51

Public Law 98-542,

I: 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Public Law 99-272,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 100-687,

I: 51

Public Law 101-239,

I: 51

Public Law 102-4,

I: 2, 7, 20, 21, 51, 572, 721, 728–730;

II: 1, 5, 17, 19, 29, 97, 247;

III: 1, 6, 14, 17, 20, 124, 132, 390, 397, 462, 475, 519, 525;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 103, 388;

V: 1–3, 12–13;

VI: 1, 7, 11, 20, 341

Public Law 102-585,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 103-452,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 104-110,

III: 26

Public Law 104-204,

III: 24, 26

Public Law 104-262,

III: 26

Public Law 105-114,

III: 25

Public Law 107-103,

VI: 1

Public meetings,

VI: 569–570

Publication bias,

VI: 30

Pulmonary system

TCDD absorption,

I: 129;

IV: 135, 156;

V: 71

toxicity in,

VI: 70

Vietnam veterans disorders,

I: 402

See also Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);

Respiratory cancers;

Respiratory disorders

Pulp. See Paper/pulp industry workers

Q

QSAR. See Quantitative structure-activity relationship models

Quail Run mobile home park,

I: 268, 369–370, 455, 665, 681, 687, 694;

II: 144, 184;

III: 200–201, 234, 283;

IV: 115, 148;

V: 116, 171–172

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models,

III: 106;

V: 27;

VI: 84

Questionnaires,

II: 109, 136, 150, 292;

IV: 111, 124

R

RA. See Retinoic acid

Race/ethnicity

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by race,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

VI: 326

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data by race,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

VI: 326

bladder cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 347;

IV: 340;

V: 328;

VI: 287

bone/joint cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 302;

IV: 288;

VI: 242

brain tumor incidence, data by race,

III: 356;

IV: 351;

V: 339;

VI: 297

breast cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 324;

IV: 314;

VI: 265

cancer studies and,

II: 179, 180, 181, 183, 214, 219, 227, 237;

IV: 249–250

cardiovascular disorders, adjusted by,

IV: 494, 507

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by race,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

VI: 326

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data by race,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

VI: 326

diabetes prevalence, data by race,

III: 492;

IV: 484–486, 492

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

female reproductive system cancer incidence and other effects, data by race,

III: 330;

IV: 321, 414, 421, 423, 429;

VI: 271

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by race and cancer type,

III: 267;

IV: 250;

VI: 204

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data by race,

III: 372;

IV: 365;

V: 355;

VI: 313

laryngeal cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 292;

IV: 273;

VI: 231

leukemia incidence, data by type and race,

III: 384;

IV: 378;

VI: 326

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancer incidence, by race,

III: 282;

IV: 267, 502;

VI: 222

lung cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 296;

IV: 281;

VI: 235

melanoma incidence, data by race,

III: 313;

IV: 300;

VI: 252

motor dysfunction, adjusted by,

IV: 444

multiple myeloma incidence, data by race,

III: 377;

IV: 372;

V: 361;

VI: 320

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 289;

IV: 273;

VI: 227

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data by race,

III: 362;

IV: 356;

V: 344;

VI: 303

prostate cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 334;

IV: 326–327;

VI: 276

renal cancers incidence, data by race,

III: 352;

IV: 346;

VI: 292

risk adjusted by,

IV: 135, 150–152, 154–156

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data by race,

III: 306;

IV: 292;

VI: 245

testicular cancer incidence, data by race,

III: 343;

IV: 335;

V: 324;

VI: 283

Vietnam veterans,

I: 81, 82, 83, 84;

II: 180

See also Alaskan natives;

Asian Americans;

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans

Radiation exposure,

I: 564, 595

Radon daughters

respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

Railroad workers,

I: 323–324, 467, 486, 649–650, 658;

IV: 206

Ranch Hand study. See Air Force Health Study (AFHS);

Operation Ranch Hand

RARb. See Retinoic acid receptor b

Ratio. See Odds ratio

Reagan, Ronald,

III: 26

Rectal cancer,

VI: 214–216

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Registries. See Agent Orange Registry (AOR);

Dioxin Registry;

European registry;

National Vietnam Veterans Birth Defects/Learning Disabilities Registry and Data Base

Regression analysis,

II: 281

Relative risk,

I: 224, 229, 230, 239, 258;

II: 90, 178, 264, 265, 266, 271, 275, 297, 351, 356;

III: 126–127, 412, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 426–427, 428, 430–431;

IV: 83, 105, 138, 142, 153, 254, 277, 278, 282, 284, 303, 310, 315, 321, 322, 329, 331, 332, 366, 373, 379, 424, 447, 472, 500;

VI: 3, 22

Relevant literature, identifying,

VI: 20–22

Renal cancer. See Kidney cancer

Renal toxicity

cacodylic acid and,

II: 50–51

TCDD and,

II: 77;

III: 75–76;

IV: 76–77

Reproductive disorders,

VI: 6, 354–403

2,4-D in,

I: 180–181;

II: 42, 280–282;

III: 46, 460, 461–462;

IV: 416

2,4,5-T in,

I: 185;

II: 42, 280–282, 287;

III: 462;

IV: 404;

IV: 416

animal studies,

I: 123–124;

III: 460–462;

IV: 426, 431–435

biologic plausibility,

II: 300;

III: 444, 451, 453, 458, 460–462;

IV: 416, 426

cacodylic acid in,

I: 189;

II: 42;

IV: 403, 407, 411, 413, 416, 431, 435

epidemiologic studies,

III: 436, 437–438, 443, 445–449, 450, 451–453, 454, 455, 456–457, 459;

IV: 135, 153, 209, 227, 228, 233, 431;

IV: 416, 426;

VI: 354–403

herbicide association in,

I: 13–14, 605, 634;

II: 6, 7, 278–279, 300–301;

III: 3, 434–435, 436–444, 445–454, 455, 456–458, 459;

IV: 135

male-mediated,

I: 593–595;

III: 444–451;

IV: 413

methodological approach to study of,

I: 591–592

occupational risk factors,

I: 594–595;

IV: 399–400, 402, 404, 408, 418–419

picloram in,

I: 192;

II: 42;

III: 462;

IV: 403, 413, 416, 431

Ranch Hand study,

I: 758–762;

II: 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458;

IV: 233

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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research recommendations,

I: 727

TCDD in,

I: 123–124, 156–159;

II: 3, 41–42, 71–72, 282, 285–286;

III: 92–105, 446–449, 460–461, 462;

IV: 26, 81–82, 416;

V: 64–65, 72–73

Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk,

II: 278, 298, 300–301;

III: 444, 462;

IV: 417, 426, 431;

VI: 398

See also Birth defects;

Cervical cancer;

Endometrial cancer;

Hypospadias;

Infertility;

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR);

Low birthweight;

Neural tube defects;

Ovarian cancer;

Perinatal death;

Preterm delivery (PTD);

Reproductive system cancers, women;

Sex ratio;

Sperm parameter disorders;

Spontaneous abortion

Reproductive system cancers, women,

I: 13, 14, 505–512, 577;

II: 6;

IV: 320–326;

V: 309–316;

VI: 79–81

biologic plausibility,

III: 334;

IV: 323;

V: 316;

VI: 275

epidemiologic studies,

I: 508–512;

II: 211–213;

III: 330–334;

IV: 321–326;

V: 311–316;

VI: 270–275

epidemiology,

I: 505, 506–508;

II: 211;

III: 329–330;

IV: 320–321

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 14, 512, 577;

II: 6, 11, 20, 211–213, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 330–334;

IV: 7, 11, 323, 385;

V: 309–316

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 333;

IV: 321–322, 325, 326–329, 334;

V: 311, 312, 313, 314

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 332–333;

IV: 321;

V: 311, 312, 313

histopathology,

I: 506

incidence and mortality statistics,

II: 211;

III: 329–330;

IV: 321;

VI: 270–271

scientific literature update,

II: 212;

III: 331–332;

IV: 321–324;

V: 313–315;

VI: 271

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 512;

II: 211, 213;

III: 334;

IV: 323–324;

V: 316;

VI: 275

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 333;

IV: 322–323;

V: 311, 312, 313, 314–315

See also Breast cancer;

Cervical cancer;

Ovarian cancer;

Reproductive disorders;

Uterine cancer

Reproductive toxicity,

VI: 38–39

Request for Proposals (RFP),

II: 25, 26;

III: 6, 126, 150;

IV: 5, 126–127

Research

Department of Veterans Affairs efforts,

II: 29–30;

III: 27–28;

IV: 151, 157–58

experimental studies update,

II: 43–45

herbicide exposure and cancer latency, literature review,

II: 266–275;

III: 416–431

herbicide exposure assessment strategies, recent literature,

II: 104–109;

III: 157–162;

IV: 5

publication bias,

II: 95–96;

III: 131;

IV: 108;

V: 27–28

See also Research needs

Research needs

age and aging,

V: 10

biomarkers,

I: 17, 725;

II: 25

cost of,

I: 727

health outcome priorities,

I: 19, 726–727

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 4, 15, 16–17, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 724–728

herbicide occupational exposure data,

I: 731

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 19, 727

military records,

I: 17, 724–725;

II: 24–25

motor/coordination dysfunction,

I: 660–661

neurobehavioral functioning,

I: 657

recommendations for,

I: 15–21, 721–731;

II: 23–24;

III: 23;

IV: 13;

VI: 10, 491–493

research management,

I: 16, 17–18, 723–724, 726

risk assessment,

I: 731

serum mandated testing,

I: 21, 730

Vietnamese population studies,

I: 731;

VI: 10, 491–493

Respiratory cancers

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 466;

II: 197–198

arsenic and, latency,

II: 268;

III: 420

asbestos and, latency,

II: 268;

III: 420

epidemiologic studies,

I: 461–472;

II: 189–203;

IV: 274–275, 276, 277–278, 280, 285–287

epidemiology,

I: 460–461;

II: 189–191;

IV: 273–274, 277, 281

Finland male herbicide/pesticide applicators mortality and latency,

II: 271;

III: 422

gamma rays and, latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

herbicide association in,

I: 10–11, 19, 574–575;

II: 6, 8, 20, 89;

II: 189–203, 247, 269–273;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 24;

IV: 6, 8, 18, 275, 279, 284;

V: 14;

VI: 15

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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herbicide environmental exposure and,

II: 190, 193, 200–201;

IV: 274–275, 278, 282–283

herbicide occupational exposure and,

II: 190, 191–200;

IV: 274, 277, 282

latency issues,

II: 13–14, 268–273;

III: 418, 420–426;

VI: 2

literature review,

II: 269–272;

III: 420–424

nickel and, latency,

II: 269;

III: 420

paper/pulp workers and,

I: 468–469;

II: 200

production workers and,

I: 461–466;

II: 191, 193–197;

III: 420, 422, 423, 429;

IV: 277, 282

professional herbicide/pesticide applicators,

II: 198–199

radon daughters and, latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

relative mortality and latency,

II: 270;

III: 421, 422, 423, 424

risk estimates,

II: 190, 192–193

risk factors,

I: 461

Seveso, Italy, men lung cancer mortality,

II: 271;

III: 422, 424;

IV: 278

Seveso, Italy, outcomes,

I: 469;

IV: 275, 278, 282–283

smoking and, latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

I: 55;

II: 24, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 460–461, 469–470, 472;

II: 190, 201–202, 203;

III: 430–431;

IV: 275–276, 279, 283, 284

See also Laryngeal cancer;

Lung cancer;

Respiratory disorders

Respiratory disorders

biologic plausibility,

III: 486;

IV: 475;

V: 482;

VI: 443

cofounding factors,

V: 481

epidemiologic studies,

II: 324–326;

III: 483–486;

IV: 272–274;

V: 6;

VI: 440–443

epidemiology,

III: 482–483;

IV: 468–471

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 713;

II: 7, 11, 21, 324–336;

III: 3, 483–486;

IV: 275;

V: 482

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 483–485;

IV: 273–274

paper/pulp mill workers and,

I: 341, 364

production workers and,

I: 709–710;

IV: 273–274;

V: 6

research methodology,

I: 708–709, 712–713;

II: 324

scientific literature update,

II: 325;

III: 483–486;

IV: 272–274;

V: 482;

VI: 442

TCDD in,

I: 170, 472, 709–710, 712, 713–714;

III: 484;

IV: 468, 471–475;

V: 481

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 713–714;

III: 485–486;

IV: 275;

V: 483;

VI: 443

See also Asthma;

Bronchitis;

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);

Emphysema;

Influenza;

Pleurisy;

Pneumoconiosis;

Pneumonia;

Respiratory cancers;

Tuberculosis

Retinoic acid (RA),

II: 73;

III: 53, 73, 98

Retinoic acid receptor b (RARb),

II: 73

RFP. See Request for Proposals

Rhabdomyosarcoma. See Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS)

Ribonucleic acid (RNA),

II: 55, 58, 59, 62, 74, 75;

III: 80, 82, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104

Richter’s syndrome,

VI: 334

Risk assessment, Vietnam veterans,

I: 5, 14–15, 221, 225–226, 246, 247–248, 578;

II: 14, 22–23, 91;

III: 14–15, 22–23, 127–128, 475–476, 525;

IV: 388, 517;

VI: 9–10, 17

amyloidosis,

IV: 513;

V: 507

birth defects,

I: 618;

II: 298, 300–301;

V: 405

bone/joint cancer,

I: 474–475;

IV: 290;

V: 282

breast cancer risk,

II: 218;

III: 329;

IV: 318;

V: 309

cancer,

I: 440, 442–443, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 397, 430–431

cancer in offspring,

I: 630–631;

IV: 426

chloracne,

I: 678–679;

II: 321;

IV: 466;

V: 479

circulatory disorders,

I: 708;

IV: 510;

V: 506

diabetes mellitus,

I: 692;

III: 503;

IV: 489;

V: 492

disease risk methodology,

II: 349–357

female reproductive system cancers,

I: 512;

III: 334;

IV: 323;

V: 316

fetal/infant death,

I: 625;

IV: 413

gastrointestinal cancers,

I: 452;

IV: 356;

VI: 221

genitourinary tract cancers,

I: 522

hepatic enzyme disorders,

I: 692;

IV: 505

hepatobiliary cancers,

I: 457;

II: 187;

IV: 270

Hodgkin’s disease,

I: 557;

IV: 367;

V: 361

immune system disorders,

I: 699;

III: 491;

IV: 481;

V: 485

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

impossible to quantify,

VI: 17

leukemia,

I: 571–572;

IV: 381;

V: 372

linear extrapolation of exposure and risk,

II: 356

lipid abnormalities,

I: 692;

III: 507–508;

IV: 495

low birthweight outcomes,

I: 628;

IV: 417

motor/coordination dysfunction,

I: 662

multiple myeloma,

I: 563;

IV: 374;

V: 366

nasal/nasopharyngeal,

I: 460;

IV: 275

neuropsychiatric outcomes,

I: 658

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 549;

IV: 359;

V: 355

peripheral nervous system disorders,

I: 666;

II: 314;

IV: 459

porphyria cutanea tarda,

I: 682–683;

II: 323;

IV: 468;

V: 479

prostate cancer risk,

II: 223;

III: 343;

IV: 332;

V: 324

reproductive outcomes,

I: 634;

II: 300–301;

IV: 407, 431

respiratory cancer,

I: 472;

II: 190, 192–193;

IV: 279, 284

respiratory disorders,

I: 713–714;

IV: 475;

V: 483

skin cancer,

I: 505;

IV: 305–306, 311

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 500;

IV: 17, 296;

V: 287

spina bifida in offspring,

II: 298, 301;

IV: 403

spontaneous abortion,

I: 605;

IV: 411;

V: 417–418

TCDD concentrations with time after exposure,

II: 356–357

TCDD serum levels back-extrapolated to measure dose,

II: 357

TCDD serum levels linear extrapolation,

II: 356

TCDD serum levels use to estimate disease risk,

II: 350–357

See also Relative risk

Risk assessment methodology,

I: 5, 221, 246

EPA dioxin research,

I: 59–60

predisposing factors,

I: 731

relative risk determination,

I: 224, 229, 258;

II: 351, 356;

IV: 105;

V: 22–23

standardized mortality ratio in,

I: 229–230

strength of association in,

I: 239

terminology,

I: 224

Vietnam veterans’ disease risk estimation,

II: 349–357;

IV: 17

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD concentrations with time after exposure,

II: 356–357

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels back-extrapolated to measure dose,

II: 357

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels linear extrapolation,

II: 356

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels use to estimate disease risk,

II: 350–357;

IV: 182

RNA. See Ribonucleic acid

Ronnel®,

II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134;

V: 105

Rotterdam, Netherlands,

III: 236;

V: 512

Rung Sat Special Zone,

I: 100, 104, 105, 106

Russia,

II: 319

See also Chapaevsk, Russia;

USSR

S

Salmonella, TCDD exposure and,

II: 68

Samara region. See Chapaevsk, Russia

Saskatchewan, Canada,

II: 135–136, 200, 232, 242, 246, 325;

III: 232;

V: 6, 504

Sawmills. See Lumber industry

Schistosoma haematobium,

III: 347;

V: 328

Scientific literature update,

IV: 27–32, 104–105, 108, 248–388 passim, 399–435 passim;

V: 4–6

SCL-90-R. See Symptom Checklist-90-Revised

Scotland,

V: 462

Seasonal factors

herbicide distribution and,

I: 26, 87

SEER. See Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program

Selected Cancers Study

exposure assessment use,

II: 101;

III: 146, 231, 240

goals,

I: 59, 387, 391;

VI: 139

hepatobiliary cancers,

II: 185;

III: 283

Hodgkin’s disease in,

I: 554–556

liver cancer in,

I: 455

methodology,

I: 57, 234–235, 243, 258, 391–393, 440, 527

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

I: 459;

II: 189

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

I: 9, 541–543, 573;

II: 231;

IV: 17

soft-tissue sarcoma in,

I: 493, 498

Selective herbicides,

I: 24, 88

See also Herbicides

Self-Report Symptom Inventory,

I: 641

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
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Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs,

II: 24, 27–28;

III: 23–24, 25

Sensory dysfunction. See Neurologic disorders

Serontonergic system,

I: 166

Sertoli cells,

V: 405

Serum levels, TCDD,

I: 4, 19, 21, 261, 281–285, 289, 290, 725, 728, 729, 742–743;

II: 4–5, 104–106;

III: 140–142, 146–147;

IV: 37, 46, 112, 114, 125–126, 252, 293, 331

back-extrapolated serum TCDD as measure of dose,

II: 357;

IV: 154

Centers for Disease Control validation study,

I: 281–284;

II: 103, 104

concentrations of TCDD with time after exposure,

II: 356–357;

III: 159–161

estimated mean maximum levels,

II: 252–255

latency results, linear extrapolation from long exposure,

II: 356

measurement technique,

I: 260;

II: 349–350

pharmocokinetics,

I: 259–261

recommendations,

I: 20–21

significance of,

I: 4, 19, 261, 284–285, 289, 290, 725, 742–743;

II: 4–5, 102–106, 108–109

testing, mandated,

I: 728, 729

Vietnam veterans disease risk estimation, use for,

II: 350–357

Services HERBS tapes. See HERBS tapes

Seveso, Italy,

III: 9;

IV: 8–9, 147–148;

VI: 7, 51, 53–54, 120, 445–446

accidental contamination in,

I: 43;

II: 140–141;

III: 232–233;

IV: 147

birth defects,

II: 287;

III: 436

bladder cancer,

I: 517;

II: 226–227;

III: 348, 349;

IV: 341

bone/joint cancer,

III: 303;

IV: 289

brain tumors,

I: 523;

II: 230;

III: 356, 358;

IV: 351–352

breast cancer,

II: 216;

III: 324–326, 327;

IV: 315

cancer incidence,

II: 141, 148

cancer mortality,

I: 444;

III: 422, 424

child mortality study,

II: 147

childhood cancer,

II: 299–300;

IV: 425

chloracne,

I: 267, 676–677;

IV: 464

circulatory disorders,

I: 701–702;

IV: 507–509

diabetes mellitus,

III: 495;

IV: 11, 484

epidemiologic studies,

I: 44–45, 63, 365–368;

II: 113, 141–143, 148;

III: 130, 197–200, 232–233, 283, 285, 290, 296, 297–298, 303, 307, 309, 314, 318, 325–326, 327, 330, 331, 332, 336, 338, 344, 348, 349, 352, 353, 356, 358, 363, 365, 372, 373, 380, 385, 386, 388–389, 390, 436, 449, 495, 505;

IV: 224, 225, 226, 227, 258–259, 261, 263–264, 266, 271–272, 276, 280, 286–287, 291, 297–298, 306–307, 313, 319, 325–326, 334, 338, 344, 349, 354–355, 361–362, 369–370, 375–376, 382–383, 428, 430–431, 491;

V: 115–116, 168–171;

VI: 129–132, 177–179

exposure assessment,

I: 267–268, 285, 598–599;

II: 4–5, 103, 105–106;

III: 150, 156, 158, 160–161, 162;

IV: 111, 114–115, 126;

V: 226–227

female reproductive cancers,

I: 511;

II: 211–212, 213;

III: 330, 331, 332;

IV: 321–322

gastrointestinal tract tumors,

II: 177, 180;

III: 271, 273;

IV: 254

gastrointestinal ulcers,

I: 691;

IV: 501–502

hepatic enzyme disorders,

I: 686–687

hepatobiliary cancers,

II: 184;

III: 283, 285;

IV: 269

Hodgkin’s disease,

II: 236;

III: 372, 373

immune modulation,

I: 695;

VI: 7

infertility,

III: 449

latency and cancer risk,

II: 271, 272, 273, 274, 275;

III: 13, 408, 414, 420, 422, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 430

leukemia,

I: 13, 569–570, 571;

II: 245–246;

III: 385, 386, 388–389, 390;

IV: 379, 425

lipid abnormalities,

I: 689;

III: 505

liver cancer,

I: 454–455

liver disorders,

I: 367;

IV: 501–502

lung cancer,

I: 469;

II: 271;

III: 296, 297–298, 299, 422, 424;

IV: 282–283

mortality studies,

I: 652;

II: 141, 271, 272–273, 275;

III: 422, 424, 426, 427

multiple myeloma,

I: 562;

II: 243;

III: 380;

IV: 372–373

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer,

II: 189;

III: 290;

IV: 275

neurological disorders,

II: 141

neuropsychiatric outcomes,

I: 651–652

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 363, 365;

IV: 357

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

peripheral nervous system disorders,

I: 663–664;

II: 10, 312–313

porphyria cutanea tarda,

I: 680–681

prostate cancer,

I: 11;

II: 9, 221, 248, 274, 275;

III: 336, 338, 426, 427;

IV: 329

renal cancer,

II: 225;

III: 352, 353;

IV: 347

reproductive outcomes/toxicity,

I: 598–599;

II: 72;

III: 436, 449;

IV: 400, 430–431;

VI: 6

respiratory cancer,

II: 200–201, 269, 272;

III: 422, 424;

IV: 278, 279, 282–283, 284

respiratory outcomes,

I: 710;

IV: 472–473, 474, 475

response to accident,

I: 43–44

sex ratio,

V: 434

skin cancer,

I: 503;

II: 12, 209, 210;

III: 314, 318;

IV: 302

soft-tissue sarcoma,

I: 491–492;

II: 206, 207, 208;

III: 307, 309;

IV: 293–294, 295

testicular cancer,

II: 228;

III: 344;

IV: 336

Seveso Women’s Health Study (SWHS),

VI: 130, 178, 373

Sex ratio,

V: 432–438;

VI: 389–394

biologic plausibility,

VI: 393–394

scientific literature update,

VI: 390

SFR. See Standardized fertility ratio

SGOT. See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

SGPT. See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Shanghai, China,

II: 188

Silvex®,

I: 309, 324;

II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134;

V: 105

SIR. See Standardized incidence ratio

Skaraborg, Sweden,

III: 234;

IV: 149

Skin cancer

animal studies,

I: 141, 142–143;

IV: 5, 24, 31, 40

biologic plausibility for TCDD,

I: 503;

IV: 305, 311;

VI: 260, 264–265

clinical features,

I: 501, 502

epidemiologic studies,

I: 502–503;

II: 209–211;

III: 312–313;

IV: 19, 149, 154, 232, 302–305, 306–308, 312–313;

V: 5;

VI: 251–265

epidemiology,

I: 501–502;

II: 209;

III: 312, 313;

IV: 299–300

herbicide association in,

I: 12, 576;

II: 7, 11–12, 21, 209–211, 249–250;

III: 8, 10, 21, 312;

IV: 7, 11;

V: 16–17, 21

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 312;

IV: 302

morbidity studies,

V: 289;

VI: 254, 263–264

mortality studies,

VI: 253, 262

TCDD association with,

I: 141, 142–143, 502–503;

II: 209–211;

III: 313–316, 317, 319, 320, 322;

IV: 19;

V: 5

Vietnam veterans and,

II: 209;

III: 312;

IV: 303–304, 305, 309–311;

VI: 256–259, 261, 265

See also Basal/squamous cell skin cancer;

Melanomas

Skin sensitivity

2,4-D and,

I: 181

picloram and,

I: 192

Ranch hands,

IV: 8

TCDD and,

I: 172–174

See also Chloracne;

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)

Sleep disorders,

I: 650;

IV: 442;

V: 449

SMRs. See Standardized mortality ratios

Social Security Administration,

II: 130, 152, 153

Society for Epidemiologic Research,

II: 25

Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS),

I: 311, 314

age of onset,

I: 436

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 322, 326–328, 329–330, 335–336, 337, 339–340;

IV: 140, 149

biologic plausibility of TCDD in,

I: 500;

III: 311;

IV: 296;

V: 287;

VI: 251

case-control studies,

I: 481–491;

IV: 143–144

CDC Selected Cancers Study and,

IV: 157

children and,

I: 628

clinical features,

I: 475, 476

cohort studies,

I: 231, 243;

V: 5

epidemiologic studies,

I: 231, 476, 477–500;

II: 132, 134–135, 205–208;

III: 306–310, 311;

IV: 149, 187, 216, 292–295, 296–299;

V: 5;

VI: 245–251

epidemiology,

I: 475;

II: 205;

III: 304, 306;

IV: 116, 136–137, 140, 143–144, 149, 157;

V: 282–287

herbicide association in,

I: 8, 9–10, 500, 572–573;

II: 5, 6, 20, 205–208, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 306–310, 311;

IV: 6, 8, 17;

V: 14

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

I: 375, 383, 384;

II: 207–208;

III: 309;

IV: 293–294;

V: 285–286;

VI: 13, 246–250

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

III: 308–309;

IV: 292–293;

V: 284–285;

VI: 246

IARC registry and,

IV: 137, 293

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups,

III: 306;

IV: 292;

VI: 245

Midland, Michigan cohort,

IV: 136

pesticide applicators and,

I: 491

production workers and,

I: 8, 477–479, 499;

II: 132, 134–135, 206–207;

IV: 136, 292–293

research recommendations,

I: 19, 727

risk factors,

I: 10, 477;

V: 287

scientific literature update,

II: 206–208;

III: 308–310;

V: 283, 292–295

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 395–396, 401, 475, 492–498, 500;

II: 205, 208;

III: 309–310;

IV: 157, 294–295;

V: 286–287;

VI: 25

Vietnam veterans compensation,

I: 51, 55, 56;

II: 24, 29, 30, 31

See also Kaposi’s sarcoma;

Leiomyosarcomas

Somatostatin,

I: 168, 169

South America,

III: 510

South Dakota,

IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

South Koreans,

I: 61–62;

II: 108–109;

III: 240;

IV: 156;

VI: 1, 6–7, 134, 141–142, 439–440

Southeast Asia,

II: 181, 188, 294, 295;

III: 29, 237, 239, 241, 243, 282, 289, 318, 321, 452;

IV: 267

Soviet Union. See Russia;

USSR

Spain,

IV: 144–145, 207, 401

Special Forces. See US Special Forces

Sperm parameter disorders

altered sperm parameters,

I: 631, 632, 633–634;

II: 7, 11, 20;

III: 444–451;

IV: 200, 405–406, 433

See also Reproductive disorders

Spina bifida,

I: 609, 611, 612;

II: 6, 295–296;

VI: 15

Vietnam veterans offspring,

II: 9–10, 296, 298, 309;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438;

IV: 7, 10, 18, 404–405

See also Birth defects;

Neural tube defects

Spontaneous abortion,

I: 592

agricultural/forestry workers and,

I: 336–337;

IV: 197, 410–411

Alsea, Oregon, case,

I: 42–43, 372–373, 598

biologic plausibility,

V: 420;

VI: 378

definition,

I: 595–596;

II: 282;

IV: 409;

V: 409

epidemiologic data, quality of,

I: 603–605

epidemiologic studies,

II: 283;

IV: 410–411;

V: 420;

VI: 372–378

epidemiology,

II: 282–283

farm families,

V: 5

herbicide association in,

I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 278, 283–284;

V: 409–421, 411–412

herbicide environmental exposure and,

I: 598–599;

IV: 410–411;

V: 414–417

herbicide occupational exposure and,

I: 596–598;

IV: 410;

V: 410, 413–414

maternal risk factors,

I: 596

Ranch Hand participants,

II: 283–284

risk factors,

I: 594;

IV: 409;

V: 420

scientific literature update,

II: 283–284;

IV: 410–411;

V: 410–417;

VI: 373–377

TCDD and,

V: 410, 413

Vietnam veterans’ increased risk,

II: 283;

IV: 411;

V: 417–418;

VI: 378

Vietnam veterans’ wives and,

I: 405–406, 601–603

Vietnamese civilians and,

I: 599–601

women Vietnam veterans’ increased risk,

V: 417–418

See also Reproductive disorders

Sprayers. See Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Spraying. See Aerial spraying;

Ground/perimeter spraying

Squamous cell skin cancer. See Basal/squamous cell skin cancer

Standardized fertility ratio (SFR),

III: 448

Standardized incidence ratio (SIR),

IV: 252–253, 269, 289, 293–294, 328–329, 336, 357, 365–366, 379

Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)

cancer studies,

II: 134, 136, 137, 178, 182, 183, 191, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 206, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274;

III: 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 429;

IV: 138, 142, 153;

IV: 251–253, 268, 292, 302, 327, 332, 341, 346–347, 351–352, 365–366, 372, 379

role of,

I: 229–230;

V: 503

State governments,

I: 60

Vietnam veterans epidemiologic studies by,

I: 399–405, 495–496;

II: 153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292;

III: 213–215, 243–244;

V: 126, 188–191;

VI: 140–141

See also specific states

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Statistical association,

VI: 12, 22–23

Statistics Sweden,

IV: 145

Umea Department of Oncology,

II: 138;

III: 228

University Hospital, Linkoping,

II: 138;

III: 228, 229

University Hospital, Umea,

III: 228

See also Skaraborg, Sweden;

Umea, Sweden;

Uppsala, Sweden

Stellman model,

VI: 493

Stillbirth. See Perinatal death

Stomach cancer,

I: 446, 447;

II: 7, 12;

III: 274–275;

IV: 250–254, 256, 259n, 385;

V: 17, 247–249;

VI: 205–208

TCDD effects in,

I: 169

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Streptococcus pneumoniae, TCDD exposure and,

II: 68

Stress responses,

VI: 40

Stroke

herbicide exposure risk,

I: 658, 659, 660

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

STS. See Soft-tissue sarcoma

Subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care,

III: 25

Substance abuse,

I: 655

Suicide,

I: 398, 650, 655–656;

IV: 440;

V: 447

Surrogate-animal models,

V: 24

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program,

I: 336, 439–440, 506;

II: 205, 213;

III: 229, 266, 313;

IV: 215, 249;

VI: 202, 256, 259, 332, 384

ICD-9 cancer codes, site groupings for,

III: 537–539;

IV: 524–526;

V: 243, 531–533;

VI: 572–574

Sweden,

I: 8, 9, 13, 37, 322–323, 326–329, 344, 350, 356, 375, 443, 444, 447, 467, 479, 480, 481, 482–486, 490, 510, 528–529, 530–533, 539, 548, 551–553, 561, 572–573;

II: 138, 183–184, 185, 197, 198, 199, 209, 215, 231, 233, 235–236, 242–243;

III: 226, 228–229, 236, 271–272, 285, 297, 306, 308, 309, 310, 314, 315, 317, 319, 325, 338, 340, 349, 353, 358, 363, 372, 484, 515;

IV: 201, 202, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 213, 214, 322, 328, 330, 367;

V: 117, 292, 298, 318, 339, 416;

VI: 127, 133

Cancer Environment Register,

III: 224;

IV: 140

Cancer Registry,

III: 224, 228, 229;

IV: 142;

V: 362

Lund University Hospital,

III: 229

National Register of Causes of Death,

IV: 141

Orebro Medical Center Hospital,

III: 229

Regional Cancer Registry,

II: 138;

III: 228, 229

See also Skaraborg, Sweden;

Umea, Sweden;

Uppsala, Sweden

SWHS. See Seveso Women’s Health Study

Switzerland,

II: 134

Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R),

V: 449

Synchotron infrared spectromicroscopy,

V: 59

Systemic autoimmune disease,

I: 697–699

See also Autoimmune disease;

Immune system disorders

Systemic lupus erythematosus,

I: 697

See also Autoimmune disease;

Immune system disorders

T

2,4,5-T. See 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

T cell function,

I: 147–148, 151;

II: 3;

IV: 62, 80

autoimmunity and,

I: 697

immune modulation and,

I: 694, 695

TCDD and,

II: 68–70;

IV: 61, 62, 78

Vietnam veterans and,

I: 698

T-H Agricultural & Nutrition Company,

I: 35

Taiwan,

III: 231, 470;

VI: 291, 465

chloracne as a biomarker in,

IV: 464

Movement Disorders Clinic, National Taiwan University Hospital,

III: 231

Tannery workers,

I: 486, 514

Tasmania,

I: 418, 603;

II: 293;

III: 244;

IV: 246

TBG. See Thyroxine-binding globulin

TCDD. See Serum levels, TCDD;

TCDD biologic plausibility;

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

TCDD biologic plausibility,

IV: 2, 3, 11–12, 107, 110, 385–387, 432–435, 515–517;

VI: 339–341

Ah receptor in,

I: 133–138;

IV: 25–27, 29–30, 42, 47–58, 85–86, 458

animal carcinogenicity studies,

I: 138–146, 439;

III: 394, 396

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

brain tumors and,

I: 525;

IV: 352

cancer,

II: 176;

IV: 248–388 passim

carcinogenesis,

I: 116–118, 434, 439;

III: 394, 396;

IV: 279, 385

cardiovascular toxicity,

I: 171;

IV: 510

childhood cancer and,

I: 630;

IV: 426

chloracne and,

I: 172–174, 678;

II: 320–321;

III: 480;

IV: 8, 17–18, 135, 466;

V: 479

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders and,

II: 314

diabetes mellitus,

III: 502–503;

IV: 488;

V: 492

fetal/infant death and,

I: 624;

IV: 413

gastrointestinal toxicity,

I: 169–170, 451;

III: 513–514

genitourinary tract cancers and,

I: 521–522

hepatobiliary cancers and,

I: 457;

IV: 270

Hodgkin’s disease and,

I: 557;

IV: 8, 367

immune system disorders and,

I: 122, 146–151, 699;

III: 523–524;

IV: 481;

V: 484

lethality,

IV: 76, 137

leukemia and,

I: 571;

IV: 380

lipid abnormalities,

III: 507;

IV: 495

liver disease,

III: 522–524;

IV: 10, 505

motor/coordination dysfunction and,

I: 661;

II: 314

multiple myeloma and,

I: 563;

IV: 374

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and,

I: 460;

IV: 275

neurological disorders and,

I: 160–166;

III: 474, 475;

IV: 441–443, 445, 457–459

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

I: 549;

IV: 8, 116, 358

peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 314;

IV: 457–459

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

I: 682;

II: 323;

IV: 468

reproductive disorders and,

I: 123–124, 156–159, 605, 618, 634;

II: 282;

III: 460–461, 462;

IV: 323, 403, 407, 411, 431

respiratory toxicity, I: 170;

IV: 475

skin cancer and,

I: 503;

IV: 305–311

soft-tissue sarcoma and,

I: 500;

IV: 8, 116, 296

See also Ah receptor (AhR);

Biologic plausibility;

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

TCP. See 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

TEC. See Toxic equivalent concentration

Tecumseh, Michigan,

III: 235, 388

TEFs. See Toxic equivalency factors

TEQ factors. See Dioxin toxic equivalent factors

Teratogenicity,

I: 57, 62, 606–607

2,4-D,

I: 180–181

2,4,5-T,

I: 185, 373–374;

II: 4

cacodylic acid,

I: 189;

V: 39

picloram,

I: 192

TCDD,

I: 28, 30, 123, 159–160, 185, 368, 370, 372;

III: 461;

IV: 29, 53

viral potential,

I: 607

See also Birth defects

Testicular cancer,

I: 405

biologic plausibility,

III: 347;

IV: 337;

V: 327;

VI: 284

epidemiologic studies,

I: 519;

II: 153, 227–228;

III: 343–346;

IV: 336–337, 338–339;

V: 325–327;

VI: 283–286

epidemiology,

I: 515;

II: 223–224;

III: 343;

IV: 335

herbicide association in,

I: 13, 521;

II: 7, 11, 20, 227–228, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 343–347;

IV: 7, 11;

V: 324–328

herbicide environmental exposure and,

III: 344, 345;

IV: 336;

V: 327

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 344, 345;

IV: 336;

V: 326

histopathology,

I: 513

incidence, data by race, for selected age groups,

III: 343;

IV: 335;

V: 324;

VI: 283

scientific literature update,

II: 227–228;

III: 344, 346;

IV: 159, 336–337;

V: 325;

VI: 284

studies summary,

III: 343–344, 345–346;

IV: 336, 338–339

TCDD association with,

V: 63;

VI: 78–79

Vietnam veterans’ risk,

I: 519, 522;

II: 153, 223–224, 227, 228;

IV: 338;

V: 328;

VI: 284

Vietnam veterans’ studies,

III: 343–344, 345–346;

IV: 157, 159, 336–337;

V: 326–327

See also Genitourinary cancers

Testimony,

I: 739–756;

II: 343–348;

III: 533–536

Testosterone,

I: 123, 157–158;

II: 280, 281, 282;

IV: 183, 399–400, 405, 407–408, 429, 433

Tetrachlorobenzene,

I: 28

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD),

III: 5, 19;

IV: 16, 132;

V: 1–4, 12, 329, 516–518;

VI: 1, 3–5, 11–12, 21–22, 118–119, 165, 201, 276, 436

acute toxicity,

II: 75–76

adipose tissue effects,

VI: 67–68

Ah receptor interaction,

I: 3, 114, 118, 122, 123, 133–138, 150, 151, 152, 159–160, 439, 452–453, 457;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62, 176;

III: 33, 34, 35, 53, 54, 58–61, 62–69, 129;

IV: 25, 26, 30, 32, 47–53, 58, 60;

V: 52–54

animal studies,

I: 111–114, 138–142, 477;

II: 3–4, 12, 51–77;

III: 4–5, 33, 34–36, 37, 40–43, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69, 74–105, 128, 129, 130, 394, 396, 460–461, 474, 475, 482, 501, 522–523;

IV: 26, 53–57, 59, 270, 284, 305, 311, 416, 426, 432–435, 458–459, 512;

VI: 29–30

anti-estrogenicity and,

I: 512;

II: 62;

III: 67–69

apoptosis of,

II: 3, 67

autoimmunity and,

I: 697–699

bioavailability,

I: 128–129

biological consequences of activation,

II: 57;

III: 61–62

biomarkers,

I: 4, 17, 259–262, 725;

II: 101–104;

III: 146–147

birth defects and,

V: 439–441

bladder cancer association,

II: 225–227;

III: 347–348;

IV: 341–342

body burdens,

III: 107–108;

IV: 478

body temperature regulation and,

I: 169

bone development effects,

VI: 69–70

bone/joint cancer association,

II: 204–205;

III: 303;

IV: 289

brain distribution,

I: 160–161

brain tumors association,

II: 229, 230;

III: 357, 358;

IV: 351

breast cancer association,

II: 215–217;

III: 327, 329;

IV: 316–317;

V: 65–66, 306

carcinogenesis promoter capability,

I: 116, 142–143, 434, 439

carcinogenicity,

I: 28–29, 116–118, 138–146, 439, 451;

II: 3, 39–40, 65–68, 175, 176;

III: 265, 394, 396, 430–431;

IV: 60–66, 270, 279;

V: 61–63, 75–76;

VI: 76–78

cardiovascular toxicity,

I: 171;

II: 76;

III: 74–75;

V: 58, 70

cell proliferation capability of,

I: 145;

II: 3, 67;

IV: 60

cellular effects of,

V: 4, 56–57

chemical properties,

I: 28, 114, 127

chemical significant interactions,

II: 64–65;

III: 69–71

chemical structure,

I: 125–126;

II: 38

chloracne and,

I: 4, 10, 28, 172–173, 262;

II: 3, 5, 6, 317–321;

III: 479–480;

IV: 135, 464;

V: 56

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy association,

V: 465–469

circulatory disorders and,

I: 701–708;

II: 336–337;

III: 514, 515–516, 518;

IV: 506–507;

V: 503

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders and,

II: 308;

V: 449–452

concerns about,

I: 1, 2, 23–24, 28–32, 35–36;

II: 2, 17, 18, 19, 26–27;

III: 3–5, 12, 13, 14

corticosteroids and,

I: 168, 171–172

cytochrome P4501A2 and,

I: 130, 144–145, 170, 709;

IV: 274, 386

dermal toxicity,

II: 76;

III: 73–74;

V: 56–57

developmental toxicity,

I: 123–124, 149, 156–157, 159–160, 185;

II: 3, 41–42, 71, 72–73;

III: 92–105;

V: 67–69, 72–73;

VI: 83–87

diabetes mellitus and,

I: 683;

II: 330–331;

III: 494, 495, 500–501, 502;

IV: 483, 489;

V: 492

dietary significant interactions,

II: 64

dioxin categorization,

I: 23n, 125

disease outcomes,

V: 69–76

DNA binding capability and transcription activation and,

II: 56–57;

III: 58–61

dose-response relationships,

I: 111–114, 122, 128–129, 130, 137–138, 445, 673, 696;

II: 318

endocrine effects,

III: 83–84;

V: 66–67, 73–74;

VI: 82–83

endometriosis and,

V: 508–509

environmental exposure assessment,

I: 262–263, 267–270;

II: 140–149, 179–180, 184, 186, 190, 193, 200–201, 221, 222, 234, 236, 243;

III: 156–157, 232–233, 234, 235–236, 297–298, 303;

IV: 114–116, 147–150, 254, 269, 274–275, 278, 293, 296, 336, 347, 351, 357, 379;

VI: 177–182, 186–191

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

environmental persistence,

I: 288

enzyme induction of,

II: 3, 66–67

estrogen-mediation of carcinogenesis,

I: 144–145

excretion,

I: 132–133

exposure assessment issues,

II: 4–5, 104–106;

III: 140–142, 144, 157–158, 159–161;

IV: 122–127, 132;

VI: 4–5, 15, 167–169, 186–191

exposure sources,

I: 127

fatty acid biosynthesis and,

I: 168–169

female reproductive system/breast cancers and,

I: 512;

II: 211–213;

III: 331, 332;

IV: 315, 316, 322;

V: 309

free radicals,

II: 59;

III: 64–65

gastrointestinal toxicity,

I: 169–170, 447–452, 690–692;

II: 177–181;

III: 268–272, 511;

IV: 251–254, 499–501

gastrointestinal ulcers and,

II: 334–335;

III: 510;

V: 501;

VI: 72

gene modulation,

VI: 61–65

genotoxicity,

I: 118, 143–144;

II: 3;

V: 48–51

growth factor and,

II: 59

half-life,

I: 129, 260–261;

II: 104–105;

III: 157–158;

IV: 24, 27;

V: 44–47;

VI: 52

hepatic enzyme disorders and,

I: 155–156, 685–688, 691–692

hepatobiliary cancers and,

I: 457;

II: 181–187;

III: 283–285;

V: 263

hepatotoxicity,

II: 3, 73–75;

III: 76–79;

V: 58–60, 71

herbicide contaminant capacity,

I: 2, 3, 27, 91–92, 114, 126–127;

II: 2, 3, 26;

III: 1, 3, 5, 6, 140–142

hexachlorophene manufacture and,

I: 40;

IV: 134–135, 138, 148

H4IIE-luc cells and,

III: 107

Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

II: 5, 6, 235, 236;

III: 372–373;

IV: 366

hypoglycemia and,

I: 166–168

immune modulation and,

I: 694–696;

II: 328–329;

III: 488, 489, 490, 491;

IV: 26

immunotoxicity,

I: 119–122, 146–151, 338, 477;

II: 3, 40–41, 68–71;

III: 85–92;

IV: 478–480;

V: 61, 74–75;

VI: 73–76

infertility association,

II: 282

inflammatory responses and,

I: 148

interactions, significant,

III: 69–71

intracellular communication of,

II: 3, 67–68

latency issues,

II: 13–14, 269, 270, 272;

III: 420, 421, 423, 424, 425, 426, 429, 431

lethality,

III: 71–73;

V: 69–70;

VI: 67

leukemia association,

II: 246;

III: 386–388, 390;

IV: 379, 426

lipid abnormalities and,

I: 688–690;

II: 333–334;

III: 505, 506, 507

liver toxicity,

I: 115–116, 124, 138–139, 142, 143, 151–156, 165–166;

II: 42, 331–333;

III: 509;

IV: 27, 268, 269, 499

lung cancer and,

III: 297–298, 299, 421, 423;

IV: 282–283;

V: 277

mammary gland effects,

VI: 81

mechanism of action, animal studies,

II: 3, 54–65;

III: 54–58, 62–63, 67–69;

IV: 28–30;

V: 4

mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 65–77;

IV: 67–76, 426;

V: 47–69

metabolism,

I: 115–116, 131–133, 155

multiple myeloma association,

II: 237–238, 243, 244;

III: 378–380, 383;

IV: 372–373

myelogenous leukemia and,

VI: 15–16

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and,

I: 460;

IV: 274–275

neuropsychiatric outcomes and,

I: 649–650, 651–652, 656, 657–658;

II: 308

neurotoxicity,

I: 160–166, 642;

II: 3, 75;

III: 84–85, 469, 470–471;

IV: 31;

V: 71–72;

VI: 72–73

non-Ah-mediated toxicity,

I: 138

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and,

I: 8, 9, 528–529, 574;

II: 5, 6, 231–234;

III: 364, 429;

IV: 357

occupational exposure,

I: 36–39, 262–267, 269–270, 303;

II: 108–109, 113–140, 178–179, 190, 191–200, 219–220, 222, 232–234, 237–238;

III: 153, 154, 155, 219, 220, 221–222, 223, 224, 284–285, 293, 296–297, 303;

IV: 111–114, 134–147, 187–190, 195–196, 251, 257, 259–260, 262, 265, 268, 271, 277, 280, 282, 284, 289, 290, 292, 306, 312, 318, 341, 343, 346, 348, 353, 359, 374;

V: 6;

VI: 169–177

opioid antagonist capacity,

I: 164

oral administration,

I: 128

perinatal death association,

II: 285–286

peripheral neuropathy and,

II: 310–311, 314;

III: 470–471;

IV: 184

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

pharmacokinetics,

I: 127–133, 160, 259–261, 284

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

II: 5, 6, 321–323;

III: 481–482;

IV: 466–468;

V: 59

potential health risk estimating,

II: 63–65;

III: 105–108

production of,

I: 28, 114

prostate cancer association,

II: 220–223, 273, 274, 275;

III: 336–337, 425, 426;

IV: 327–328, 329–331;

V: 63–64;

VI: 79

protein kinases and,

II: 60–62;

III: 65–67

protein modulation,

V: 48–51;

VI: 61–65

pulmonary toxicity,

V: 58, 71

Qsar model approach,

III: 106

Ranch Hand study,

II: 109;

III: 50, 146–147;

IV: 18

relevance to human health,

VI: 93–94

renal cancer association,

II: 225;

III: 353;

IV: 346–347

renal toxicity,

II: 77;

III: 75–76

reproductive toxicity,

I: 123–124, 156–159, 368, 371–372, 597, 599, 605;

II: 3, 41–42, 71–72;

III: 92–105, 446, 449;

IV: 398–438 passim;

V: 64–65, 72–73;

VI: 78–81

respiratory cancers and,

II: 13–14, 189–203, 269, 270, 272;

IV: 282–283;

VI: 12

respiratory disorders and,

I: 170, 472, 709–710, 712–714;

III: 484;

IV: 471–474

sensitivity interspecies and interindividual differences,

II: 63–64;

III: 108

skin cancer and,

I: 141, 142–143, 502–503;

II: 209–211;

III: 313–316, 317, 319, 320, 322;

VI: 67–68

soft-tissue sarcoma and,

I: 477, 478, 490, 498–500;

II: 5, 6, 205–208;

III: 307, 308;

IV: 292–293;

V: 287

solubility,

I: 114, 115–116, 127

teratogenicity,

I: 28–29, 30, 31, 123, 159–160, 185, 368, 370, 372;

III: 461

testicular cancer association,

II: 228;

III: 346;

IV: 336;

V: 63;

VI: 78–79

tissue specificity,

II: 64

tooth development effects,

VI: 68–69

toxic end points,

V: 55–69

toxic equivalency factors approach,

II: 63;

III: 106, 158, 159;

V: 26

toxic equivalent concentration approach,

III: 107

toxicity, factors influencing,

II: 63–65;

III: 105–108;

IV: 83–84

toxicity profile,

III: 50–108;

VI: 33–34, 89–93

toxicity update summary,

II: 51–53;

IV: 3–5, 22, 26, 44, 62, 64, 83–86;

V: 40–76, 79–81

toxicokinetics, animal studies,

II: 3, 53–54;

III: 4–5, 48;

IV: 41–46;

V: 41–42

toxicokinetics, human studies,

V: 43–44

uterine effects,

VI: 80–81

Vietnam amount used,

I: 27, 106;

II: 26;

IV: 122

Vietnam military exposure,

I: 17, 26, 149–161;

II: 21, 22, 181, 185, 187, 190, 201–202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 211, 212, 226, 276, 308;

III: 146, 147, 237, 239, 240, 430–431;

IV: 150–160;

V: 231–232

Vietnam veterans’ compensation,

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Vietnamese civilians exposure,

II: 108–109, 148;

III: 156–157;

IV: 116–117, 148–149

wasting syndrome,

I: 160–161, 162–166;

II: 76–77;

III: 80–83;

IV: 25, 31, 57;

V: 56;

VI: 67

See also Herbicides;

Serum levels, TCDD;

TCDD biologic plausibility

12-O-Tetradexanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA),

II: 76

Texas,

I: 60, 403–404, 696;

III: 243

TGF. See Transforming growth factor

Thailand,

I: 26, 90

Thompson Chemicals Corporation,

I: 35

Thyroid

TCDD effects,

I: 168–169;

IV: 135, 386–387

thyroiditis,

I: 697, 698

Thyroid homeostasis,

V: 510–514;

VI: 40

biological plausibility,

V: 514;

VI: 481

clinical features,

V: 512–513

epidemiologic studies,

V: 513–514;

VI: 478–481

herbicide association in,

V: 510–514;

VI: 479–480

scientific literature review,

V: 511–513;

VI: 479–480

Vietnam veterans and,

V: 514;

VI: 480, 481

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),

V: 510–514;

VI: 478–479

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH),

V: 510

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG),

V: 511

Times Beach, Missouri,

I: 40–42, 268, 368–370, 693–694;

II: 113, 144, 184;

III: 200–201, 234, 283;

IV: 115–116, 133, 148;

V: 116, 171–172, 227;

VI: 120, 132, 179

Tissue distribution, TCDD,

I: 129–131, 259

TNF. See Tumor necrosis factor

Tobacco exposure and use,

I: 11, 223, 442, 461, 463;

II: 190–191, 197;

III: 299, 377;

V: 328

perinatal mortality and,

I: 619–620

respiratory cancer and latency,

II: 268;

III: 418

Tollerud, David,

III: 25

Tooth development effects,

VI: 68–69

Topography,

I: 25

Tordon 75D®,

V: 36

Tordon 101®,

IV: 117–118

See also 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D);

Picloram

Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs),

II: 45, 52, 63;

III: 37, 105, 106, 108;

IV: 83–84;

V: 26;

VI: 168

See also Dioxin toxic equivalent factors (TEQ)

Toxic equivalent concentration (TEC),

III: 105, 107

Toxicity

2,4-D profile update,

II: 46–49;

III: 43–47;

IV: 33–37;

V: 76–77;

VI: 34–41, 88

2,4,5-T profile update,

II: 49–50;

III: 47–48;

IV: 37–38;

V: 77–78;

VI: 41, 89

cacodylic acid profile update,

II: 50–51;

III: 48–50;

IV: 38–40;

V: 78;

VI: 41–43, 89–90

cardiovascular,

VI: 69–70

contributing factors,

III: 105–108

definition,

II: 35

health risk estimation,

III: 105–108

liver,

VI: 70–72

picloram profile update,

II: 51;

III: 50;

IV: 40–41;

V: 79;

VI: 43, 90

pulmonary,

VI: 70

TCDD profile update,

II: 51–77;

III: 50–108;

IV: 41–81;

V: 79–81;

VI: 44–87, 90–93

Toxicokinetics,

III: 32–36;

VI: 34–36

2,4-D,

II: 46–47;

III: 32–33, 43–44;

IV: 24, 33

2,4,5-T,

II: 49;

III: 47;

IV: 24, 37

cacodylic acid,

II: 50;

III: 32–33, 48;

IV: 24, 38–39;

VI: 41

definition,

II: 35

literature update,

II: 36;

III: 36–37

picloram,

IV: 24

previous reports summary,

II: 38–39

TCDD,

II: 53–54;

III: 33, 53, 161;

IV: 23–24, 27–28, 41–46, 85–86;

VI: 44–55

Toxicology,

VI: 4–7, 24–25, 33–117

2,4-D profile update,

II: 46–49;

III: 43–47

2,4,5-T profile update,

II: 49–50;

III: 47–48

cacodylic acid profile update,

II: 50–51;

III: 48–50

disease outcomes,

II: 37, 48–49, 50–51, 65–77;

III: 33–35, 38–43, 44–47, 48, 50, 71–105

earlier reports summary,

II: 37–42;

III: 36;

VI: 34

evaluation issues,

III: 108–110

human health relevance,

III: 35–36;

IV: 43

literature update,

II: 43–45;

III: 36–43

mechanisms of toxic action,

II: 36, 47–48, 50, 54–65;

III: 33, 38, 44, 47–48, 49–50, 53–71;

IV: 24

picloram profile update,

II: 51;

III: 50

studies evaluation,

III: 128–129

summary,

II: 35–37;

III: 3–5, 32–36;

IV: 24–25

TCDD profile update,

II: 51–77;

III: 50–108

toxicity profiles update,

II: 45–77;

III: 45–108;

V: 76–81

TPA. See 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

Trail-Making Test,

II: 308

Transforming growth factor (TGF),

I: 145;

II: 59, 74

Tremors. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

TRH. See Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol (TCP),

I: 28;

II: 319;

III: 152, 153, 219, 220, 223, 515;

IV: 16, 134, 136, 138, 186, 251, 268, 292, 500;

V: 104

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T),

II: 4, 18;

III: 5, 19, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, 226, 234;

IV: 2, 22, 110, 251, 268, 292, 474, 478, 479;

V: 1, 3, 12;

VI: 1, 3, 11, 20, 118–119, 201, 276, 436

acute toxicity,

I: 184

Agent Orange and,

I: 27;

II: 26

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

animal studies,

I: 181–185;

II: 49–50;

III: 47–48, 396, 462;

IV: 34, 426, 434–435, 458, 459, 512, 517

birth defects and,

II: 287;

III: 462;

IV: 404, 405n;

V: 394

calcium homeostasis and,

II: 4

carcinogenicity,

I: 37, 118, 119, 182–184;

II: 40;

III: 396;

IV: 387

chemical properties,

I: 114, 182;

II: 38;

III: 32

chemical structure,

I: 111, 114

chloracne and,

I: 36;

IV: 135, 500

chronic exposure,

I: 184

circulatory disorders and,

I: 700–701

development of,

I: 24, 26, 35, 181;

III: 135, 136, 137, 138, 140

developmental toxicity,

I: 185;

II: 42, 49–50

disease outcomes,

III: 48

domestic use,

I: 181

environmental exposure events,

I: 42–43

genotoxicity,

I: 119, 184

half-life of,

II: 4

industrial exposure events,

V: 6

infertility and,

II: 280–282

liver toxicity,

I: 125;

II: 42;

III: 524

mechanisms of action,

III: 33, 38, 47–48

mechanisms of toxicity,

II: 49–50

metabolism,

I: 115, 116

military applications,

I: 26, 88;

II: 26

myelotoxicity,

IV: 5, 31

neurobehavioral toxicity,

III: 475

pharmacokinetics,

I: 182

porphyria cutanea tarda and,

II: 322

reproductive toxicity,

I: 185;

II: 42;

III: 462;

IV: 407, 413, 416, 426, 431, 434–435

respiratory disorders and,

I: 709

suspension of use,

I: 1, 39, 42–43, 92, 181–182

TCDD contamination of,

I: 2, 3, 27, 91, 114, 126, 182;

III: 140

teratogenicity,

I: 30, 92, 373–374

toxicity profile update summary,

II: 49;

IV: 22–24, 28–29, 31, 37–41;

V: 37–38, 77–78;

VI: 33–34

toxicokinetics,

II: 49;

III: 47

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data,

III: 136

See also Herbicides;

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

Triglyceride levels,

I: 688–689;

III: 520–521

Trinoxol,

I: 91;

III: 137;

IV: 119

Trivalent monomethylarsonous acid (MMA),

V: 39

TSH. See Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Tuberculosis,

I: 711

See also Respiratory disorders

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF),

I: 148;

II: 59, 60;

III: 87, 88

Twin studies,

I: 398–399, 406, 703, 711

Type 2 Diabetes. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes

U

UDP glucuronyl transferase (UGT1),

II: 74;

III: 37, 52

Uerdingen, Germany,

III: 154;

IV: 124

UGT1. See UDP glucuronyl transferase

Ulcers, gastrointestinal,

I: 690–692

epidemiologic studies,

II: 334;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 502

epidemiology,

II: 334;

III: 508–509;

IV: 498–499

herbicide environmental exposure and,

V: 501

herbicide exposure association with,

II: 334;

III: 510–514;

IV: 505

herbicide occupational exposure and,

III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501;

V: 500–501

scientific literature update,

II: 334; III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504;

V: 500–501;

VI: 465–466

Vietnam veterans and,

III: 512–513;

IV: 502–505;

V: 502

See also Metabolic and digestive disorders;

Peptic ulcer disease

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation,

V: 290

Umea, Sweden,

III: 228, 229

Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS),

V: 460–461

Uniroyal Inc.,

I: 35

Unit Identification Code list,

VI: 182

United Kingdom,

I: 315–316, 340, 382, 444, 462–463, 464, 477, 479, 537, 565, 595, 689;

II: 194, 196, 269;

III: 223, 224, 420;

VI: 128, 133

England National Cancer Register,

III: 232;

IV: 144;

VI: 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide exposure assessment,

III: 151;

IV: 139

Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank,

IV: 445

See also Scotland;

Yorkshire, England

United Nations,

I: 45

United Paperworkers International Union,

III: 232

Update 1996. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996

Update 1998. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998

Update 2000. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000

Update 2002. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002

UPDRS. See Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale

Uppsala, Sweden,

III: 228

Urinary bladder cancer. See Bladder cancer and disorders

UROD. See Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD),

II: 321;

III: 480, 481

Uroporphyrins, increases in,

VI: 7

US Air Force,

I: 81, 113;

III: 29, 138, 218, 237, 239, 339, 513, 517;

VI: 24

Armstrong Laboratory, Population Research Branch,

III: 29

Baseline Morbidity Report,

II: 32

Baseline Mortality Report, 1982,

II: 31

Follow-Up Examination Results, 1985, 1987, 1992,

II: 32

Human Resources Laboratory records,

II: 150, 152;

III: 237

Military Personnel Center records,

II: 151;

III: 238;

IV: 151;

VI: 136

Mortality Updates, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1989, 1991,

II: 32

Reproductive Outcomes,

II: 32

Serum Dioxin Level Follow-Up Examination Results,

II: 32

TCDD half-life investigations,

II: 104–105

Vietnam casualties,

I: 83

women veterans mortality studies,

II: 152–153

See also Air Force Health Study (AFHS);

Operation Ranch Hand;

Ranch Hand study

US Army,

I: 81, 280, 281, 702;

II: 140, 185;

IV: 121–122, 126

Army Chemical Corps Vietnam Veterans Health Study proposal,

II: 24

Army I Corps,

IV: 157

Environmental Support Group (ESG),

II: 152

Vietnam casualties,

I: 83

Vietnam veteran studies,

II: 201, 226, 244;

III: 240, 241, 283, 294, 298, 313, 315, 318, 338, 339, 344, 346, 348, 365, 373, 380, 485, 512, 517;

IV: 21

women veterans mortality studies,

II: 152–153, 201

See also US Army Chemical Corps (ACC);

US Special Forces

US Army Chemical Corps (ACC),

I: 13, 15, 16–17, 94–95, 272, 273, 286, 394, 470, 571, 703–704, 705, 711, 722–725;

II: 5, 23, 24, 101, 103, 104, 201–202, 245;

III: 6, 23, 138–139, 146–147, 241, 272, 298, 309, 314, 344, 358–359, 385, 389, 485, 512, 517;

IV: 120–124, 157, 287;

V: 10–11, 233–234, 525;

VI: 4, 140, 188, 492

US Coast Guard,

I: 81

US Congress,

I: 2, 31, 46–52;

III: 25–28, 237, 240;

VI: 138

See also Congressional hearings;

Legislation

US Marine Corps,

I: 81, 96, 280, 545, 702, 710;

II: 185, 201, 226, 244;

III: 140;

IV: 121

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

I: 542, 545, 546–547

Vietnam casualties,

I: 83

Vietnam veterans studies,

III: 241, 242, 283, 294, 298, 309, 313, 315, 338, 339, 346, 348, 365, 373, 380, 485, 489, 512, 517;

IV: 287, 298, 339

women veterans mortality studies,

II: 152–153

US Military Assistance Command,

III: 138;

IV: 119;

VI: 183

US Navy,

I: 81, 280–281, 286;

II: 185, 228;

III: 339, 344

herbicide use in,

I: 95;

II: 104;

III: 135, 139, 140

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma odds ratio in,

I: 542

Vietnam casualties,

I: 83

women veterans mortality studies,

II: 152–153

US Special Forces,

I: 286;

II: 103–104;

III: 138

USDA. See Department of Agriculture, US

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

USSR,

I: 317;

III: 224

See also Russia

Utah,

I: 560;

II: 241

Uterine cancer,

I: 506;

III: 329, 333;

V: 312;

VI: 80–81

herbicide association evidence,

I: 13;

II: 6, 211, 213;

III: 333;

IV: 323–324;

VI: 273

See also Reproductive system cancers, women

UV. See Ultraviolet radiation

V

Valcular heart disease,

VI: 7

VAO. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam

Verona, Missouri,

II: 128–129;

III: 219, 220;

IV: 135, 148;

V: 105

Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors,

II: 333;

III: 503

VES. See Vietnam Experience Study

Veterans. See Foreign veterans;

Vietnam veterans;

Women veterans

Veterans Administration. See Department of Veterans Affairs, US (DVA)

Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (VAO),

II: 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 35, 45, 63, 65, 71, 89, 90, 91, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 104, 107, 112, 132, 176, 179, 180, 181, 187, 190, 196, 207, 209, 210, 214, 218, 225, 228, 232, 236, 237, 246, 247, 249, 250, 266, 271, 278, 279, 286, 293, 296, 300, 305, 312, 323, 328, 357;

III: 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 32, 43, 85, 124, 125, 126, 132, 150, 157, 169, 220, 221, 223, 286, 303, 311, 320, 359, 389, 390, 416, 434, 435, 519, 522;

IV: 5, 156–159;

V: 1–2, 12–14, 16–18, 20–21, 104;

VI: 2–3, 11, 20, 33–34, 119, 121–124, 126, 129, 133, 135

background,

II: 17–19;

III: 17–23;

IV: 15, 103–104, 110, 132, 137, 249, 268, 351

basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary,

III: 317–318, 321, 323;

IV: 308, 312–313;

V: 295–296

birth defects studies summary,

III: 436–439;

IV: 400–401, 404, 435;

V: 394

bladder cancer studies summary,

II: 225–226;

III: 347–348, 350–351;

IV: 340, 343–345;

V: 329

bone/joint cancer studies summary,

II: 204;

III: 302, 305;

IV: 288, 290–291;

V: 279

brain tumor studies summary,

II: 229;

III: 356–357, 360, 361;

IV: 351, 353–355;

V: 339

breast cancer studies summary,

III: 324–326, 328;

IV: 314–315, 319–320;

V: 301

childhood cancer studies summary,

II: 299;

IV: 418, 429

chloracne studies summary,

II: 318;

III: 479–480;

IV: 465;

V: 478

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy studies summary,

II: 310;

IV: 454

circulatory disorders studies summary,

II: 335–336;

III: 514;

IV: 506;

V: 503

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary,

II: 307;

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–442;

V: 448–449

congressional hearings on Agent Orange,

II: 27–28;

III: 25

Department of Veterans Affairs Task Force,

II: 4–26;

III: 24–25

diabetes mellitus studies summary,

II: 330;

III: 496–497;

IV: 482, 487, 488, 490, 492;

V: 486

federal government response to concerns over military use of herbicides in Vietnam,

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

female reproductive cancers studies summary,

II: 211–212;

III: 330–331, 332, 333;

IV: 321, 324–325

gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary,

II: 177–178;

III: 268, 274–281;

IV: 251, 256;

V: 244–245

gastrointestinal ulcers studies summary,

II: 334;

III: 510;

IV: 500;

V: 500

health outcomes conclusions,

II: 19–23;

III: 19–20;

IV: 11, 18–19, 20, 21, 384, 385, 414, 465, 467, 471, 513, 514;

V: 6–9;

VI: 13–18

hepatobiliary cancers studies summary,

III: 282–283, 287–288;

IV: 268, 269;

V: 259–260

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

II: 142–143, 144, 145–146;

III: 197–202, 203–205, 275, 277, 279, 281, 283, 288, 291, 301, 316, 323, 328, 336, 342, 345, 350–351, 354, 369, 382, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 479, 520;

IV: 147–149, 261, 264, 266–267, 271–272, 276, 286, 291

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

II: 114, 115–116, 117–118, 119–120, 121–126;

III: 170–174, 176–178, 180–182, 183–185, 188–196, 274–275, 276–277, 278–279, 280, 282–283, 286, 291, 294, 300–301, 305, 310, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332, 333, 335–336, 345, 350, 354, 360, 367–369, 374–376, 381–382, 391–392, 454, 455, 456, 459, 496, 520;

IV: 137, 139, 140–142, 144–146, 257–261, 263, 265–266, 271, 276, 280, 285, 290

Hodgkin’s disease studies summary,

II: 235;

III: 372, 374–375, 376;

IV: 365, 368;

V: 356

immune system disorders, studies summary,

II: 327;

III: 488–489;

IV: 477;

V: 484

impact of report,

II: 24–26;

III: 23–25

infertility studies summary,

II: 280;

III: 445–446, 450;

IV: 406, 409

laryngeal cancer studies summary,

III: 293, 294;

IV: 277, 280;

V: 268–269

legislation on Agent Orange,

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

leukemia studies summary,

II: 245;

III: 385–386, 391–392;

IV: 378–379, 381, 383;

V: 368

lipid abnormalities studies summary,

II: 333;

III: 504, 520, 521;

IV: 483

liver toxicity studies summary,

II: 332;

III: 510;

IV: 500

low birthweight studies summary,

III: 456–457, 459;

IV: 399, 400, 412;

V: 423

lung cancer studies summary,

III: 296, 300–301;

IV: 281, 285–286;

V: 273

melanoma studies summary,

III: 313–314, 316, 317;

IV: 302, 306;

V: 290

metabolic and digestive disorders, studies summary,

II: 330, 332, 333, 334;

IV: 500

motor/coordination dysfunction studies summary,

II: 309;

III: 469–470;

IV: 443–444

multiple myeloma studies summary,

III: 377–378, 381–382;

IV: 372, 375–376;

V: 362

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary,

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274;

V: 265, 274

neuroblastoma,

V: 426

next edition of,

VI: 94

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary,

II: 231–232;

III: 362–363, 367–369, 370–371;

IV: 356, 360–363;

V: 344

perinatal death studies summary,

II: 285;

III: 451, 454, 455, 456;

IV: 412

peripheral neuropathy studies summary,

III: 470–471, 473;

IV: 454

porphyria cutanea tarda studies summary,

II: 321–322;

III: 481–482;

IV: 467;

V: 479

prostate cancer studies summary,

III: 335–336, 341, 342;

IV: 327, 333–335;

V: 317–318

renal cancer studies summary,

II: 224;

III: 352–353, 354, 355;

IV: 346, 349–350

research recommendations,

II: 23–24;

III: 23;

IV: 21

respiratory disorders studies summary,

II: 324–325;

III: 483;

IV: 471;

V: 481

sex ratios of offspring,

IV: 429–430;

V: 433

skin cancer studies summary,

III: 312;

IV: 299–314

soft-tissue sarcomas studies summary,

II: 205–206;

III: 306–308;

IV: 292, 297–299;

V: 283

spontaneous abortion studies summary,

II: 283;

IV: 410;

V: 410

summary of,

II: 37–42

toxicology, overview,

III: 36;

IV: 22, 38, 41;

V: 30–31;

VI: 33

Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia),

V: 2, 13, 14, 16–17, 21;

VI: 2, 12, 16

Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes (Type 2 Diabetes),

IV: 1, 10–11, 16, 104;

V: 2, 12–13, 16, 486–487;

VI: 2, 12, 15, 135

Veterans and Agent Orange: Length of Presumptive Period for Association Between Exposure and Respiratory Cancer,

VI: 12, 27, 135

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 (Update 1996),

III: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 32, 37, 43, 44, 50, 85, 106, 109, 125, 126, 132, 150, 157, 159, 169, 220, 221, 222, 223, 266, 286, 295, 298, 303, 309, 311, 319, 320, 339, 349, 359, 389, 390, 416, 417–418, 424, 426, 428, 434, 435, 444, 458, 519, 522, 533;

IV: 1;

V: 2, 12–14,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

16–18;

VI: 2, 11, 33–34, 121–129, 133, 135

background,

III: 17–23;

IV: 15–21, 110, 132, 137, 247, 251

basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary,

III: 317–318, 321, 323;

IV: 308–314;

V: 295–296

birth defects studies summary,

III: 436–439;

IV: 400–401, 435;

V: 394

bladder cancer studies summary,

III: 347–348, 350;

IV: 330–345;

V: 329

bone/joint cancer studies summary,

III: 302, 305;

IV: 287–291;

V: 279

brain tumor studies summary,

III: 356–357, 360, 361;

IV: 350–355;

V: 339

breast cancer studies summary,

III: 324–326, 327, 328;

IV: 314–320;

V: 301

childhood cancers,

IV: 418

chloracne studies summary,

III: 479–480;

IV: 465;

V: 478

circulatory disorders studies summary,

III: 514;

IV: 506;

V: 503

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary,

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–442;

V: 448–449

congressional hearings on Agent Orange,

III: 25

Department of Veterans Affairs Task Force,

III: 24–25

diabetes mellitus studies summary,

III: 496;

IV: 482–483, 490;

V: 486

federal government response to concerns over military use of herbicides in Vietnam,

III: 25–30

female reproductive system cancers studies summary,

III: 330–331, 332, 333;

IV: 321–326;

V: 310

gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary,

III: 268, 274–281;

IV: 257–264;

V: 244–245

gastrointestinal ulcers studies summary,

III: 510;

IV: 500;

V: 500

health outcomes conclusions,

III: 19–20;

VI: 13–18

hepatobiliary cancers studies summary,

III: 282–283, 287–288;

IV: 267–272;

V: 259–260

herbicide environmental exposure studies,

III: 197, 201, 203, 275, 277, 279, 283, 288, 323, 328, 336, 342, 345, 354, 369, 375, 382, 392;

IV: 147, 149

herbicide occupational exposure studies,

III: 170, 172, 174, 175–176, 179, 183, 186–187, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282–283, 286, 291, 294, 300, 305, 316, 317, 321, 324–326, 328, 332, 333, 335–336, 345, 350, 354, 360, 367, 374, 381, 391, 496;

IV: 135–137, 140–142, 144

Hodgkin’s disease studies summary,

III: 373, 374, 375, 376;

IV: 364–371;

V: 356

impact of report,

III: 23–25

infertility studies summary,

III: 445–446;

IV: 406–408

laryngeal cancer studies summary,

III: 293, 294;

IV: 277–281;

V: 268–269

legislation on Agent Orange,

III: 26–27

leukemia studies summary,

III: 385–386, 391, 392;

IV: 377–383;

V: 368

lipid abnormalities studies summary,

III: 504;

IV: 493

liver disorders studies summary,

III: 510;

IV: 500

low birthweight studies summary,

III: 456–457;

IV: 412;

V: 423

lung cancer studies summary,

III: 296, 298, 300;

IV: 281–287;

V: 273

melanoma studies summary,

III: 313–314, 316, 317;

IV: 302–308;

V: 290

motor/coordination dysfunction studies summary,

III: 469–470;

IV: 444

multiple myeloma studies summary,

III: 377–378, 381, 382;

IV: 371–377;

V: 362

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary,

III: 290, 291;

IV: 273–276;

V: 265

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary,

III: 362–363, 367, 369, 370;

IV: 355–364;

V: 344

pancreatic cancer,

IV: 264–267

perinatal death studies summary,

III: 451;

IV: 412

peripheral neuropathy studies summary,

III: 470–471, 473;

IV: 18

porphyria cutanea tarda studies summary,

III: 481–482;

IV: 467;

V: 479

prostate cancer studies summary,

III: 335–336, 341, 342;

IV: 326–335;

V: 317–318

renal cancers studies summary,

III: 352–353, 354, 355;

IV: 345–350

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

research recommendations,

III: 23

respiratory disorders studies summary,

III: 483;

IV: 471–472;

V: 481

sex ratios of offspring,

IV: 429–430;

V: 433

skin cancer,

IV: 299–301

soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary,

III: 306–308;

IV: 291–299;

V: 283

testicular cancer studies summary,

III: 343–344, 345;

IV: 335–339;

V: 325

toxicology, overview,

III: 36;

IV: 22;

V: 30–31;

VI: 33

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 (Update 1998),

V: 2, 12–14, 16–18;

VI: 2, 11, 33–34, 121–129, 133, 135

Australian Veterans,

IV: 159

background of,

IV: 1, 3, 8–10, 110, 132, 247, 251, 399–400

basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary,

IV: 308–314;

V: 295–296

birth defects studies summary,

IV: 400–401, 435;

V: 394

bladder cancer studies summary,

IV: 330–345;

V: 329

bone/joint cancer studies summary,

IV: 287–291;

V: 279

brain tumor studies summary,

IV: 350–355;

V: 339

breast cancer studies summary,

IV: 314–320;

V: 301

childhood cancers,

IV: 418, 426

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies

summary,

V: 448–449

Department of Veterans Affairs and,

IV: 157–158

environmental exposure,

IV: 148–149

epidemiology,

IV: 257

female reproductive system cancers studies summary,

IV: 321–326;

V: 310

gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary,

IV: 257–264;

V: 244–245

health outcomes conclusions;

VI: 13–18

hepatobiliary cancers studies summary,

IV: 267–272;

V: 259–260

Hodgkin’s disease studies summary,

IV: 364–371;

V: 356

infertility studies summary,

IV: 406–408

laryngeal cancer studies summary,

IV: 277–281;

V: 268–269

leukemia studies summary,

IV: 377–383;

V: 368

low birthweight studies summary,

IV: 412;

V: 423

lung cancer studies summary,

IV: 281–287;

V: 273

melanoma studies summary,

IV: 302–308;

V: 290

mortality in,

IV: 254

multiple myeloma studies summary,

IV: 371–377;

V: 362

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary,

IV: 273–276;

V: 265

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary,

IV: 355–364;

V: 344

occupational exposure,

IV: 135–137, 139–142, 144

Operation Ranch Hand,

IV: 150, 152

pancreatic cancer,

IV: 264–267

prostate cancer studies summary,

IV: 326–335;

V: 317–318

quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models,

V: 27

renal cancers studies summary,

IV: 345–350

sex ratios of offspring,

IV: 429–430;

V: 433

skin cancer,

IV: 299–301

soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary,

IV: 291–299;

V: 283

spontaneous abortion,

IV: 408–412;

V: 410

testicular cancer studies summary,

IV: 335–339;

V: 325

toxicology overview,

IV: 22;

V: 30–31;

VI: 33

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 (Update 2000),

V: 2, 12–18, 21, 103;

VI: 2, 11, 21, 33–34, 58, 121–126, 129

basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary,

IV: 308–314;

V: 295–296

birth defects studies summary,

V: 394

bladder cancer studies summary,

V: 329

bone/joint cancer studies summary,

V: 279

brain tumor studies summary,

V: 339

breast cancer studies summary,

IV: 314–320;

V: 301

carcinogenicity,

V: 37

cell stress responses,

V: 34

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary,

V: 449–450

developmental toxicity,

V: 35–36

disease outcomes,

V: 34–37

energy metabolism,

V: 33–34

female reproductive system cancers studies summary,

V: 310

gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary,

V: 244–245

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

genotoxic effects,

V: 33

health outcomes conclusions,

VI: 13–18

Hodgkin’s disease studies summary,

V: 356

immunotoxicity,

V: 37

laryngeal cancer studies summary,

V: 268–269

leukemia studies summary,

V: 368

lung cancer studies summary,

V: 273

mechanisms of toxic action,

V: 33–34

melanoma studies summary,

V: 290

mitochondrial function,

V: 33–34

multiple myeloma studies summary,

V: 362

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary,

V: 265

neuroblastoma,

V: 426

neurotoxicity,

V: 35

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary,

V: 344

parkinsonism,

V: 453, 460

prostate cancer studies summary,

IV: 326–335;

V: 317–318

reproductive toxicity,

V: 35–36

respiratory disorders studies summary,

V: 481

sex ratios of offspring,

V: 433

soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary,

V: 283

testicular cancer studies summary,

V: 325

thyroid hormones,

V: 34

toxicology overview,

V: 30–31

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 (Update 2002),

VI: 2, 5–7, 11, 33–37, 43, 51, 55, 58–60, 66–73, 83–84, 88–92, 118, 121–126, 129–130, 135

health outcomes conclusions,

VI: 11–18

toxicology overviews,

VI: 33, 37

Veterans’ benefits. See Compensation, veterans

Veterans’ compensation. See Compensation, veterans

Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act of 1984. See Public Law 98-542

Veterans’ Education and Benefits Expansion Act of 2001,

VI: 1

Veterans’ Health Care, Training, and Small Business Loan Act of 1981. See Public Law 97-72

Veterans’ Health Care Eligibility Reform Act of 1996. See Public Law 104-262

Veterans’ Health Programs Extension and Improvement Act of 1979,

III: 240

Veterans’ service organizations,

VI: 20

Vibrotactile abnormalities,

V: 466, 468

Vietnam,

III: 533;

VI: 134, 181–182

herbicide latency issues, methodology,

II: 13;

III: 12–14

herbicide targeting in,

I: 99–106;

IV: 116–117

herbicide use in, concerns about,

I: 29–32, 45;

II: 1, 2, 4, 11, 17, 18, 26;

III: 1, 2, 5, 12, 13, 17, 18, 25;

V: 3, 30–31, 229–232

research in,

I: 30–31

troop movements in,

I: 52–53, 96, 287

US casualties in,

I: 82–83

US involvement,

I: 75–76, 84

US military herbicide use in,

I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 84–85, 89–93, 94–96, 98–107, 286;

II: 17, 18, 26, 27–32;

III: 135–142;

V: 116–117;

VI: 120

See also Ca Mau peninsula;

Con Thieu province, Vietnam;

Hanoi, Vietnam;

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;

Khe Sanh-Thonh Son Lam area;

Mekong Delta;

Rung Sat Special Zone;

Vietnamese

Vietnam Experience Study (VES),

III: 26, 240, 512;

VI: 139, 186

birth defects in offspring,

II: 288, 289, 290;

III: 436, 438, 439, 445

cancer mortality in,

I: 444–445

childhood cancer in,

I: 629;

II: 300

chloracne in,

I: 677

circulatory disorders in,

I: 702

exposure assessment use,

II: 101;

III: 146

hepatobiliary cancers,

II: 185;

III: 283

Hodgkin’s disease in,

I: 556

immune system disorders in,

I: 696

infertility in,

II: 280

liver cancer in,

I: 455

low birthweight outcomes in,

I: 626

lung cancer in,

I: 469

methodology,

I: 57–58, 281, 284, 389–391

multiple myeloma,

II: 244

neonatal death in,

I: 622

neurologic/neuropsychiatric outcomes in,

I: 656

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

I: 542–543

origins,

I: 50

reproductive outcomes in,

I: 601, 609, 610–611, 626, 632

respiratory cancer in,

II: 201

respiratory disorders in,

I: 710–711

spina bifida in offspring,

II: 9;

IV: 8

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

Vietnam herbicides used by military,

II: 26–27;

VI: 182–186

Vietnam Veteran Agent Orange Health Study,

I: 741

Vietnam veterans,

I: 1;

II: 2;

V: 20–21;

VI: 2, 5, 10, 491–493

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy,

II: 313;

III: 473;

IV: 6, 459

advocacy groups,

I: 60–61

Air Force research activities,

II: 31–32;

III: 28–29;

IV: 13, 42–43, 150–156, 160–161

altered sperm parameters in,

I: 632, 634;

III: 445, 446, 450;

IV: 7

amyloidosis,

IV: 7;

V: 507;

VI: 473

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,

VI: 422

Australian,

I: 61, 91, 406, 418, 444, 470, 496–497, 546, 614–615, 633, 702, 710;

II: 113, 149, 160, 202, 293;

III: 9, 216–217, 218, 237, 244–245, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 413, 424, 425, 469, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517;

IV: 9, 10, 159–160, 322–333, 402, 421–422;

VI: 141

autoimmune disease in,

I: 698, 699

basal/squamous cell skin cancer in,

III: 323;

IV: 309–310;

V: 298, 300;

VI: 265

birth defects in children of,

I: 609–615, 618;

II: 288–296, 298, 300;

III: 435, 436, 437–438;

IV: 7, 402;

V: 402–403; 339, 340, 343, 346,

VI: 365

bladder cancer in,

I: 517;

II: 223–224;

III: 349, 351;

IV: 7, 342;

V: 332, 333;

VI: 292

bone/joint cancer in,

I: 473, 474–475;

II: 204;

III: 303, 305;

IV: 7, 289;

V: 281;

VI: 245

brain tumors in,

I: 522, 523, 525;

III: 358–359, 361;

IV: 7, 352;

V: 342, 343;

VI: 302

breast cancer in,

II: 213, 217, 218;

III: 326, 328, 329;

IV: 7, 316;

V: 304, 309;

VI: 270

cancer expected incidence,

I: 439–440, 442, 446, 452, 461, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564;

II: 176–177;

III: 266–267, 430–431;

IV: 249–250

cancer in children of,

I: 629, 630–631;

II: 299;

IV: 7, 420–422;

V: 430–431

cancer mortality,

I: 444–445

cancer studies,

I: 391–393, 401, 402–403, 405, 436–438;

II: 176–177;

III: 266–267, 430–431

chloracne in,

I: 677–679;

II: 317, 318, 321;

III: 479–480;

IV: 6, 135, 485;

V: 479;

VI: 438

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy in,

II: 311;

circulatory disorders in, I: 702–705;

II: 336;

IV: 7, 456

III: 516–518;

IV: 7, 508–509;

VI: 471

class action suit,

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders in,

II: I: 34–35 318;

III: 469;

IV: 7, 443;

V: 449–451

colon cancer in,

V: 252

compensation for,

I: 34–35, 47, 50–51, 55–56;

II: 28–29, 30–31;

III: 26–27, 28

congressional responses to concerns of,

I: 46–52;

II: 27–29;

III: 25–28

defining,

I: 78

demographics,

I: 79, 80–84

developmental toxicity,

II: 72

diabetes mellitus in,

I: 684, 685, 698;

II: 330;

III: 495, 497, 498, 500, 502;

IV: 6, 485–487;

V: 489–490, 491;

VI: 450–455

disabilities discharges,

I: 32

disease increased risk for,

I: 14–15, 221, 225–226, 247–248, 578;

II: 14, 22–23, 88, 89, 91, 218, 223, 251, 276, 298, 300–301, 314, 321, 323; 23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 397,

III: 14–15, 22–430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525;

IV: 12, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 323–324, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 403, 407, 411–412, 413, 305–306, 311, 318, 417, 426, 466, 468, 475, 489, 495, 505, 510, 513;

V: 246, 264, 268, 272, 278, 282, 287, 295, 300, 309, 316, 324, 328, 333, 338, 343, 355, 361, 366, 372, 376, 405, 409, 420–421, 422, 425, 432, 441, 472, 479, 480, 483, 485, 492, 498, 502, 506, 510, 518–519;

VI: 221, 226, 230, 234, 241, 245, 251, 261, 265, 270, 275, 283, 284, 292, 296, 302, 312, 319, 325, 333, 337, 341, 365, 372, 378, 379, 383, 398, 410, 420, 422, 429, 430–431, 438, 440, 443, 448, 456, 463, 466, 471, 473, 478, 481

distribution by branch of service,

I: 81

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

endometriosis in,

VI: 478

Environmental Protection Agency research activities,

II: 32;

III: 29–30

epidemiologic studies,

I: 50, 57–59, 62–63, 384–418;

II: 3, 6–7, 28, 113, 149–161;

III: 26, 206–217, 236–245, 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 283, 285–286, 288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358–359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 521;

IV: 150–160, 255, 269, 275, 278, 283, 294–295, 303–304, 309–310, 316, 322–323, 329, 336–337, 342, 347, 357–358, 366–367, 373, 380, 402, 411, 420–422, 474, 485–487, 494, 502–504, 508–509;

V: 177–193;

VI: 132–133, 551–568

exposure assessment,

I: 234–235;

VI: 17–18, 186–191

federal government activities/research on military use of herbicides,

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

female reproductive system cancers in,

I: 505, 511–512, 577;

II: 211, 212;

III: 333;

IV: 7, 322–323;

V: 311, 312, 313, 314–315;

VI: 275

gastrointestinal disorders in,

I: 691, 692;

III: 512–513;

IV: 502–504;

V: 502;

VI: 466

gastrointestinal tract cancers in,

I: 446;

II: 177, 180–181;

IV: 7, 255;

V: 245–246;

VI: 220

genitourinary tract cancers in,

I: 513, 518, 522;

II: 223–224;

III: 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281;

IV: 7, 342

health care of,

II: 28, 29;

III: 26, 27

health concerns of,

I: 1, 32–34, 46–47;

II: 17–24, 26–27;

III: 17–30

hepatic enzyme disorders in,

I: 687

hepatobiliary cancers in,

I: 455, 457;

II: 181, 185, 187;

III: 283, 285–286, 288;

IV: 7, 269;

V: 264;

VI: 226

herbicide exposure assessment issues,

II: 4–5, 14, 17–24, 26–27;

III: 2, 5–6, 142, 143, 146–150;

IV: 122–127;

V: 28

herbicide exposure assessment strategies for,

I: 270–284;

II: 99–109;

III: 144–145

Hodgkin’s disease in,

I: 526, 554–556, 557;

II: 235, 236;

III: 372, 373, 376;

IV: 6, 366–367;

V: 359–360, 361;

VI: 319

immune modulation in,

I: 695–696, 699;

III: 489, 491

immune system disorders,

VI: 448

individual exposures,

VI: 18

infertility,

I: 632, 633, 634;

II: 280;

III: 445, 446, 450;

IV: 7;

VI: 372

International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities,

III: 30

kidney cancer in,

VI: 286

laryngeal cancer in,

III: 294–295;

IV: 6, 9, 278;

V: 272;

VI: 234

latency relevance for assessing herbicides effect on cancer risk in,

II: 276;

III: 12–13, 430–431

legislation concerning herbicide exposure and health of,

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

leukemia in,

I: 13, 564, 570, 571–572;

II: 245, 246;

III: 385, 386, 389, 392;

IV: 7, 380;

V: 371;

VI: 333, 337

lipid abnormalities in,

I: 689, 692;

II: 333;

III: 505–506, 521;

IV: 7, 494;

VI: 463

liver toxicity in,

II: 332;

III: 512–513;

IV: 502–504

low birthweight outcomes for,

I: 626, 628;

III: 457, 459;

IV: 7;

V: 423–424, 425;

VI: 383

lung cancer in,

III: 298, 301;

IV: 6, 283;

V: 278;

VI: 240

melanoma in,

III: 316, 317;

IV: 303–304;

V: 288, 289, 292, 293–294;

VI: 256–259

military experiences,

I: 75, 82, 272, 286, 399

motor/coordination dysfunction in,

I: 659–660, 662;

II: 309, 310;

III: 469, 470;

IV: 7, 448

multiple myeloma in,

I: 526, 562, 563;

II: 244;

III: 380, 382;

IV: 6, 10, 373;

V: 365;

VI: 325

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer in,

I: 459, 460;

II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 7, 275;

V: 268;

VI: 229–230

National Personnel Records Center listing,

I: 17

neural tube defects in offspring, numbers,

II: 297;

IV: 7, 18, 404–405;

V: 16

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

neurobehavioral disorders in,

II: 305, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314;

III: 467, 468;

IV: 457–459;

V: 472;

VI: 410

neuropsychiatric outcomes,

I: 653–656, 658;

II: 308;

III: 469;

IV: 443;

VI: 430–431

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in,

I: 526, 541–548, 549;

II: 234;

III: 363, 365, 370–371;

IV: 6, 357–358;

V: 348–350, 354, 355;

VI: 312

number of,

I: 3, 4, 74, 75–80

outreach activities,

II: 31;

III: 28 (See also Air Force Health Study [AFHS]; Compensation, veterans; Demographic data, Vietnam veterans; Operation Ranch Hand; Risk assessment)

pancreatic cancer in,

V: 258–259

parkinsonism in,

II: 309–310;

VI: 420

perinatal deaths in offspring,

II: 285;

III: 454, 455, 456;

IV: 7;

VI: 379

peripheral nervous system disorders in,

I: 665, 666;

II: 311, 313;

III: 473, 475;

IV: 6, 7, 456;

VI: 429

porphyria cutanea tarda in,

I: 681, 682–683;

II: 321–322, 323;

III: 481, 482;

IV: 6, 8;

V: 480;

VI: 440

prostate cancer in,

I: 513, 518, 519, 522;

II: 9, 217–218, 221, 223;

III: 336, 338, 339, 340, 342;

IV: 6, 8, 10, 329;

V: 321, 322;

VI: 281, 283

records-based exposure assessment,

I: 271–280;

IV: 121–126

records identification,

II: 24–25

rectal cancer in,

V: 256

renal cancers in,

III: 352, 353, 355;

IV: 7, 347;

VI: 296

reproductive outcomes,

I: 405–406, 418, 601–603, 609–615, 618, 620–622, 625;

II: 71, 278, 300–301;

III: 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459;

IV: 7, 402;

VI: 398

research recommendations,

II: 23–25;

III: 23;

V: 523–525

respiratory cancers in,

I: 469–470, 472;

II: 190, 201–202, 203;

IV: 6, 283

respiratory disorders in,

I: 710–712, 713–714;

III: 485–486;

IV: 7, 474;

V: 483;

VI: 443

risk assessment for,

I: 14–15, 221, 225–226, 247–248, 578;

II: 14, 22–23, 89, 91, 251, 276, 298, 300–301, 314, 321, 323, 349–357;

III: 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 430–431;

IV: 20, 105–108;

V: 7, 9–10, 23;

VI: 9–10, 221

serum testing,

I: 20–21

skin cancer in,

I: 501, 505;

II: 209;

III: 312;

IV: 7, 301;

VI: 256–259, 265

soft-tissue sarcoma in,

I: 475, 492–498, 500;

II: 205, 208;

III: 309–310;

IV: 6, 294–295;

V: 286–287;

VI: 251

South Koreans,

I: 61–62;

VI: 1, 6–7, 188–189

spina bifida in offspring,

II: 9–10, 296, 298, 301;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438;

IV: 7, 10, 18, 402

spontaneous abortions in,

I: 601–603, 605;

II: 283;

IV: 7, 411;

V: 420–421;

VI: 378

state-sponsored studies of,

II: 152–153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292;

III: 213–215, 243–244;

IV: 158–159

stomach cancer in,

V: 249

suicide incidence,

I: 655–656

testicular cancer in,

II: 153;

III: 343–344, 345–346;

IV: 7, 336–337;

V: 326–327;

VI: 284

thyroid homeostasis,

VI: 481

twin studies,

I: 398–399, 406, 703, 711

Vietnamese veterans, Vietnamese studies of,

III: 245

women,

I: 50, 83–84;

II: 152–153, 180, 181, 190, 201, 204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216–217, 218, 223, 226, 228, 229, 231, 245, 278, 280;

III: 326–329, 333, 434–435;

IV: 316

Vietnam veterans’ exposure studies,

II: 154, 156–157, 158–159;

III: 206–209, 210–217, 275, 278, 279, 281, 283, 288, 291, 305, 310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 336, 342, 345–346, 351, 355, 370–371, 376, 382, 437–438, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 497, 521;

IV: 150, 156–158, 262, 264, 272–273, 276–277;

V: 118–127, 232–235;

VI: 134–142, 181–187

Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk,

II: 22–23;

III: 22–23

Vietnam Veterans of America,

I: 60

Vietnamese

birth defects and herbicide exposure,

II: 287–288;

V: 394, 400

cancer in,

II: 148;

III: 283

epidemiologic studies,

I: 599–601;

II: 113, 144–145, 148, 184, 287–288;

III: 202, 234, 283;

V: 172–173

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

herbicide environmental exposure,

II: 144–145, 148, 287–288;

III: 283

herbicide exposure assessment,

I: 269, 370–372;

II: 4–5, 108–109;

III: 156–157;

IV: 116–117;

V: 3, 229

herbicide exposure indices development,

II: 107–108

reproductive outcomes,

I: 599–601, 608–609;

IV: 148–149

research recommendations,

I: 731;

V: 11, 526;

VI: 10, 491–493

scientists in, studies of Vietnamese veterans,

III: 245;

VI: 493

Vietnamese Veterans,

IV: 160

Viral infection

immune system response,

I: 692–693

TCDD-enhanced susceptibility,

I: 149

teratogenic potential,

I: 607

See also Immune system disorders

Vitamin A,

I: 174

VLDL. See Very low density lipoprotein receptors

W

WAIS. See Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales

Wales. See United Kingdom

Walking abnormalities. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

War Research Service,

I: 25

Washington, D.C.,

II: 343;

III: 533;

V: 5, 400

Washington state,

I: 336–338, 341, 487–488, 535;

II: 149, 241;

III: 229, 230, 232, 234;

IV: 149, 215;

V: 117;

VI: 129, 133

Waste incineration workers,

V: 6

Wasting syndrome, TCDD-induced,

I: 162–166;

II: 76–77;

III: 80–83;

IV: 25, 31, 57, 76;

V: 56;

VI: 67–68

Weakness. See Motor/coordination dysfunction

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS),

I: 641;

V: 450–451

Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS),

V: 450–451

West Germany,

II: 328–329;

III: 223, 337, 379, 387, 483, 506, 511, 515

West Virginia,

I: 60, 404, 470, 496, 546, 621, 662–663, 686, 689, 700;

II: 202;

III: 243;

IV: 364, 371

See also Nitro, West Virginia

Western Europe,

II: 268;

III: 510

WHO. See World Health Organization

Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT),

V: 450–452

Wilm’s tumor,

I: 594;

V: 334;

VI: 292

See also Children, cancer in;

Kidney cancer

Wisconsin,

I: 37, 60, 336, 404–405, 445, 455, 470, 496, 517, 523, 534, 546, 556, 560, 702, 710;

II: 185, 202, 226, 229, 239, 241;

III: 229, 243, 283, 313, 348;

IV: 259, 262, 264, 267, 272, 291, 299, 301, 335, 339, 345, 350, 355, 361, 363–364, 371, 375

WMS. See Wechsler Memory Scale

Women. See Breast cancer;

Cervical cancer;

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Gender;

Ovarian cancer;

Reproductive disorders;

Reproductive system cancers, women;

Uterine cancer;

Women veterans

Women veterans,

I: 79;

II: 30

breast cancer estimated risk,

II: 218;

III: 329;

IV: 318;

V: 301

breast cancer expected incidence,

I: 440, 461, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564;

II: 213;

IV: 314;

V: 301

breast cancer in,

II: 213, 216–217;

III: 322, 324–328, 329;

IV: 314–320;

V: 300–301

circulatory disease in,

I: 702

epidemiologic studies,

I: 50, 81;

II: 28, 152–153, 180, 181, 190, 201, 204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213–217, 218, 219–223, 226, 228, 229, 231, 245, 278, 280;

III: 324–328, 333;

IV: 314–320

mortality studies,

I: 394–395, 470, 545;

II: 152–153, 180, 201

reproductive outcomes,

III: 434–435;

IV: 399–400;

V: 5

reproductive system cancers in,

II: 211, 212;

III: 333;

IV: 320–326;

V: 314–316

research recommendations,

I: 728

statistics,

I: 83–84

See also Reproductive system cancers, women

Women Veterans Health Programs Act of 1992. See Public Law 102-585

World Health Organization (WHO),

II: 282;

III: 30, 454, 492;

IV: 413, 415;

V: 372, 422;

VI: 37, 334, 379

TEF factors,

V: 26–27

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11242.
×

World War II,

I: 25, 32, 82;

II: 150, 268;

III: 237, 420;

VI: 135

WRAT. See Wide Range Achievement Test

X

Xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs),

II: 56, 57, 58, 71;

III: 66, 67, 104

Y

Yorkshire, England,

III: 234;

IV: 149;

V: 117

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