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Appendix I Glossary Antihyperglycemic An agent that counteracts high levels of glucose in the blood Antioxidant A substance that inhibits the destructive effects of oxidation Beta-blockers A class of drugs used for various indications, but par- ticularly for the management of cardiac arrhythmias and cardioprotection after myocardial infarction. They block the action of endogenous catecholamines (epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine [nor- adrenaline] in particular) on Î²-adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system that mediates the fight-or-flight response Botanicals A drug, medicinal preparation, or similar substance obtained from a plant or plants Codex Ebers A famous Egyptian papyrus recording over 800 med- ical formulas CYP2D6 Enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body 454
APPENDIX I 455 Dietary supplement A product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet; contains one or more di- etary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and other sub- stances) or their constituents; is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; and is labeled in the front panel as being a dietary supplement Drug The term drug means (A) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopeia, official Homeo- pathic Pharmacopeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and (B) articles intended for use in the diag- nosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and (C) articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and (D) articles intended for use as a component of any articles specified in clause (A), (B), or (C). A food or dietary supplement for which a claim, sub- ject to sections 403(r)(1)(B) and 403(r)(3) or sections 403(r)(1)(B) and 403(r)(5)(D), is made in accordance with the requirements of section 403(r) is not a drug solely because the label or the labeling contains such a claim. A food, dietary ingredient, or dietary supple- ment for which a truthful and not misleading state- ment is made in accordance with section 403(r)(6) is not a drug under clause (C) solely because the label or the labeling contains such a statement Ergogenic aids Any external influences that can positively affect physical or mental performance. These include me- chanical aids, pharmacological aids, physiological aids, nutritional aids, and psychological aids. They may directly influence the physiological capacity of a particular body system, thereby improving perfor- mance; remove psychological constraints that detract from performance; or increase the speed of recovery from training and competition Food The term food means (1) articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, (2) chewing gum,
456 USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS BY MILITARY PERSONNEL and (3) articles used for components of any such article Food additive Any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to resultâdirectly or i Ândirectlyâin its becoming a component or other- wise affecting the characteristics of any food. This definition includes any substance used in the produc- tion, processing, treatment, packaging, transporta- tion, or storage of food GLUT-4 An important factor in the regulation of blood glu- cose, and the primary glucose transporter in skeletal muscle Hyperinsulinemic A condition in which the level of insulin in the blood is higher than normal. Caused by overproduction of insulin by the body. Related to insulin resistance Hypocaloric A diet characterized by a low number of dietary calories, usually 1,000â1,200 kcal/day MedWatch The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Med- ical Products Reporting Program is an initiative de- signed both to educate all health professionals about the critical importance of being aware of, monitoring for, and reporting adverse events and problems to the FDA and/or the manufacturer and to ensure that new safety information is rapidly communicated to the medical community, thereby improving patient care. The purpose of the MedWatch program is to enhance the effectiveness of postmarketing surveil- lance of medical products as they are used in clini- cal practice and to rapidly identify significant health hazards associated with these products Obese For adults, an individual with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 Overweight An individual with a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2
APPENDIX I 457 Pharmacovigilance The pharmacological science relating to the detec- tion, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short- term side effects of medicines. Generally speaking, pharmacovigilance is the science of collecting, moni- toring, researching, assessing, and evaluating infor- mation from health care providers and patients on the adverse effects of medications, biological prod- ucts, herbal products, and traditional medicines with a view to identifying new information about hazards associated with medicines and preventing harm to patients Phytates Compounds present in plant foods that bind iron and may prevent its absorption Rangers A specially trained elite unit of the United States Army Special Forces Special Forces are highly trained and organized elite groups of soldiers who take part in covert warfare, reconnaissance, counterterrorism, and other spe- cialized and dangerous missions. They include U.S. Army Special Forces, Navy SEALs (Sea, Air, Land) and Special Warfare Combatant Craft Crewmen, Air Force Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen Thermogenics Supplements that induce the production of heat