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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report

Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by a Master Services Agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (awarded November 2004); Grant 1906 between the Barr Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences (awarded September 2004); and funding from the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund (awarded April 2005); the Kendall Foundation (awarded March 2005); and the U.S. Green Building Council (awarded February 2005). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-10120-4

Copies of this report are available from the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 943, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3376.

Additional copies of this report are available from the
National Academies Press,
500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW AND ASSESS THE HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF GREEN SCHOOLS

JOHN D. SPENGLER,

Harvard University,

Chair

VIVIAN E. LOFTNESS,

Carnegie Mellon University,

Vice Chair

CHARLENE W. BAYER,

Georgia Institute of Technology

JOHN S. BRADLEY,

National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada

GLEN I. EARTHMAN,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

PEYTON A. EGGLESTON,

Johns Hopkins University

PAUL FISETTE,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

CAROLINE BREESE HALL,

University of Rochester

GARY T. HENRY,

Georgia State University

CLIFFORD S. MITCHELL,

Johns Hopkins University

MARK S. REA,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

HENRY SANOFF,

North Carolina State University

CAROL H. WEISS,

Harvard University

SUZANNE M. WILSON,

Michigan State University

Staff

LYNDA STANLEY, Director,

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer

PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
×

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT

HENRY J. HATCH,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia,

Chair

MASSOUD AMIN,

University of Minnesota

REGINALD DesROCHES,

Georgia Institute of Technology

DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant,

Scottsdale, Arizona

PAUL FISETTE,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

LUCIA GARSYS,

Hillsborough County, Florida

WILLIAM HANSMIRE,

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas

THEODORE C. KENNEDY,

BE&K, Inc.

SUE McNEIL,

University of Delaware

DEREK PARKER,

Anshen+Allen

HENRY G. SCHWARTZ, JR.,

Washington University

WILLIAM WALLACE,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

CRAIG ZIMRING,

Georgia Institute of Technology

Staff

LYNDA STANLEY, Director

MICHAEL COHN, Program Officer

KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This interim report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Karen Anderson, Florida Department of Health,

William J. Fisk, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Robert E. Fullilove, Columbia University,

Martin Moeck, Pennsylvania State University, and

William Rose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania, Emeritus, and Richard N. Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology, retired. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Contents

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

1

1

 

INTRODUCTION

 

8

   

 Green Schools Versus Conventional New Schools,

 

9

   

 The Element of Time,

 

9

   

 Modeling the Effects of Green Schools,

 

10

   

 Complexity of the Task,

 

13

   

 Committee’s Approach,

 

16

   

 Findings,

 

19

2

 

BUILDING ENVELOPE, MOISTURE MANAGEMENT, AND HEALTH

 

20

   

 Building Envelope and Moisture Management,

 

20

   

 Excessive Moisture and Health,

 

21

   

 Findings and Recommendation,

 

24

3

 

VENTILATION, POLLUTANT SOURCE CONTROL, HEALTH, AND PERFORMANCE

 

26

   

 Indoor Air Quality and Pollutant Source Control,

 

27

   

 Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Rates,

 

28

   

 Ventilation and Health,

 

30

   

 Ventilation and Comfort,

 

31

   

 Moisture Management in Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Systems,

 

31

   

 Findings,

 

32

4

 

LIGHTING, PERFORMANCE, AND HEALTH

 

34

   

 Lighting and Its Impact on the Visual and Circadian Systems,

 

35

   

 Daylighting and Student Learning,

 

37

   

 Lighting and the Circadian System,

 

39

   

 Daylighting, View, Performance, and Health,

 

40

   

 Findings and Recommendations,

 

40

5

 

NOISE, ACOUSTICS, STUDENT LEARNING, AND TEACHER HEALTH

 

42

   

 Noise and Student Achievement,

 

43

   

 Noise and Teachers’ Health,

 

45

   

 Findings and Recommendation,

 

45

6

 

BUILDING CONDITION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

 

46

   

 School Building Condition and Student Achievement,

 

47

   

 School Building Functionality and Student Achievement,

 

50

   

 Limitations of the Current Studies,

 

51

   

 Finding and Recommendation,

 

51

 

 

REFERENCES

 

53

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11574.
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Some educational professionals have suggested that so-called green schools would result in superior performance and increased health for students and teachers. While there is no commonly accepted definition of a green school, there are a number of attributes that such schools appear to have: low cost operations, security, healthy and comfortable, and an environment that enhances learning are among them. To determine the health and productivity benefits of green schools, the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, the Barr and Kendall Foundations, the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund, and the U.S. Green Building Council asked the NRC to examine available studies about the effects of green schools on student learning and teacher productivity. This interim report presents an evaluation of evidence for relationships between various health, learning, and productivity outcomes and five characteristics of green schools: the building envelope, ventilation, lighting, acoustics, and condition. The final report will present evaluations for additional characteristics, a synthesis of the results of all assessments, and promising areas of research.

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