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References SUMMARY National Education Goals Panel. (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. Washington, DC: Author. Chapter 1 National Research Council. (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy, B.T. Bowman, M.S. Donovan, and M.S. Burns (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, J.P. Shonkoff and D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Chapter 2 Brown, G., Scott-Little, C., Amwake, L., and Wynn, L. (2007). A review of methods and instruments used in state and local school readiness evaluations. (Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 004.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. 377

378 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Center on Education Policy. (2007). Reading first: Locally appreciated, nationally troubled. Washington, DC: Author. Coleman, M.R., Buysse, V., and Neitzel, J. (2006). Recognition and response: An early intervening system for children at-risk for learning disabilities. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2003a). Building an assessment system to support successful early learners: The role of child assessment in program evaluation and improvement. Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www. ccsso.org/Projects/scass/projects/early_childhood_education_assessment_ consortium/publications_and_products/3002.cfm [accessed August 2008]. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2003b). Key considerations building an assessment system to support successful early learners: Overview (fact sheet). Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.ccsso.org/Projects/scass/ projects/early_childhood_education_assessment_consortium/publications_ and_products/3002.cfm [accessed August 2008]. Division for Early Childhood. (2007). Promoting positive outcomes for children with disabilities: Recommendations for curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation. Missoula, MT: Author. Dodge, D.T., Heroman, C., Charles, J., and Maiorca, J. (2004). Beyond outcomes: How ongoing assessment supports children’s learning and leads to meaningful curriculum. Young Children, 59(1), 20-28. Education Commission of the States. (2005, February). Access to kindergarten: Age issues in state statutes. Available: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/58/27/5827.doc [accessed February 1, 2008]. Fuchs, D., and Fuchs, L.S. (2006). Introduction to responsiveness to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 92-99. Graue, E. (2006). The answer is readiness—Now what is the question? Early Education and Development, 17(1), 43-56. Meisels, S.J. (1987). Uses and abuses of developmental screening and school readiness testing. Young Children, 42(2), 68-73. National Association for the Education of Young Children and National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. (2003). Early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. (2000). Still! Unacceptable trends in kindergarten entry and placement: A position statement. Available: http://naecs.crc.uiuc.edu/position/trends2000. html [accessed February 1, 2008]. National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force. (2007). Taking stock: Assessing and improving early childhood learning and program quality. Philadelphia: Author. National Research Council. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, C.E. Snow, M.S. Burns, and P. Griffin (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

REFERENCES 379 Neisworth, J., and Bagnato, S. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Assessment. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, M. McLean, and B.J. Smith (Eds.), DEC recommended practices book: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (pp. 45-70). Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Shepard, L.A. (1997). Children not ready to learn? The invalidity of school readiness testing. Psychology in the Schools, 34(2), 85-97. Shepard, L.A., and Smith, M.L. (1986). Synthesis of research on school readiness and kindergarten retention. Educational Leadership, 44(3), 78-86. Shepard, L., Kagan, S.L., and Wurtz, C. (1998). Principles and recommendations for early childhood assessments. Goal 1 Early Childhood Assessments Resource Group. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel. VanDerHayden, A.M., and Snyder, P. (2006). Integrating frameworks from early childhood intervention and school psychology to accelerate growth for all children. School Psychology Review, 35(4), 519-534. Chapter 3 Ackerman, D.J., and Barnett, W.S. (2006). Increasing the effectiveness of preschool programs. Preschool Policy Brief, 11. American Educational Research Association. (2005). Letter to Congress. Washington, DC: Author. Council of Chief State School Officers and Early Childhood Education Assessment Consortium. (2003a). Key considerations: Building a system of standards to support successful early learners: The relationship between early learning standards, program standards, program quality measures and accountability. Washington, DC: Author. Council of Chief State School Officers and Early Childhood Education Assessment Consortium. (2003b). Matrix of state early learning standards. Washington, DC: Author. Council of Chief State School Officers and Early Childhood Education Assessment Consortium. (2007). The words we use: A glossary of terms for early childhood education standards and assessment. Available: http://www.ccsso.org/Projects/ scass/projects/early_childhood_education_assessment_consortium/ publications_and_products/2892.cfm [accessed February 2008]. Gilliam, W.S., and Zigler, E.F. (2001). A critical meta-analysis of all impact evaluations of state-funded preschool from 1977 to 1998: Implications for policy, service delivery and program evaluation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15, 441-473. Hatch, J.A. (2001). Accountability shove down: Resisting the standards movement in early childhood education. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(6), 457-462. High/Scope Educational Research Foundation. (2002). Making validated educational models central in preschool standards. Ypsilanti, MI: Author. High/Scope Educational Research Foundation. (in press). Michigan school readiness program evaluation, grades 6-8 follow-up. Ypsilanti, MI: Author.

380 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Kagan, S.L., Moore, E., and Bredekamp, S. (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. National Education Goals Panel Goal 1 Technical Planning Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. McKey, R.H., and Tarullo, L. (1998). Ensuring quality in Head Start: The FACES Study. The Evaluation Exchange, 4(1). Meisels, S.J., Barnett, W.S., Espinosa, L., Kagan, S.L., et al. (2003). Letter to U.S. representatives concerning implementation of the National Reporting System. Available: http://www.nhsa.org/download/research/headstart letterforsenate.doc [accessed July 2008]. National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2006). NAEYC accreditation criteria. Available: http://www.naeyc.org/academy/NAEYC AccreditationCriteria.asp [accessed February 2008]. National Association for the Education of Young Children and National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. (2002). Early learning standards: Creating the conditions for success. Washington, DC: Author. National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force. (2007). Taking stock: Assessing and improving early childhood learning and program quality. Philadelphia: Author. National Institute for Early Education Research. (2005). The effects of the Michigan School Readiness Program on young children’s abilities at kindergarten entry. Rutgers, NJ: Author. National Research Council. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, C.E. Snow, M.S. Burns, and P. Griffin (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy, B.T. Bowman, M.S. Donovan, and M.S. Burns (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, J.P. Shonkoff and D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Pre-kindergarten Standards Panel. (2002). Pre-kindergarten standards: Guidelines for teaching and learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. Shepard, L., Kagan, S.L., and Wurtz, E. (1998). Principles and recommendations for early childhood assessments. National Education Goals Panel Goal 1 Early Childhood Assessments Resource Group. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2000). Head Start child outcomes framework. Washington, DC: Author.

REFERENCES 381 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2002). Child care and development fund: Report of state plans FY 2002-2003. Washington, DC: Author. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2003). Head Start child outcomes: Setting the context for the National Reporting System. Head Start Bulletin, 76. Available: http://eclkc.ohs. acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ecdh/eecd/Assessment/Child%20Outcomes/edudev_art_ 00090_080905.html [accessed August 2008]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2006a). Head Start performance measures center: Family and child experiences survey (FACES 2000). (Technical report.) Washington, DC: Author. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2006b). NRS social-emotional development rating webcast transcript. Washington, DC: Author. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2006c). Research to practice: Program performance measures for Head Start programs serving infants and toddlers. Available: http://www.acf.hhs. gov/programs/opre/ehs/perf_measures/reports/prgm_perf_measures/ perf_meas_4pg.html [accessed March 2008]. U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2005). Head Start: Further development could allow results of new test to be used for decision making. Washington, DC: Author. White House. (2002). Good start, grow smart: The Bush administration’s early childhood initiative. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President. Part II Kagan, S.L., Moore, E., and Bredekamp, S. (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. National Education Goals Panel Goal 1 Technical Planning Group. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. McCartney, K., and Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of early childhood development. Malden, MA: Blackwell. National Education Goals Panel. (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. Washington, DC: Author. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, J.P. Shonkoff and D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

382 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Chapter 4 Als, H., Butler, S., Kosta, S., and McAnulty, G. (2005). The assessment of preterm infants’ behavior (APIB): Furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research Review, 11, 94-102. Als, H., Gilkerson, L., Duffy, F.H., McAnulty, G.B., Buehler, D.M., Vandenberg, K., Sweet, N., Sell, E., Parad, R.B., Ringer, S.A., Butler, S.C., Blickman, J.G., and Jones, K.J. (2003). A three-center, randomized, controlled trial of individualized developmental care for very low birth weight preterm infants: Medical, neurodevelopmental, parenting and caregiving effects. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 24(6), 399-408. American Academy of Pediatrics. (1996). Eye examination and vision screening in infants, children and young adults. Pediatrics, 98(1), 153-157. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2003). Iron deficiency. In Pediatric nutrition handbook (5th ed.). Elk Grove, IL: Author. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). Lead exposure in children: Prevention, detection, and management. Pediatrics, 16(4), 1036-1046. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities. (2001). Developmental surveillance and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics, 108(1), 192-196. American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities. (2006). Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics, 118(1), 405-420. Bagnato, S.J., Neisworth, J.T., Salvia, J.J., and Hunt, F.M. (1999). Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS): Early childhood indicators of developmental dysfunction. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Baird, G., Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S., and Drew, A. (2000). Screening for autism at 18 months of age: 6-year follow- up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(3), 694-702. Banks, E.C., Ferrittee, L.E., and Shucard, D.W. (1997). Effects of low-level lead exposure on cognitive function in children: A review of behavioral, neuropsychological and biological evidence. Neurotoxicology, 18, 237-281. Bates, J.E., Freeland, C.A., and Lounsbury, M.L. (1979). Measurement of infant difficultness. Child Development, 50, 794-803. Beeghly, M., Brazelton, T.B., Flannery, K.A., Nugent, J.K., Barrett, D.E., and Tronick, E.Z. (1995). Specificity of preventative pediatric intervention effects in early infancy. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 158-166. Biondich, P.G., Downs, S.M., Carroll, A.E., Laskey, A.L., Liu, G.C., Rosenman, M., Wang, J., and Swigonski, N.L. (2006). Shortcomings in infant iron deficiency screening methods. Pediatrics, 117(2), 290-294. Blake, P.E., and Hall, J.W. (1990). The status of state-wide policies for neonatal hearing screening. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 1, 67-74.

REFERENCES 383 Botkin, J.R. (2004). Research for newborn screening: Developing a national framework. Pediatrics, 116, 862-871. Brazelton, T.B., and Nugent, J.K. (1995). The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Cambridge, England: MacKeith Press. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. (2007). The seventeenth mental measure­ ments yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. Camp, B.W. (2007). Evaluating bias in validity studies of developmental/ behavioral screening tests. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 28(3), 234-240. Capute, A.J., and Shapiro, B.K. (1985). The motor quotient: A method for the early detection of motor delay. American Journal of the Diseases of Children, 98, 692-697. Carroll, A.E., and Downs, S.M. (2005). Comprehensive cost-utility analysis of newborn screening strategies. Pediatrics, 117, S287-S295. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Tested and confirmed elevated blood lead levels by state, year, and blood lead level group for children < 72 mos. Atlanta: Author. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/surv/stats.htm [accessed October 2008]. Chandler, L., Andrews, M., and Swanson, M. (1980). The movement assessment of infants: A manual. Rolling Bay, WA: Infant Movement Research. Child Trends. (2004). Early childhood measures profiles. Washington, DC: Author. Clarke-Stewart, K.A., Fitzpatrick, M.J., Allhusen, F.D., and Goldberg, W.A. (2000). Measuring difficult temperament the easy way. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 21, 207-220. Coplan, J. (1993). Early language milestone scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Das Eiden, R., and Reifman, A. (1996). Effects of Brazelton demonstrations on later parenting: A meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21(6), 857-868. Dumont-Mathieu, T., and Fine, D. (2005). Screening for autism in young children: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and other measures. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Review, 11, 253-262. Emory, E.K., and Walker, E.F. (1982). Relationship between birth weight and neonatal behavior. In L.P. Lipsitt and T.M. Field (Eds.), Infant behavior and development: Perinatal risk & newborn behavior (pp. 21-31). New York: Ablex. Emory, E.K., Ansari, Z., Pattillo, R., Archibold, E., and Chevalier, J. (2003). Maternal blood lead effects on infant intelligence at age 7 months. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 188, S26-S32. Emory, E.K., Pattillo, R., Archibold, E., Bayorh, M., and Sung, F. (1999). Neurobehavioral effects of low-level lead exposure in human neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 181, S2-S11. Emory, E.K., Tynan, W.D., and Davé, R. (1989). Neurobehavioral anomalies in neonates with seizures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11(2), 231-240. Emory, E.K., Walker, E.F., and Cruz, A. (1982). Fetal heart rate part II: Behavioral correlates. Psychophysiology, 19(6), 680-686.

384 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Fisher, E.S., and Welch, H.G. (1999). Avoiding the unintended consequences of growth in medical care: How might more be worse. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(5), 446-453. Folio, M.R., and Fewell, R.R. (1983). Peabody developmental motor scales and activity cards: A manual. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources. Freed, G.L., Nahra, T.A., and Wheeler, J.R.C. (2004). Which physicians are providing health care to America’s children? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 22-26. Gilliam, W.S., Meisels, S.J., and Mayes, L. (2005). Screening and surveillance in early intervention systems. In M.J. Guralnick (Ed.), The developmental systems approach to early intervention. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Glascoe, F.P. (2003). Parents’ evaluation of developmental status: How well do parents’ concerns identify children with behavioral and emotional problems? Clinical Pediatrics, 42, 133-138. Glascoe, F.P. (2005). Screening for developmental and behavioral problems. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 173-179. Glascoe, F.P., Martin, E.D., and Humphrey, S. (1990). A comparative review of developmental screening tests. Pediatrics, 86, 5467-5554. Grandjean, P., and Landrigan, P. (2006). Developmental neurotoxicity of indus- trial chemicals. The Lancet, 368(9553), 2167-2178. Grantham-McGregor, S. (1984). Chronic undernutrition and cognitive abilities. Human Nutrition-Clinical Nutrition, 38(2), 83-94. Gravel, J.S., Fausel, N., Liskow, C., and Chobot, J. (1999). Children’s speech recognition in noise using omni-directional and dual-microphone hearing aid technology. Ear & Hearing, 20(1), 1-11. Ireton, H. (1992). Child development inventory manual. Minneapolis, MN: Behavior Science Systems. Jacobs, S.E., Sokol, J., and Ohlsson, A. (2002). The newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program is not supported by meta- analyses of the data. Journal of Pediatrics, 140, 699-706. Johnson, J.O. (2005). Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Winter, 2002. Current Population Reports (P70-101). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Kaye, C.I., and the Committee on Genetics. (2006). Introduction to the newborn screening fact sheets. Pediatrics, 118(3), 1304-1312. Lanphear, B.P., Dietrich, K., Auinger, P., and Cox, C. (2000). Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations, 10Mg/dl in US children and adolescents. Public Health Reports, 115, 521-529. Lanphear, B.P., Hornung, R., Ho, M., Howard, C., Eberli, S., and Knauf, D.K. (2002). Environmental lead exposure during early childhood. Journal of Pediatrics, 140, 40-47. Lloyd-Puryear, M.A., Tonniges, T., van Dyck, P.C., Mann, M.Y., Brin, A., Johnson, K., and McPherson, M. (2007). American Academy of Pediatrics Newborn Screening Task Force recommendations: How far have we come? Pediatrics, 117(5 Pt. 2), S194-S211.

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416 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Chapter 9 Duncan, S.E., and De Avila, E. (1998). Pre-Language Assessment Scale 2000. Monterey, CA: CTB McGraw-Hill. Espinosa, L. (2005). Curriculum and assessment considerations for young children from culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse backgrounds. Special Issue, Psychology in the Schools, 42(8), 837-853. Kim, H., Baydar, N., and Greek, A. (2003). Testing conditions influence the race gap in cognition and achievement by household survey data. Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 16. Mathematica Policy Research. (2006). Implementation of the Head Start National Reporting System: Spring 2005 update. Princeton, NJ: Author. Mathematica Policy Research. (2007). Language routing protocol developed for the First Five LA Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study, 2007-2008. Princeton, NJ: Author. Mathematica Policy Research. (2008). Introduction to conducting assessments as part of survey projects: Presentation for staff development trainings. Princeton, NJ: Author. Maxwell, K.L., and Clifford, R.M. (2004). School readiness assessment. Young Children: Journal of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, January, 10. Available: http://journal.naeyc.org/btj/200401/Maxwell.pdf [accessed February 2008]. Meisels, S.J., and Atkins-Burnett, S. (2006). Evaluating early childhood assess­ ments: A differential analysis. In K. McCarney and D. Phillips (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood development (pp. 533-549). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Rowand, C., Sprachman, S., Wallace, I., Rhodes, H., and Avellar, H. (2005). Factors contributing to assessment burden in preschoolers. Paper presented at the American Association for Public Opinion Research, May, Miami, FL. Available: http:// www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/1/6/7/2/ p16722_index.html [accessed July 2008]. Shepard, L., Kagan, S.L., and Wurtz, L. (1998). Principles and recommendations for early childhood assessments. Goal 1 Early Childhood Assessments Resource Group. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel. Snow, K.L. (2006). Measuring school readiness: Conceptual and practical considerations. Early Education and Development, 17(1), 7-41. Spier, E.T., Sprachman, S., and Rowand, C. (2004). Implementing large-scale studies of children using clinical assessments. Paper presented at the Children and the Mediterranean Conference, January, Genoa, Italy. Sprachman, S., Atkins-Burnett, S., Glazerman, S., Avellar, S., and Loewenberg, M. (2007). Minimizing assessment burden on preschool children: Balancing burden and reliability. Paper presented at the Joint Statistical Meetings, September, Salt Lake City, UT.

REFERENCES 417 Chapter 10 American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Associa­ tion, and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Baker, E.L., Linn, R.L., Herman, J.L., and Koretz, D. (2002). Standards for educational accountability systems. Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, University of California. Bruner, C., Wright, M.S., Gebhard, B., and Hubbard, S. (2004). Building an early learning system: The ABC’s of planning and governing structures. Des Moines, IA: SECPTAN. California Department of Education. (2003). Desired results for children and families. Sacramento: Author, Child Development Division. California Department of Education. (2005). Desired Results Developmental Profile-Revised (DRDP-R), Preschool Instrument. Sacramento: Author, Child Development Division. Espinosa, L.M. (2008). A review of the literature on assessment issues for young English language learners. Paper commissioned by the Committee on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children, The National Academies, Washington, DC. Espinosa, L.M., and López, M.L. (2007). Assessment considerations for young English language learners across different levels of accountability. Philadelphia: The National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force. García, E.E. (2005). Teaching and learning in two languages: Bilingualism and schooling in the United States. New York: Teachers College Press. Gilliam, W.S., and Zigler, E.F. (2004). State efforts to evaluate the effects of pre- kindergarten: 1977-2003. New Haven, CT: Yale University Child Study Center. Goodman, D.P., and Hambleton, R.K. (2003). Student test score reports and interpretive guides: Review of current practices and suggestions for future research. Amherst: University of Massachusetts School of Education. Hambleton, R.K., and Slater, S.C. (1997). Reliability of credentialing examinations and the impact of scoring models and standard setting policies. Applied Measurement in Education, 10, 19-38. Harms, T., Clifford, R., and Cryer, D. (1998). Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Revised ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. Harms, T., Cryer, R., and Clifford, R. (1990). Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale. (Revised ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. Herman, J.L., and Perry, M. (2002). California student achievement: Multiple views of K-12 progress. Menlo Park, CA: Ed Source. Jaeger, R.M. (1998). Evaluating the psychometric qualities of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards’ assessments: A methodological accounting. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 22, 189-210. Kagan, S.L., Tarrant, K., and Berliner, A. (2005). Building a professional development system in South Carolina: Review and analysis of other state’s experiences. New York: Columbia University National Center for Children and Families.

418 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Koretz, D.M., and Baron, S.I. (1998). The validity of gains in scores on the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Linn, R.L. (2003). Accountability: Responsibility and reasonable expectations. Educational Researcher, 32(7), 3-13. Meisels, S.J. (2006). Accountability in early childhood: No easy answers. Chicago, IL: Erikson Institute. Mitchell, A.W. (2005). Stair steps to quality: A guide for states and communities developing quality rating systems for early care and education. Alexandria, VA: United Way Success by Six. National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force. (2007). Taking stock: Assessing and improving early childhood learning and program quality. Philadelphia: Author. National Research Council. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Committee on the Foundations of Assessment, J. Pellegrino, N. Chudowsky, R. Glaser (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2006). Systems for state science assessment. Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement, M.R. Wilson and M.W. Bertenthal (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, J.P. Shonkoff and D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Neuman, S.B., and Roskos, K. (2005). The state of state pre-kindergarten standards. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(2), 125-145. New Jersey Office of Early Childhood Education. (2004). NJ early learning assessment system—Literacy. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Education. New Jersey Office of Early Childhood Education. (2006). NJ early learning assessment system—Math. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Education. Pianta, R.C. (2003). Standardized classroom observations from pre-K to third grade: A mechanism for improving quality classroom experiences during the P-3 years. New York: Foundation for Child Development. Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., and Frelow, V.S. (2003a). Creating the conditions for success with early learning standards: Results from a national study of state- level standards for children’s learning prior to kindergarten. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 5(2). Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., and Frelow, V.S. (2003b). Standards for preschool children’s learning and development: Who has standards, how were they developed, and how are they used? Greensboro: University of North Carolina.

REFERENCES 419 Smith, M., and Dickinson, D. (2002). User’s guide to the early language & literacy classroom observation toolkit. Available: http://www.brookespublishing.com/ store/books/smith-ellco/index.htm [accessed July 2008]. U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Standards and assessments peer review guidance: Information and examples for meeting requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Washington, DC: Author. Wainer, H. (1997). Improving tabular displays: With NAEP tables as examples and inspirations. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22, 1-30. Wainer, H., Hambleton, R.K., and Meara, K. (1999). Alternative displays for communicating NAEP results: A redesign and validity study. Journal of Educational Measurement, 36, 301-335. Chapter 11 American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Associa­ tion, and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Author. Christenson, S.L. (2004). The family-school partnership: An opportunity to promote learning and competence of all students. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 83-104. Goldenberg, C., Rueda, R., and August, D. (2006). Synthesis: Sociocultural contexts and literacy development. In D. August and T. Shanahan (Eds.), Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Youth and Children. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. National Education Goals Panel. (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. Washington, DC: Author. National Research Council. (1999). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Committee on Appropriate Test Usage, J.P. Heubert and R.M. Hauser (Eds.). Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. (2006). Systems for state science assessment. Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement, M.R. Wilson and M.W. Bertenthal (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, J.P. Shonkoff and D.A. Phillips (Eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Rueda, R. (2007). Motivation, learning, and assessment of English learners. Paper presented at the School of Education, California State University, Northridge, April.

420 EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT Rueda, R., and Yaden, D. (2006). The literacy education of linguistically and culturally diverse young children: An overview of outcomes, assessment, and large-scale interventions. In B. Spodek and O.N. Saracho (Eds.), Handbook of research on the education of young children (2nd ed., pp. 167-186). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rueda, R., MacGillivray, L., Monzó, L., and Arzubiaga, A. (2001). Engaged reading: A multi-level approach to considering sociocultural features with diverse learners. In D. McInerny and S.V. Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning (pp. 233-264). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Next: Appendix A: Glossary of Terms Related to Early Childhood Assessment »
Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Get This Book
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The assessment of young children's development and learning has recently taken on new importance. Private and government organizations are developing programs to enhance the school readiness of all young children, especially children from economically disadvantaged homes and communities and children with special needs.

Well-planned and effective assessment can inform teaching and program improvement, and contribute to better outcomes for children. This book affirms that assessments can make crucial contributions to the improvement of children's well-being, but only if they are well designed, implemented effectively, developed in the context of systematic planning, and are interpreted and used appropriately. Otherwise, assessment of children and programs can have negative consequences for both. The value of assessments therefore requires fundamental attention to their purpose and the design of the larger systems in which they are used.

Early Childhood Assessment addresses these issues by identifying the important outcomes for children from birth to age 5 and the quality and purposes of different techniques and instruments for developmental assessments.

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