Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
Dr. Stanley M. Lemon, M.D. co-chair, is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and Director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honor from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14 year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB In 1997, serving first as chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of positive-strand RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in antiviral and vaccine development, and has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee, and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee, of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and chairs the Board of Scientific Councilors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is
chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.
David A. Relman, M.D. co-chair, is an associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Dr. Relman received his B.S. degree in biology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his medical degree from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford as a research fellow and postdoctoral scholar. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1994. His major focus is laboratory research directed toward characterizing the human endogenous microbial flora, host-microbe interactions, and identifying previously-unrecognized microbial pathogens, using molecular and genomic approaches. He has described a number of new human microbial pathogens. Dr. Relman’s lab (relman.stanford.edu) is currently exploring human oral and intestinal microbial ecology, sources of variation in host genome-wide expression responses to infection and during states of health, and how Bordetella species (including the agent of whooping cough) cause disease. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, reviews, editorials and book chapters on pathogen discovery and bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Relman has served on scientific program committees for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and advisory panels for NIH, CDC, the Departments of Energy and Defense, and NASA. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the IDSA, the Board of Scientific Counselors at NIDCR/NIH, and the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine. He received the Squibb Award from IDSA in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.
Roy Anderson, Ph.D., FRS, is professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Head of the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London. Roy Anderson is a fellow of the Royal Society and a Foreign Member of the Institute of Medicine at the US National Academy of Sciences. He has published over 400 scientific papers on the epidemiology, population biology, evo-
lution and control of a wide range of infectious disease agents, including HIV, BSE, vCJD, parasitic helminths and protozoa, and respiratory tract viral and bacterial infections. His principal research interests are epidemiology, biomathematics, demography, parasitology, immunology, and health economics. He also has a keen interest in science policy and the public understanding of science. He has held a wide variety of advisory and consultancy posts with government departments, pharmaceutical companies and international aid agencies. Professor Anderson has been a member of SEAC since January 1998.
Steven M. Block, Ph.D., is a biophysicist at Stanford University, where he holds a joint appointment as a professor in the Departments of Biological Sciences and Applied Physics. He is also a Senior Fellow of the Stanford Institute for International Studies, and a member of the JASONs, a group of academicians who consult for the U.S. government and its agencies on technical matters related to national security. Prior to joining the Stanford faculty in 1999, Professor Block held positions at Princeton University (1994-1999), Harvard University (1987-1994), and the Rowland Institute for Science in Cambridge, MA (1987-1994). He received his undergraduate training in both physics and biology at Oxford University, earned his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology (1983), and conducted postdoctoral research at Stanford. Professor Block’s technical interests are in interdisciplinary science, particularly the biophysics of motor proteins. His laboratory pioneered the use of laser-based optical traps (“optical tweezers”) to study the nanoscale motions of these mechanoenzymes at the level of single molecules, and his group was the first to develop instrumentation able to resolve the individual steps taken by single kinesin motors moving along microtubules. Other biological systems currently under study in his laboratory include RNA polymerase, exonuclease, and helicase, enzymes that move processively along DNA. Professor Block is a strong proponent of nanoscience, but he is also an outspoken critic of the “futurist” element of the nanotechnology movement.
Christopher Chyba, Ph.D., is professor of astrophysical sciences and international affairs at Princeton University. Until July 2005, he was associate professor in the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University, and co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford Institute for International Studies. He holds the Carl Sagan Chair for the Study of Life in the Universe at the SETI Institute. His security-related research focuses on nuclear proliferation and biological terrorism. His planetary science and astrobiology research focuses on the search for life elsewhere in the solar system. A
graduate of Swarthmore College, Chyba studied as a Marshall Scholar at the University of Cambridge and received his Ph.D. in planetary science from Cornell University in 1991. He served on the White House staff from 1993 to 1995, entering as a White House Fellow on the National Security Council staff and then serving in the National Security Division of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). After leaving the White House, he drafted the President’s decision directive on responding to emerging infectious diseases, and authored a report for OSTP in 1998 on preparing for biological terrorism. He received the Presidential Early Career Award, “for demonstrating exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of science and technology during the 21st century.” He chaired the Science Definition Team for NASA’s Europa Orbiter mission and served on the executive committee of NASA’s Space Science Advisory Committee, for which he chaired the Solar System Exploration Subcommittee. Dr. Chyba currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee for International Security and Arms Control, on the Monterey Nonproliferation Strategy Group, and chairs the National Research Council’s Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. In October 2001, he was named a MacArthur Fellow for his work in astrobiology and international security.
Nancy Connell, Ph.D., is vice chair for research, department of medicine, and professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, and has been appointed director of the NJMS-Center for Biodefense. She is an NIH-funded basic scientist, a permanent member of the NIH Study Section on Bacteriology and Mycology-1, and serves as director of the Biosafety Level Three Facility of the NJMS-Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens. She is a graduate of Harvard Medical School and has been a faculty member at NJMS since 1992.
Freeman Dyson is now retired, having been for most of his life a professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He was born in England and worked as a civilian scientist for the Royal Air Force in World War II. He graduated from Cambridge University in 1945 with a BA degree in mathematics. He went on to Cornell University as a graduate student in 1947 and worked with Hans Bethe and Richard Feynman. His most useful contribution to science was the unification of the three versions of quantum electrodynamics invented by Feynman, Schwinger and Tomonaga. Cornell University made him a professor without bothering about his lack of Ph.D. He subsequently worked on nuclear reactors, solidstate physics, ferromagnetism, astrophysics and biology, looking for problems where elegant mathematics could be usefully applied. He has written a number of books about science for the general public. Disturbing
the Universe (1974) is a portrait-gallery of people he has known during his career as a scientist. Weapons of Hope (1984) is a study of ethical problems of war and peace. Infinite in All Directions (1988) is a philosophical meditation based on Dyson’s Gifford Lectures on Natural Theology given at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland. Origins of Life (1986, second edition 1999) is a study of one of the major unsolved problems of science. The Sun, the Genome and the Internet (1999) discusses the question of whether modern technology could be used to narrow the gap between rich and poor rather than widen it. Dyson is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and a fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 2000, he was awarded the Templeton Prize for progress in Religion.
Joshua M. Epstein, Ph.D., is a Senior Fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution, a member of the Brookings-Johns Hopkins Joint Center on Social and Economic Dynamics, and a member of the External Faculty of the Santa Fe Institute. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from MIT and is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He is also a member of the editorial boards of the journal Complexity, and of the Princeton University Press Studies in Complexity book series. His primary research interest is in the modeling of complex social, economic, and biological systems using agent-based computational models and nonlinear dynamical systems. He has taught computational and mathematical modeling at Princeton and the Santa Fe Institute Summer School. He has published widely in the modeling area, including recent articles on the dynamics of civil violence, the demography of the Anasazi (both in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) and the epidemiology of smallpox (in the American Journal of Epidemiology). His two most recent books are Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up, with co-author Robert Axtell, (MIT Press, 1996); and Nonlinear Dynamics, Mathematical Biology, and Social Science (Addison-Wesley/Santa Fe Institute, 1997). His book, Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling, is forthcoming from Princeton University Press.
Stanley Falkow, Ph.D., (NAS, IOM) is professor of microbiology and immunology and professor of medicine at Stanford University. Dr. Falkow is recognized internationally for his research related to the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Falkow is the former president of the American Society for Microbiology and has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine. He has received the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (1978), the Paul Erhlich Award from Germany (1980), the Brisol-Myers-Squibb Award for Infec-
tious Diseases Research (1997), and the Robert Koch Prize from Germany (2000). Dr. Falkow holds a B.S. in Bacteriology from the University of Maine, an M.S. in Biology from Brown University, and a Ph.D. in Biology from Brown University.
Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D., is Founding Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and Associate Professor in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as an editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an editor-in-chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the steering committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO (World Health Organization), PAHO (Pan American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Randall S. (Randy) Murch, Ph.D., received a B.S. degree in Biology from the University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington in 1974, an M.S. degree in Botanical Sciences from the University of Hawaii in 1976, and a Ph.D. degree in Plant Pathology from the University of Illinois in 1979. After 23 years of service as a special agent, he retired from the FBI in
November 2002. During his FBI career, he was assigned to the Indianapolis, Los Angeles and New York field divisions, and to the national security, (forensic) laboratory and investigative technology (engineering) divisions at FBI Headquarters and Quantico, Virginia. He served as a department head and deputy division head in the FBI Laboratory, as well as a deputy division head of the FBI’s electronic surveillance division (investigative technology). He has extensive experience in counterintelligence, counterterrorism, forensic science, electronic surveillance, WMD threat reduction, and outreach to those communities. He created the FBI’s WMD forensic investigation/S&T response program in 1996, and served as the FBI’s science advisor to the 1996 Olympics. From December 1999 to June 2001, he was detailed to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency as the director of DTRA’s advanced systems and concepts office. He has participated in National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, Defense Science Board and DTRA Threat Reduction Advisory Committee studies and panels and other senior review panels. He joined the Institute for Defense Analyses in December 2002, and now works to deliver creative solutions for difficult national security problems across a range of operational, science and engineering disciplines.
Paula Olsiewski, Ph.D., is leading the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s program to reduce the threat of bioterrorism. Since joining the Foundation in 2000, she has created a collaborative network from the public, private and government sectors that has become critical to the nation’s civilian biodefense movement. Among the many projects Dr. Olsiewski has facilitated is the Department of Homeland Security’s READY campaign, a public education effort that empowers Americans to prepare for potential terrorist attacks. Another important grant to the Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities produced model legislation for dealing with bioterrorism and catastrophic infectious diseases. Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation based on the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. A grant to the National Academies resulted in the Fall 2003 NRC Report Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism and led to the establishment of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity by the US Department of Health and Human Services in March 2004. During the 1990s, Dr. Olsiewski founded and directed a consulting practice, Neo/Tech Corp., providing expertise in structuring, implementing, and directing technology development programs. Before that, she was vice president of commercial development at Enzo Biotech, Inc. where she was responsible for overall management of product development, technology licensing and transfer programs. Dr. Olsiewski serves on numerous advisory committees and boards. She is a member of the MIT Corporation and was the
president of the MIT Alumni/ae Association 2003-2004. She is chairman of the Board of Trustees of Asphalt Green, Inc., a not-for-profit organization dedicated to assisting individuals of all ages and backgrounds achieve health through a lifetime of sports and fitness. Dr. Olsiewski received a B.S. in Chemistry from Yale College, and a Ph.D. in Biological Chemistry from MIT.
Chandra Kumar N. Patel, Ph.D., a member of the National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Sciences, is chief executive officer and chairman of the board of Pranalytica, Inc. and professor of physics and former vice chancellor of research at the University of California at Los Angeles. Until 1993, Dr. Patel served as executive director of the Research, Materials Science, Engineering and Academic Affairs Division at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Patel has an extensive background in several fields, to include materials, lasers, and electro-optical devices. During his career at AT&T, which began in 1961, he made numerous seminal contributions in several fields, including gas lasers, nonlinear optics, molecular spectroscopy, pollution detection and laser surgery. Dr. Patel has served on numerous government and scientific advisory boards and he is past president of Sigma Xi and the American Physical Society. In addition, Dr. Patel has received numerous honors, including the National Medal of Science, for his invention of the carbon dioxide laser.
Clarence J. (CJ) Peters, M.D., is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston and is Director for Biodefense in the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases at that institution. Before moving to Galveston in 2001, he worked in the field of infectious diseases for three decades with NIH, CDC, and the U.S. Army. He has been Chief of Special Pathogens Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia and previous to that, Chief of the Disease Assessment Division and Deputy Commander at USAMRIID. He was the head of the group that contained the outbreak of Ebola at Reston, Virginia and led the scientists who identified hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern U.S. in 1993. He has worked on global epidemics of emerging zoonotic virus diseases including Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, and Nipah virus. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University and has more than 275 publications in the area of virology and viral immunology. Dr. Peters is currently also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology.
George Poste, D.V.M., Ph.D., is chief executive of Health Technology Networks, a consulting group based in Scottsdale, Arizona, and suburban Philadelphia specializing in the application of genetics and computing in healthcare and bioterrorism defense. From 1992 to 1999 he was chief science and technology officer and president, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine and diagnostic products. He is chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003, he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing and neuromorphic engineering. He is a fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and distinguished fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board Certified Pathologist, a fellow of the Royal Society and a fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published over 350 scientific papers, co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology and infectious diseases and serves on the editorial board of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment, and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on healthcare and the challenges posed by bioterrorism.
C. Kameswara Rao, Ph.D., initially taught at the Department of Botany, Andhra University, Waltair, and served the Bangalore University from 1967 to 1998. He received the B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from the Andhra University, and a D.Sc., (honoris causa) from the Medicina Alternativa Institute, Open International University for Complementary Medicines, Colombo. He was a professor of botany and the chairman of the department of botany, and the department of sericulture at the Bangalore University. Currently, he is executive secretary for the Foundation for Biotechnology Awareness and Education. On a Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship and a Royal Society and Nuffield Foundation Bursary, Professor Kameswara Rao worked on the computer applications in
plant systematics, at the Natural History Museum, London, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the UK, besides some other institutions. Professor Kameswara Rao was the president of the Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy for 1999. He is a member of the Indian Subcontinent Plant Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission, IUCN. He is a member of the Programme Advisory Committee of the Botanical Survey of India and the Zoological Survey of India, Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of India. He is the executive secretary of the Foundation for Biotechnology Awareness and Education. Professor Rao’s research interests are, applications of computers and phytochemistry in plant systematics, and databases of medicinal plants. Recently, he was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the World Peace Foundation, Beijing, an affiliate of the UN, for his research work on Indian medicinal plants.
Julian Robinson, Ph.D., a chemist and patent lawyer by training had, previously held research appointments at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Free University of Berlin, and the Harvard University Center for International Affairs. He has been active in the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs since 1968. He has served as an advisor or consultant to a variety of national and international organizations, governmental, and nongovernmental, including the World Health Organization, other parts of the United Nations system, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the UK National Authority for the Chemical Weapons Convention. In association with the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, he directs the UK end of the Harvard Sussex Program (HSP), which is a collaborative research, teaching, and publication activity focused on chemical/biological-warfare armament and arms limitation. This is a subject on which he has published some 400 papers and monographs since 1967, including much of the six volume SIPRI study The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1971-76), Effects of Weapons on Ecosystems (1979), Chemical Warfare Arms Control (1984), NATO Chemical Weapons Policy and Posture (1986), and The Problem of Chemical-Weapon Proliferation in the 1990s (1991). Since 1988, he has been editing, with Matthew Meselson of Harvard University, one of the few journals in the field, The CBW Conventions Bulletin, now published quarterly from the Sussex end of HSP.
Peter A. Singer, M.D., MPH, FRCPC, is Sun Life Financial Chair in Bioethics and Director of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics and Professor of Medicine at the University of Toronto and University Health Network. He also directs the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Bioethics and the Canadian Program on Genomics and
Global Health at the University of Toronto. He studied internal medicine at the University of Toronto, medical ethics at the University of Chicago, and clinical epidemiology at Yale University. Singer is the recipient of awards that include the Nellie Westerman Prize in Ethics of the American Federation for Clinical Research, Young Educator Award of the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, American College of Physicians George Morris Piersol Teaching and Research Scholar, Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association Medical Scholarship, NHRDP National Health Research Scholar, CIHR Investigator, and CIHR Distinguished Investigator, Senior Fellow at Massey College, and the Award for Excellence from Yale University School of Public Health. He has published over 200 articles, held over $20 million in research grants, and trained over 50 graduate students and fellows. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges for Global Health Initiative, a Director of BIOTECanada, and board chair of Branksome Hall School for Girls. His contributions have included improvements in quality end of life care, fair priority setting in healthcare organizations, and teaching bioethics. His current research focus is global health, in particular harnessing genomics and nanotechnology to improve health in developing countries.
Christopher L. Waller, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in 1992. His graduate research efforts were directed at the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of antiedema agents. Following graduation, Dr. Waller accepted a postdoctoral fellowship under the direction of Dr. Garland Marshall at Washington University in St. Louis where he focused his efforts on the design HIV protease inhibitors. In 1993, Dr. Waller accepted a position with the U.S. EPA in which he was responsible for the development of structure-activity relationship and pharmacokinetic models as a research chemist and leader of a team of analytical, computational, and synthetic organic chemists, toxicologists, and biomedical engineers. From 1996-1999, Dr. Waller served as a Research Manager at OSI Pharmaceuticals. In this role, he managed a group of computational chemists, scientific application developers, and robotics engineers. In early 1999, Dr. Waller joined Eli Lilly- Sphinx Laboratories as a computational chemist and Head of Cheminformatics in the Discovery Chemistry group. Since 2001, Dr. Waller has been Associate Director of Research Informatics for Pfizer Global Research And Development, Ann Arbor Laboratories. Dr. Waller has published over 25 peer-reviewed articles and has received numerous honors and awards including The Board of Publications Award for the Best Paper in Toxicology and Pharmacology in 1996.