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Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006)

Chapter: Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
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APPENDIX A
Acronyms and Abbreviations


ACIP

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

ADMET

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, Toxicity

AIDS

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

ART

Antiretroviral Therapy

ASM

American Society of Microbiology


BERD

Business Enterprise Research and Development

BIA

BioIndustry Association

BIO

Biotechnology Industry Organization

BIS

Bureau of Industry and Security

BWC

Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention


CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cDNA

Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon

CoV

Coronavirus

CWC

Chemical Weapons Convention


DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DIA

Defense Intelligence Agency

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DOD

Department of Defense

DPI

Dry Powder Inhaler

dsRNA

Double-stranded Ribonucleic Acid

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×

EGFR

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

EPO

European Patent Office


FDA

Food and Drug Administration


GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GFP

Green Fluorescent Protein

GM

Genetically Modified

GMO

Genetically Modified Organism


HA

Haemagglutinin

HHS

Department of Health and Human Services

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HPLC

High-performance Liquid Chromatography

HTS

High-throughput Screening

HUGO

Human Genome Organization


IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

ICGEB

International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

ICT

Information and Computer Technology

INPI

National Patent Office of Brazil

ISAAA

International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications


MAMP

Microbe-associated Molecular Pattern

MDI

Metered-dose Inhaler

MEMS

Microelectromechanical Systems

miRNA

Micro-ribonucleic Acid

mRNA

Messenger Ribonucleic Acid


NA

Neuraminidase

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NASSCOM

National Association of Software and Services Companies

NMR

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

NPT

Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

NRC

National Research Council

NSABB

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity

NSF

National Science Foundation

NSDD

National Security Decision Directive

NSG

Nuclear Suppliers Group

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPCW

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons


PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCT

Patent Cooperation Treaty

PDB

Protein Data Bank

pMDI

Propellant Metered-dose Inhaler


qPCR

Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction


REDI

Regional Emerging Diseases Intervention Center, Singapore

RISCS

RNA-induced Silencing Complexes

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

RNAi

Ribonucleic Acid Interference


SAR

Structure-Activity Relationships

SARS

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

SARS-CoV

SARS Coronavirus

SCF

Supercritical Fluid

SCNT

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

SIPI

State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China

siRNA

Small Interfering Ribonucleic Acid

SNP

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms


TLR

Toll-like Receptor


UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USPTO

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office


VEGF

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


WMD

Weapons of Mass Destruction

WTO

World Trade Organization

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×
Page 284
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×
Page 285
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2006. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11567.
×
Page 286
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Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways--leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. The globalization of scientific and technical expertise also means that many scientists and other individuals around the world are generating breakthroughs in the life sciences and related technologies. The risks posed by bioterrorism and the proliferation of biological weapons capabilities have increased concern about how the rapid advances in genetic engineering and biotechnology could enable the production of biological weapons with unique and unpredictable characteristics. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of Life Sciences examines current trends and future objectives of research in public health, life sciences, and biomedical science that contain applications relevant to developments in biological weapons 5 to 10 years into the future and ways to anticipate, identify, and mitigate these dangers.

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