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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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GLOSSARY


Allele

A form of a particular gene.

Allogeneic Transplantation

The transfer of cells from one individual to another genetically different individual. That is, the individual receiving the transplant may or may not be related to the donor.

Autologous Transplantation

Transplanation in which the person’s own cells are collected and stored and then reinfused, generally after high-dose anticancer therapy


Chimerism

The presence of more than one genetically distinct set of cells in an individual.

Collection Center

The facility at which the hematopoietic stem cell collection takes place—the function of this facility will vary depending on the type of hematopoietic stem cell to be collected.

Cord Blood Bank

A center that maintains umbilical cord blood units. A cord blood bank may combine some or all of the activities of a donor center, a collection center, and a registry.

Cord Blood Transplant

The process by which a thawed hematopoietic progenitor cell unit from cord blood is infused into a patient for treatment.

Cord Blood Unit

Umbilical cord blood that has been processed, frozen, and stored for future use.


Double Cord Blood Transplantation

A transplant performed using two separate units of cord blood, rather than a single unit as used in a standard transplant.


Embryonic Stem Cell

Stem cells capable of differentiating into virtually any adult cell line. These cells are derived from human embryos that are less than 1 week old, usually surplus frozen embryos.

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD)

A common and serious complication of bone marrow or cord blood transplantation where there is a reaction of the donated cells to a patient’s own tissue. GVHD can lead to organ damage.


Haplotype

A set of genes that are linked closely enough to be inherited as a single set.

Hematopoiesis

The formation of blood or blood cells.

Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell (HPC)

A stem cell that has the ability to differentiate into cells capable of restoring myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, throbopoiesis, and immune cells that make up the functional compartments of the human hematopoietic system. These cells are typically derived from the bone marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood of humans.

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)

Part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHA), a group of closely linked loci, or gene locations, present in all humans, which plays an imperfectly understood but important role in immune phenomena.

Hemoglobinopathy

A disorder due to abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule. The best known hemogoblinopathy is sickle-cell anemia.


Immunosuppression

Suppression of natural immune responses. Can be achieved with certain drugs.


Mixed Bank

A bank principally collecting unrelated cord blood units donated for transplantation but also operating private facilities for low-risk autologous and family use. Money received from private banking activities helps to offset costs of the unrelated donor facility.


Private Cord Blood Bank

Bank storing cord blood units for autologous or family use. Most private banks charge for this service, although some may offer their services at no cost to families with a medical need.

Public Cord Blood Bank

Bank storing cord blood units donated for unrelated transplantation or research. Cord blood units may also be stored for autologous or family use where there is a known risk. The costs of processing and storing the cord blood unit are charged to the end user (transplant center or recipient). Public banks can be operated under either a nonprofit or for-profit cost model.


Registry

A list of records—such as units available in a bank, or volunteer bone marrow donors.


Stem Cells

Multipotent cells can differentiate into a variety of more specialized cells into the human body. Stem cells can be derived from bone marrow, stimulated peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, a variety of other sources, including embryos. However, in this report

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
×

the term will not refer to stem cells derived from embryonic sources. (See also: Embryonic Stem Cell; Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell.)


Transplant Center

A center that treats patients using transplantation of HPC to reconstitute bone marrow after high-dose chemotherapy. This treatment may be used for treatment of malignancy, bone marrow failure syndromes, inborn errors of metabolism, or some autoimmune conditions. In preparation for transplantation, a graft type and donor are selected. If the donor is unrelated, the transplant coordinator usually interacts with a registry or registries to secure the best HPC graft available to the patient.


Umbilical Cord Blood

Blood collected from the umbilical cord and placenta post delivery of the infant. The blood can be collected either prior to or after the delivery of the placenta.

REFERENCE

The CancerWEB Project. 2004. On-Line Medical Dictionary. [Online] Available: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd [accessed March 2005].

Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2005. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11269.
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With the potential for self-renewal and differentiation, the possibilities for stem cells are enormous. One specific type of stem cell, the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC), which is derived from umbilical cord blood (as well as adult bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood), holds particular promise. To make the most of these HPCs, the Institute of Medicine was asked to consider the optimal structure for a national cord blood program and to address pertinent issues related to maximizing the potential of stem cell technology. Cord Blood: Establishing a National Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank Program examines:

  • The role of cord blood in stem cell transplantation
  • The current status of blood banks already in existence
  • The optimal structure for the cord blood program
  • The current use and utility of cord blood for stem cell transplants
  • The best way to advance the use of cord blood units and make them available for research Expert advice from leaders in the fields of economics, public health, medicine, and biostatistics combine to make this very timely and topical book useful to a number of stakeholders.
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