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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2008. Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12446.
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Index 21st Century Learning Skills, 445 observational measures, 147-148, 149, 167, 201-202, 203, 204 program evaluation, 18-19, 35-36, A 54, 226-231 program impacts, 36 A Developmentally Appropriate purposes of assessments for, 34-37, Practices Template (ADAPT), 39-41 162-163, 175 selecting assessment tools, 40-41, Abecedarian Project, 104, 111 102, 201, 226-231 Access to health care, 75 social benchmarking, 36-37 Access to test data, 3 special considerations in using Accommodations assessments, 39-41, 119, 226- for children with disabilities, 5, 8, 231, 337 40, 250, 254, 259, 260, 267, 273, standards of, 307 276-279, 295-296, 298, 330-331, tools/instruments, 39-40, 259, 254 353, 367 universal design principles and, defined, 423 277 for English language learners, 250, validity of data, 40, 54-55, 198 254, 366 Accreditation standards, 45 Accountability. See also High-stakes Achenbach System of Empirically assessment Based Assessment, 81 appropriate use of assessments, Achievement tests, 30-31, 113, 131, 35-36, 39-41, 167, 198, 259 133, 136, 137, 140, 153, 236-237, current practice, 326 242, 254-255, 271, 423. See also demand for assessments, 1, 18-19, Readiness for school; individual 246, 280 instruments development of instruments for, Adapted EZ-Yale Personality/ 367-368 Motivation Questionnaire, 122, interpreting test data, 35 123, 128 465

466 INDEX Adaptive Social Behavior Index, 122 Appropriate use of assessments Administration for Children and accommodations for disabilities, Families (ACF), 20, 21, 23, 24, 5, 8, 267, 295-296, 298, 330-331, 25, 53, 55 353 Administration of assessments. See for accountability, 35-36, 39-41, also Implementing assessments 167, 198, 259 accommodations for children with age and, 3, 38, 71,194 disabilities, 272, 295-296 defining, 22, 184 to English language learners, 105, developmental delays and, 38, 271 116-117, 260, 291-295 domain definition and, 3, 184, 433 familiarity of assessor to child, English language learners, 3, 40, 185-186, 227, 286-288 250-251, 256, 258, 259, 292, 293, guidelines, 37-39, 268-269, 272 295, 298 individualization of, 272 guidelines for, 37-39, 270, 345-346, length of, 288-291, 294 353, 360 order of, 293-294 inclusivity and, 320-321, 322 standardization, 40, 74-75, 287 legal and ethical precedents, standards for testing, 250-251 250-251 stop rules, 290-291 level of expectation for program training of examiners, 3, 33, 64, target and, 197 102, 150, 256, 285-286, 291, minority children, 3, 235-240, 243, 294-295 244, 259 Age of children, 3, 38, 71, 194 program evaluation, 39, 86, 148, Ages and Stages, 77 197-198, 259, 297 Ainsworth Strange Situation for progress monitoring, 39, 86, Procedure, 84 148, 197, 259, 297 Alberta Infant Motor Scale, 80 purpose of assessment and, 27, Alternative assessment. See 259, 283, 341-342, 344, 433 Performance assessments for quality of learning American Academy of Pediatrics, 67, environments, 320 68, 70, 71, 453 readiness assessment, 31 American Educational Research for screening, 360 Association, 55 for special needs children, 3, 4, 38, American Psychological Association, 40, 271, 280, 283 107 standardization sample and Approaches to learning methods and, 237-238, 243, 271 consensus, 97-98 test and item bias, 205, 210-212, constructs, 97, 107 235-240, 243 domain defined, 58, 97 for testing all children, 96, 100, early childhood education 104-106, 112, 116-117 standards, 445 testing situation and assessor instruments, 128-129 characteristics and, 238-239 intervention studies, 99 Assessment, Evaluation and malleability, 99 Programming System (AEPS), measures of, 100 333 and outcomes, 98-99 Assessment, generally. See also testing all children, 100, 242 Instruments for assessment current forms, 324-328

INDEX 467 defined, 27, 264-265, 313, 424 Behavioral Assessment System for early learning standards aligned Children (BASC), 124, 129, 242, with, 184-185 255 follow-up, 30, 39 Benchmarks hypothesis, 191 defined, 185 modes, 28 social, 36-37, 40 multitiered model, 263-264 Bias in assessments. See also Assessment of Preterm Infants’ Reliability of assessments; Behavior (APIB), 70 Validity of assessments Assessment Profile for Early and appropriate use of Childhood Programs (APECP), assessments, 205, 210-212, 235- 157-160, 174 240, 243 Assessor/examiner confirmationist, 189 bias, 205, 238-239, 245-246 confounding variables, 185, 235, bilingual, 247, 250, 256, 260, 241, 243, 245 294-295 contextual factors, 235-237, 243 certification process, 285-286, 295, defining, 235, 243 296 differential item functioning, 193, familiarity of assessor to child, 206-210, 213 185-186, 227, 286-288, 351 direction bias, 239 teachers as, 287 empirical evidence of, 185, 240-246 training, 3, 33, 64, 102, 150, 256, English language learners, 252, 253 260, 285-286, 291, 294-295, 366 examiner, 205, 238-239, 245-246, Attachment/caregiver-child 351 interaction, 84, 153. See also item, 207, 212, 244 Parent-child interaction; methods for assessing, 205-213, Teacher-child relationships 241-246 Attachment Q-set, 242 minority children, 233-246 Attention span, 63, 70, 73, 86, 91, 92, mono-operation of, 243 93, 96, 98, 99, 100, 107, 108, 109, and predictive validity, 240 110, 113, 124, 129, 130, 164, 202, psychometric issues, 235, 240, 245, 271 243-244 Authentic assessment, 22, 39, 200, 201, research needs, 365-366 204, 269, 271, 364, 424. See also restriction of range, 211, 212 Observational measures situational factors, 238-239, 245-246 Automated analysis tools, 101 and social consequences of Automated auditory brainstem assessment, 195-196, 239-240, 283 response, 66 standardization samples and methods and, 237-238, 241, 243, 253, 271 B systematic, 237 test bias, 212, 213, 244, 245, 252 Bank Street curriculum, 335 validity generalization, 187, Battelle Developmental Inventory 210-213 Screening Test, 77 Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler (BBCS-R), 133, 134, 136, 137, 141 Development, 40, 78, 80, 81, 88, Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional 113, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 129, Assessment (BITSEA), 81 133, 242, 285, 288

468 INDEX Brigance Screens, 77 Child Trends, 150, 157, 215 Buros Institute of Mental Children with disabilities. See Special Measurements, 215, 450, 452 needs children Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, 83 Classroom Assessment Scoring C System (CLASS), 147, 150, 161, 174 California Desired Results for Classroom environments Children and Families (DRCF) ADAPT, 162-163, 175 Access for Children with APECP, 157-160, 174 Disabilities Project, 273-274, CIS, 160-161, 174 330-331 CLASS, 161, 174 Desired Results Developmental CPI, 161-162, 175 Profile, 10, 36, 118, 277, 309-310, dimensions observable in, 158-159, 312, 330, 332, 339, 358 171 system, 277, 329-332 EAS, 166-167, 175 California Preschool Learning ECCOM, 165, 175 Foundations in Social and ECERS-E, 164-165, 175 Emotional Development for ECERS-R, 163-164, 175 Ages 3 and 4, 90 ELLCO, 154, 165-166, 175, 334 Capute Scales (CAT/CLAMS), 78 FDCRS, 167, 176 Caregiver. See Parent-child implementing guidelines, interaction; Primary caregiver- 369-370 child interactions ITERS-R, 168, 176, 334 Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS), 160- observation measures, 146, 154, 161, 174 156-157, 158-159, 165-166, 168- Caregiver-Teacher Report Form, 124, 169, 173, 175, 176, 334 125 OMLIT, 168-169, 176 Center-based environments. See also ORCE, 169-170, 176 Classroom environments PCMI, 170-171, 176 components, 99 PQA, 171-172, 177 quality measures, 155-156, 160, purposes of assessment, 147-149 162, 168, 169, 173 quality of, 104 Center for Universal Design, 277 SELA, 172, 177 Cerebral palsy, 68, 69 SELLCA, 172-173, 177 Charge to committee, 20-22 Classroom Literacy Instruction Checklist for Autism in Toddlers Profile, 169 (CHAT), 81 Classroom Literacy Opportunities Child Behavior Checklist, 122, 124, Checklist, 168 125, 242 Classroom Practices Inventory (CPI), Child Care and Development Fund, 161-162, 175 49 Clinical Evaluation of Language Child Development Inventory and Fundamentals (CELF)- Child Development Review- Preschool Behavioral Parent Questionnaire, 78 Observation Checklist, 121, 123, Child/Home Early Language 129, 132, 139, 141, 142 and Literacy Observation (CHELLO), 153-154, 174

INDEX 469 Cognitive skills. See also Attention Creative Curriculum Developmental span; Executive functioning; Continuum, 33, 120, 123, 132, General knowledge; 139, 333, 335 Intelligence tests; Memory Criterion-referenced assessment, 33, consensus, 109 238, 265, 278, 424, 427 continuity and associations with Curiosity Corner curriculum, 335 important outcomes, 108, 110 Curriculum-based measurement, 33, domain defined, 58, 106-109 113, 255, 265, 272, 364, 369, 371, English language learners, 253-254 372, 424 infants, 108, 110, 113 instruments, 68, 77-78, 110, 111, 130-132, 253 D lead poisoning and, 68 malleability, 111-112 Databases on measurement measures of, 107, 108, 110, 113, instruments, 452-453 153-154 Day/night test, 113 minority children, 242 Delay-of-Gratification Task, 122, 128 nutritional deficiency and, 67, 76 Denver Developmental Screening Test quality of environment and, 108, II, 77, 88, 120, 127, 144 148, 151, 153-154, 170 Denver Prescreening Developmental standards of learning, 89 Questionnaire, 77 stimulation in home environments, Desired Results Developmental 146, 151-152, 153-154 Profile, 10, 36, 118, 277, 309-310, testing all children, 112, 242, 312, 330, 332, 339, 358, 375 253-254 Developmental assessment Communication and Symbolic charge to committee, 21-22, Behavior Scales, 79 431-432 Comprehensive Test of Phonological clinical guidelines, 70 Processing, 103, 140 contexts for, 63-64 Concepts About Print, 102, 140 defined, 424 Congenital hypothyroidism, 65 infants and toddlers, 2, 65, 70-72, Connor’s Rating Scales-Revised 73, 110, 261 (CRS-R), 125 mandatory, 75 Construct, defined, 186. See also newborns, 68-70 Validity of assessments normal limits, 72, 74 Construct-irrelevant variance, 188, research agenda, 12, 360-368 191, 196, 274-275, 277, 278, 424 for special needs children, 76, 261, Context measures, 60 271, 369 Contextual issues, 15-20, 40-41, 63-64, types, 71, 77-84 67 n.1, 168, 226-231, 235-237, Developmental delays, 38, 64, 65, 262, 243, 247, 250, 257-258 263, 271. See also Special needs Continuous performance task (CPT), children 113, 128 Developmental Indicators for Council for Exceptional Children, Assessment of Learning- Division for Early Childhood Revised, 77 (DEC), 33, 38, 39, 268, 269 Developmental outcome measures, Council of Chief State School Officers, 69, 73, 88, 275-276 38, 44, 308-309, 437 n.1, 439-440, English language learners, 52, 54, 445-446 55

470 INDEX guidelines on, 5-6, 348-349 guidelines on, 5, 348-349 Head Start Child Outcomes Head Start, 50-52 Framework, 49-52 infant-toddler period, 63 important characteristics, 338 instruments by, 71, 77-84, 87 rationale for guidelines, 346-348 justifications for, 59-60, 346-348 Developmental Profile-II, 77 measurement ease, 17 Developmental scales, 77, 102, 225 overlap across, 275 Developmentally appropriate schooling-related, 86 practice, 27, 38, 153, 161-163, subscales, 87 165, 171, 175, 364, 425 Dots Task, 95 Devereux Early Childhood Dynamic assessment, 143, 144, 425 Assessment, 81, 125 Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Literacy Skills, 143, 144 Variation (DELV), 106, 140 Diagnostic testing, 30, 63 instruments, 78, 79, 80, 363-364 E language and literacy delays/ disorders, 101, 102, 106 Early Childhood Classroom referral for, 75 Observation Measure research needs, 363-364 (ECCOM), 165, 175 special needs children, 262-264 Early Childhood Education Direct assessments, 4, 50 n.1, 111, 119. Assessment Consortium, 44, See also individual instruments 437 n.1, 439-440, 445-446 adverse consequences, 3, 17 Early childhood education standards challenges with very young for accreditation, 45 children, 28, 101 alignment with assessments, 184- defined, 200-201 185, 335-336, 338 interpreting scores, 17, 351 concerns about, 46, 48 strengths and weaknesses, 202-205 content, by state, 439-444 Directional Stroop Battery, 95 defined, 44, 437 n.1 Disabilities. See Developmental development history, 36-37, 45-52, delays; Special needs children 437-447 Domains. See also individual domains differences among state appropriateness for subgroups, 3, documents, 438-439 275 domains, 44, 97, 441-444, 445 availability of instruments, 118 Good Start, Grow Smart initiative, bias testing with minority 52-53 populations by, 242 Head Start Child Outcomes categorizing, 58-59 Framework, 46, 49-52, 184, 445 defining content, 3, 184, 433 important influences, 48-49 of development, 71-72 K-12 learning standards and, early childhood education 445-447 standards, 44, 97, 441-444 national, 46 evidence of importance, 57-58 National Reporting System, 20, 23, functional outcomes for special 47, 49, 53-55, 201, 273, 284, 430 needs children compared, 4, state, 45-46, 97 275-276 uses, 44

INDEX 471 Early Childhood Environment Rating guidelines from professional Scale-Extension (ECERS-E), organizations, 38 164-165, 175 home environment, 146 Early Childhood Environment inclusion in assessments, 36, 40, Rating Scale-Revised Edition 254, 259-260, 320 (ECERS-R), 147, 163-164, 167, instruments for assessment, 54, 168, 175, 336 100, 172-173, 247, 251-255, 257, Early Childhood Learning and 351 Knowledge Center, 23 language and literacy assessment, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- 104-105, 172-173, 248-249, 251- Birth Cohort, 36, 285, 288 252, 291-292, 332 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- legal and ethical standards, 249, Kindergarten (ECLS-K), 36, 98, 250-251, 254, 256 100, 122, 128, 129, 201, 266-267, outcome measures, 52, 54, 55 273, 367 population characteristics, 247-249 Early Head Start, 23, 63, 64, 104, 111, principles of assessment, 258-260 152, 201, 266-267, 430, 438, 450 quality of learning environment, Research and Evaluation Study, 172-173 152, 201, 267, 285, 466 research needs, 253, 256-258, 259, Early Language and Literacy 366-367 Classroom Observation socioemotional assessment, 255 (ELLCO), 154, 165-166, 175, 334 in special education, 256 Early Language Milestone Scale, 79 training of examiners, 256, 260, Early Learning Assessment System, 294-295 335-336 validity of assessments, 55, 105- Early Motor Pattern Profile (EMPP), 106, 196, 228-229, 247, 254 80 Evaluation, defined, 264 Early Training Project, 111 Everyday Mathematics, 118 Educational Testing Service, 71, 207, Executive functioning, 91, 94, 95, 99, 215, 452, 453 107, 108-109, 110, 112, 113, 128 Effect sizes, 111, 208-209 Expressive One-Word Picture Emerging Academics Snapshot (EAS), Vocabulary Test, 79, 101, 120, 166-167, 175 135, 139, 242 Emotion Matters II Direct Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, 81 assessments, 95 English language learners accommodations, 250, 254, 366 F administration of assessments, 105, 116-117, 250-251, 260, 291-295 Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence, 77 appropriateness of assessments Family and Child Experiences Survey for, 3, 40, 250-251, 256, 258, 259, (FACES), 50, 148, 285-286, 289 292, 293, 295, 298 Family Day Care Environment Rating assessment issues, 23, 110, 112, Scale (FDCERS), 147, 167, 176 208-209, 249-258, 350-351 Five LA Universal Preschool Child cognitive assessments, 253-254 Outcomes Study, 292 contextual issues, 247, 250, 257-258 Flanker Task, 95 domains, 251-255 Formal assessment, 71, 106, 117, 119, examiner issues, 247, 250 137, 236-237, 272, 370, 371, 425

472 INDEX Formative assessments, 43, 60, 100, system of assessment, 8-12, 117, 118, 119, 147, 148, 149, 167, 356-360 336, 369, 371, 372, 425 teachers’ role, 369-370 Foundation for Child Development, 447 Function/Activities of Daily Living, H assessment instruments, 82 Head Start, 2, 18, 45, 156, 302 approaches to learning in, 99, 100 G assessment practices, 52, 53, 54, 110, 327, 328, 430 Galileo System for the Electronic Child Outcomes Framework, 46, Management of Learning, 121, 49-52, 97, 184, 326, 327, 445 123, 128, 129, 132, 135, 137, 138, Family and Child Experiences 139 Survey (FACES), 50, 148, 285- Games as Measurement for Early 286, 289 Self-Control (GAMES), 120, 121, Impact Study, 112, 148, 289 123, 130 learning standards, 88 General knowledge, 58, 87, 107 National Reporting System, 20, 23, instruments, 133-135 47, 49, 53-55, 201, 273, 284, 285, Generalizability theory, 200 287, 289, 291, 293, 294, 295, 296, Genetic/metabolic screening, 64-65 297, 327, 430 Global functioning, 17 Office of Planning, Research and Goal 1 Early Childhood Assessments Evaluation, 23 Resource Group, 38 performance measures, 51, 322, Goals 2000, 48 430 Good Start, Grow Smart initiative, 47, Pyramid of Services, 49, 50, 51 49, 52-53, 348, 437-438, 446 reauthorization, 55 Government Performance and Results State Collaboration Offices, 438 Act, 1, 19 University Partnership Growth Charts, 120 Measurement Development Guidelines. See also Standards Grants Program, 105 developmental outcome measures, Head Start Act, 49 5-6, 348-349 Head to Toe Task, 95 domains, 5, 348-349 Health care providers government responsibility, 372-373 assessment of infants and toddlers, health care providers’ role, 369 64 implementing guidance, 369-374 implementing guidance, 369 instrument selection and Hearing implementation, 6-8, 352-354 impairment, and assessment of professional organizations, validity, 274, 296 37-39 screening, 29, 30, 66, 255, 262, 263 program administrators’ role, n.2, 363 371-372 High/Scope Child Observation purposeful assessments, 5, 345-346 Record (COR), 33, 121, 124, 129, rationales for, 342-345, 346-348, 133, 135, 138, 139, 172, 333, 335 349-351, 354-356 High Scope/Perry Preschool Project, researchers’ role, 374 111

INDEX 473 High-stakes assessment, 27. See also training assessors, 33, 285-286 Accountability using information from defined, 2-3 n.1, 425 assessments, 19-20, 296-297 guidelines for using, 7, 10, 296, Indirect assessments. See also 353, 355, 358, 373 Observational measures reliability and validity, 283 adverse consequences, 3 systemic approach, 337 Individual-focused assessments, 29-30 unintended or inappropriate uses Individualized education programs, of data, 284, 286, 337, 355-356, 86 358, 373 Individuals with Disabilities unintended or undesirable Education Act (IDEA), 47, 75, consequences, 195 251, 255, 261, 263, 264, 266, 267, Home environments 271, 280, 332, 334, 369 and academic and social outcomes, Infant and toddler assessments 155 cognitive skills, 108, 110, 113 assessing, 149, 150-155, 167, 168, contexts for, 63-64, 67 n.1, 168 169, 172, 173 developmental, 2, 65, 70-72, 73, basic needs and safety monitoring 110, 261 provided, 151, 152 purposes, 62-63, 74 cognitive stimulation, 146, 151-152, system approach, 75-76 153-154 Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, primary caregiver-child 83 interactions, 152-153 Infant Development Inventory, 77 Home Observation for Measurement Infant habituation, 69, 108, 110 of the Environment (HOME), Infant Health and Development 154-155, 174 Project, 111 Home visiting programs, 18, 63, 111- Infant Monitoring System, 77 112, 145-146, 149, 154 Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R), 147, 168, 176, 334 I Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), 81, 125, Implementing assessments. See 126 also Administration of Informal assessments, 72-73, 119, 137, assessments 252, 425 cost analysis, 97, 297-298 Inhibitory control, 100, 109, 110, 128 determining and communicating Instruments for assessment. See also purpose, 281, 282-284, 291, 292- Selecting assessment tools; 293, 296-297, 341-342 individual instruments following up on administration, for accountability, 39-40, 367-368 33, 296-298 adaptation of tools developed for guidelines, 6-8, 352-354 other purposes, 39-40, 100 parental consent, 284-285 appraisal stage, 190 preparing for administration, approaches to learning, 128-129 282-286 availability, 118 protecting data, 286 basic considerations, 361-363 rationale for guidelines, 349-351 cognitive skills, 77-78, 130-132 standardization in, 283

474 INDEX development, 186-190, 205-213, L 361-364, 367-368 diagnostic, 78, 79, 80, 363-364 “Labeling” vulnerable children, 46 by domain, 71, 77-84, 87 Language and literacy, 16-17, 30. See English language learners, 54, 100, also Phonological awareness; 172-173, 247, 251-255, 257 Reading; Vocabulary functional evaluation, 82 accountability assessments, 102 information resources, 215, 449-453 associations with important observational, 120-144, 157-173 outcomes, 66, 103-104 outcomes related to, 160, 161 cognitive skills and, 110 for planning instruction and constructs, 58 monitoring progress, 33 delays/disorders, 101, 102, 106 of quality of environment, 152-177 diagnostic testing, 101, 102, 106 research needs, 361-364 discourse skills, 101, 102, 103 for screening, 74, 77-84, 122-127, domain defined, 79, 100-103, 363 139-144 social and emotional development, early learning guidelines, 49 81-82, 122-127 English language learners, 104- temperament screening, 83 105, 172-173, 248-249, 251-252, validity, 74 291-292 Intelligence tests, 68, 110, 111, 112, 113, instructional and intervention 168, 234, 239, 245, 253 planning, 32, 104 International Classification of instruments/tools for assessment, Functioning, Disability and 59, 79, 101, 102, 106, 139-144, Health—Children and Youth 162, 165-166, 168-169, 172-173, Version (ICF-CY), 276 174-177 Interpreting and using scores, 3, 17. learning behaviors and, 98 See also Bias in asessments; length of assessment, 289-290 Validity of assessments malleability, 104 for accountability purposes, 35, 39, measures of, 102, 105, 106 40, 355-356 minority children, 237, 242 automated analysis tools, 101 quality of learning environment, conditions for, 19-20 17, 104, 148, 154, 155, 157, 158, extrapolation, 188 161, 162, 164, 165-166, 167, 168, guidelines for, 37-39 169, 170, 174-177 of infant-toddler assessments, 63 receptive language, 66, 101 program quality information research-related assessment, 101, linked to, 319 106 Iron deficiency screening, 67, 76 standards of learning, 52-53, 89 testing all children, 104-106, 242 training examiners, 102 K transfer theory, 248-249 validity of scores, 101 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Language Assessment Scales (LAS), Children (K-ABC), 113, 130, 252 131, 137, 142, 242, 245 Language minority. See English Knowledge. See General knowledge language learners Large-scale assessments, 40, 254, 259- 260, 266-267, 285

INDEX 475 Lead screening, 29, 30, 68 Measurement error, 187, 191, 198-199, Learning disabilities, 34, 255, 263 n.2 202, 204, 235, 317. See also Bias Learning standards. See Approaches in assessments; Construct- to learning; Early childhood irrelevant variance; Reliability education standards; Standards of assessments Lexington Developmental Scales, 77 Measures of developmental Limited English proficient. See outcomes. See Developmental English language learners outcome measures Literacy. See Language and literacy Memory, 92, 98, 107, 108, 109, 110, 113, Literacy Activities Rating Scale, 166 130, 131, 193 Literacy Environment Checklist, 166 Michigan School Readiness Program, 45, 447 Minority children. See also English M language learners access to assessment, 76 MacArthur-Bates Communicative appropriateness of assessment, 3, Development Inventories, 40, 235-240, 243, 244, 259 79, 101, 105, 139, 142 bias in assessment, 233-246 Mathematica Policy Research, 201, cognitive assessment, 242 202, 203, 204, 283, 284, 285, 286, fairness concerns, 23, 193, 206, 210, 287, 293, 295, 450-451 234-235, 243 Mathematics inclusion in assessments, 320 and academic achievement, 116 mathematics testing, 114 algebraic concepts, 115-116, 118 oral learning traditions, 236 developmentally appropriate, 171 in special education, 239 domain defined, 107, 114-116, validity of assessments for, 96, 100, 136-138 112, 240 early learning standards, 49, 116 Modified Checklist of Autism in geometry, 114-115, 117, 118 Toddlers, 81 importance, 116 Motor development, 17. See also instruments for assessment, 118, Physical well-being and motor 136-138, 170-171, 175, 176 development language-oriented problems, 154 instruments, 80 learning-related behaviors and, 98, Motor Quotient, 80 99 Movement Assessment of Infants, 80 mathematical reasoning, 116, Mullen Scales of Early Learning, 78 170-171 Multitiered models, 34, 264 measurement skills, 114, 115, 117, My Teaching Partner, 147 118, 120, 121, 123, 130, 170-171 measures of, 110, 117-118 number sense, 114, 117, 118, 165, 170 N quality of learning environment, 157, 158, 161, 164, 170-171, 175, National Assessment of Educational 176 Progress, 337 testing all children, 116-117 National Association for the U.S. students’ performance, 116 Education of Young Children vocabulary and, 58 (NAEYC), 33, 38, 39, 45, 161, McCarthy Scales of Children’s Ability, 162, 258, 268, 334 78

476 INDEX National Association of Early Newborns Childhood Specialists in State developmental assessment, 68-70 Departments of Education, 38, hearing screening, 66 268 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 1, National Association of School 16, 19, 34, 35, 302, 307-308, 314, Psychologists, 250, 268 315 National Association of Test Directors, Norm-referenced tests, 40, 50 n.1, 112, 246 197, 237-238, 254, 259-260, 264- National Center for Education 265, 270, 271-272, 273, 279, 350, Statistics, 36 423, 426, 427 National Child Care Information Normative development. See Threats Center, 107 to normative development National Children’s Study, 451 Nursing Child Assessment Satellite National Early Childhood Training, 84 Accountability Task Force, 24, Nutritional deficiency, 67 39, 302, 322, 324 National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center, 71, 452 O National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 266 Obesity, 18, 88, 120 National Education Goals Panel, 4, 38, Observation Measure of Language 48, 50, 58, 86, 97, 282, 347 and Literacy Instruction National Head Start Association, 23, (OMLIT), 168-169, 176 55 Observational measures National Institute for Early Education for accountability, 147-148, 149, Research (NIEER), 71, 439, 167, 201-202, 203, 204 452-453 classroom environments, 146, 154, National Institute of Child Health and 156-157, 158-159, 165-166, 168- Human Development, 110, 152, 169, 173, 175, 176, 334 153, 162, 170 of environmental quality, 63, National Longitudinal Survey of 146-150 Youth-Child Supplement, 287 home environment, 152-153, 154- National Registry Alliance, 318 155, 174 National Research Council, 2, 20, 21, instruments/tools, 120-144, 157- 24, 48-49, 431 173, 201, 297, 351 Naturalistic assessment. See Authentic language and literacy instruction, assessment 168-169, 176 NCHS/NLSY Questionnaire, 77 length of assessment, 150, 160, 166, Nebraska, assessment system, 332-335 169 Neonatal Behavioral Assessment and professional development, Scale, 68, 69, 70 146-147, 149 NEPSY, 120, 128, 129, 130, 139 purposes, 146-150, 201-202, New Jersey, Abbott Preschool 203-204 Program, 335-336, 351, 354 reliability, 149-150, 157, 203, 204, Newborn Individualized 268, 283, 334-335 Development Care and research needs, 204, 364 Assessment Program, 70 selecting, 146

INDEX 477 for special needs children, 274 Phonological awareness, 101, 102, 103, strengths and weaknesses, 203-205 106, 109, 110, 132, 140, 154, 172, training assessors, 157, 203, 204 248, 311 validity, 150, 157, 164-165 Physical well-being and motor Observation Record of the Caregiving development Environment (ORCE), 169-170, consensus, 88 176 domain defined, 87-88, 120-121 Office of Civil Rights, 251 screening instruments, 80, 87, Office of Special Education Programs, 120-121 328, 333, 348 Pictorial Assessment of Temperament Oral Language Development Scale, (PAT), 83 292 Planning and monitoring children’s Otoacoustic emissions, 66 progress, 1, 32-33, 43 Outcome measures. See Policies on child development Developmental outcome context for assessment, 15-20 measures positive ethics, 16 Portfolio assessments, 133, 136, 140, 201, 205, 314, 350, 370, 426 P Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, 266 Parent-child interaction, 104, 151, 155, Pre-Language Assessment Scale 174 (Pre-LAS), 252, 292 Parental/family involvement, 38, 94, Prenatal Early Infancy Project-Elmira 159, 171, 172, 177, 251, 260, 265, site, 112 268-269, 287 Preschool Assessment of Attachment, Parenting skills, 149 84 Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Preschool Classroom Mathematics Status (PEDS), 77, 78 Inventory (PCMI), 170-171, 176 Partners for Inclusion model, 147 Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Research Study (PCER), 289, 80 290 Peabody Individual Achievement Preschool Language Assessment Tests, 133, 136, 140, 242 (PLA), 102 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Preschool Language Scale (PLS), 79, (PPVT), 40, 79, 101, 139, 154, 143, 242, 252 166, 236, 242, 252, 291 Preschool Learning Behavior Scale, Peen Interactive Peer Play, 242 100 Performance assessments, 11, 133, Preschool Program Quality 213, 224-226, 238, 254-255, Assessment (PQA), 171-172, 177 264, 335-336, 359, 424, 426. See Preschool Screening System, 77 also Authentic assessment; Primary caregiver-child interactions, Classroom environments; 64, 69, 150, 151, 152-153 individual instruments Primary Test of Cognitive Skills Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PTCS), 131 Screening Test-II (PDDST-II), 82 Professional development. See also Pew Foundation, 39, 302 Training of assessors Phenylketonuria screening, 29 Head Start teachers, 148

478 INDEX observational assessment in, 146- Psychometric issues in assessment, 147, 149, 167, 171 23, 119. See also Reliability state initiatives, 332, 334-335 of assessments; Validity of systems perspective, 317-319, 322, assessments 332, 334-335 abbreviation or adaptation of tests, Program 40 accreditation and licensing, 325, bias testing, 235, 240, 243-244 334 cognitive skills, 107-108, 112, 113 administrators’ role in direct tests, 370, 371, 372 implementing guidelines, guidelines, 6, 271, 350, 352, 370 371-372 information on instruments, 87, effectiveness evaluation, 18-19, 35- 449, 451, 452, 453 36, 39, 54, 85, 86, 148, 197-198, high-stakes vs. low-stakes 201, 204, 259, 297, 355, 367-368 conditions, 195 impact evaluation, 36, 148 measuring quantitative change, performance assessment, 2, 224-225 34-37, 39-41, 266-267; see also precision, 263 Accountability research needs, 361, 364 quality standards, 44-45, 319-320, special populations, 96, 112, 325, 365 243-244 Progress monitoring, 2, 8, 18, 19, 31, standards of evidence, 3, 225, 75, 85, 229, 283 243-244 academic achievement standards Purpose of assessments. See also and, 308 Accountability; Diagnostic appropriateness of assessment, 39, testing; Progress monitoring; 86, 148, 197, 259, 297 Program, performance defined, 265-266, 426 assessment; Screening early childhood education and appropriate use of standards and, 43, 44, 224 assessments, 27, 259, 283, 341- English language learners, 255, 342, 344, 433 292, 293 community-focused screening, Head Start practices, 52, 53, 54-55, 29-30 430 determining and communicating, implementing, 372, 374, 375 3, 282-284 maps, 315 diagnostic testing, 30 outcome measures, 86, 329 eligibility testing, 31 program evaluation compared, 35, functional level, 2, 29-31 344 guidelines on, 5, 37-39, 345-346 research needs, 364 importance of purposefulness, 2, RTI approach, 33-34 18, 313 special needs children, 262, 264, individual-focused screening, 29 265-266, 267, 280, 330 in infant-toddler period, 62, 74 state initiatives, 329, 447 intervention and instruction tools for assessment, 101, 106, 118, planning, 2, 31-34, 39, 69, 70, 85, 135, 201, 215-216, 224, 255, 264, 201, 222-226, 259, 264-265, 283 336, 424, 425 rationale for guidelines, 342-345 using assessment data, 32-33, 39, readiness testing, 30-31 280, 286, 314, 326, 344, 372 research-related, 2, 34, 37, 266-267

INDEX 479 response to intervention, 30, 33-34, Readiness for school, 53 364-365 assessments, 1, 30-31, 85, 214, 226, social benchmarking, 36-37 227, 325, 426 special needs children, 262-267 consequences of assessments, 227 and uses of assessment, 18, 22, design of programs, 1 342-346 language and literacy, 100-101 learning-related behavior and, 97 National Education Goals, 4, 347 Q physical fitness and, 88 program evaluation, 226 Qualistar Early Learning Quality social and emotional, 90 Rating and Improvement Reading. See also Language and System, 173 literacy Quality Interventions for Early Care cognitive stimulation, 153 and Education (QUINCE), 147 English language learners, 252 Quality of assessments. See also Bias learning-related behavior and, 98, in assessments; Reliability 99 of assessments; Validity of memory and, 110 assessments readiness for, 30-31, 168 measurement choices and, 200-205 vocabulary and, 103 Quality of environment. See also Reading First, 31-32 Center-based environments; Receptive Expressive Emergent Classroom environments; Language Scale (REEL), 79 Home environments Recognition and Response model, 34 appropriate assessment of, 320 Reliability of assessments. See also and cognitive skills, 108, 148, 151, Bias in assessments 153-154, 170 age of children and, 72, 73-74, 119, and developmental outcomes, 17- 219 18, 64, 86, 95, 104, 108 alternate forms coefficient, 199 English language learners, 172-173 automated analysis tools and, 101 importance, 145 checks/checking, 7, 11, 353, 359 instruments, 147, 152-177 coefficients, 198-200 observational measures, 63, defined, 427 146-150 evidence of, 182 strategy for assessing programs, inferences, 179, 281 173 internal consistency coefficient, systems perspective, 319-320 198 Quality of Instruction in Language length of assessment and, 288 and Literacy, 169, 174 measures, 59, 73, 95, 96-97, 119, The Quick Test, 79 149-150, 211, 212, 281 monitoring, 203, 353 National Reporting System, 54 R by observation, 149-150, 157, 203, 204, 268, 283, 334-335 RAND Corporation, 111 outcomes, 244 Ratings of Parent-Child Interactions, purpose of assessment and, 283 174 quantifying, 182, 198-200, 427 Read Aloud Profile, 169 score and inter-rater, 323, 334, 427

480 INDEX Spearman-Brown formula, 199 Screening split-halves coefficient, 199 appropriateness of assessment for, standardized tests, 40 360 for subgroups, 219-220, 291, 366, community-focused, 29-30 370, 371 contexts for, 63-64 test-retest coefficient, 198-199, 427 defined, 427 tools, 6, 21, 23, 119, 145, 181, 194, developmental, 68-72, 87, 262 197, 211, 212, 219, 253, 322, 349, difficulties with young children, 350, 352, 362-363 72-74 training of assessors and, 150, 157, implementing, 283 203, 204, 285, 364 individual-focused, 29 Reporting of results infants and toddlers, 62-64, 70-72 background information, 316-317 instruments, by domain, 77-84 confidentiality and privacy limitations in effectiveness, 74-76 safeguards, 317 newborns, 66, 68-70 interpretive material, 316 principles of good programs, 63 NCLB basis, 314, 315 research needs, 363 progress map, 315-316 special needs children, 262 samples of children’s work, 316 for threats to normative systems perspective, 3, 305-306, development, 64-68 314-317 universal, 33-34 uncertainty in results, 317 uses of assessments, 62-63 Research Screening Tool for Autism in Two- accountability and program Year-Olds (STAT), 82 evaluation instruments, 367-368 Selecting assessment tools, 4, 431 agenda, 12, 360-368 for accountability purposes, 40-41, assessment processes, 364-365 102, 201, 226-231 bias in instruments, 365-366 accuracy and quality issues, 2, 181, committee’s approach for this 210 study, 22-25, 431-434 committee approach, 22-25 diagnostic testing, 363-364 guidelines on, 6-8, 37-39, 352-354 instrument development, 361-364 for local needs, 214-222 program quality standards, 365 for multiple related entities, special populations, 253, 256-258, 222-226 259, 365-367 in program evaluation context, 40- uses of assessment for, 28, 34, 37, 41, 226-231 101, 106, 148-149 rationale for guidelines, 349-351 Response to intervention (RTI) Sequenced Inventory of approach, 30, 33-34, 263-264, Communication Development, 364-365 79, 141 Reynell Developmental Language Shape Stroop measure, 113 Scales, 79, 141, 143 Simon says test, 113 Slosson Intelligence Test, 77 Snack delay test, 113 S Snapshot of Classroom Activities, 169 Social benchmarking, 36-37, 40 Sampling error, 188, 207, 211, 212 Social Communication Questionnaire Science, 107, 136-138, 157, 158 (SCQ), 82

INDEX 481 Social Competence and Behavioral Special needs children Evaluation (SCBE), 126, 127 accommodations for, 8, 40, 250, Social consequences of assessment 254, 259, 260, 267, 272, 273, 276- bias in assessment and, 195-196, 279, 295-296, 298, 330-331, 353, 239-240 367 scenario, 227 accountability-related assessments, Social Skills Rating Scale, 100, 122, 267, 270, 272, 279 128, 129 administration of assessments, Social studies, 50, 85, 107, 135, 440 269-270, 272-273, 295-296 Socioemotional development. See also appropriateness of assessment for, Approaches to learning 3, 4, 38, 40, 271, 280, 283 behavior problems, 54 n.4, 89, 91, challenges in assessment, 270-279 92-93, 94, 95, 99, 365 construct-irrelevant skills, 274-275 consensus, 90 developmental assessment, 76, constructs, 58, 95, 96, 113 271, 369 domain defined, 89 diagnostic testing, 262-264 early learning guidelines, 89 domain-based assessments, home environment and, 146, 148, 274-276 150-151 eligibility determinations, 262-264, importance in practice and policy, 271-272 50-51, 89-90 functional outcomes approach, infant assessment, 62, 69 275-276 instruments, 59, 71, 164, 166, 167, inclusion in assessments, 36, 40, 170, 173-177, 362-363 266-267, 270, 273, 295-296, 320, and later development, 90-94 330-331 malleability, 94-95 infants and toddlers, 261 measurement issues, 95, 242 instruments/tools, 273-274, measures of, 91, 95, 96-97 276-279 minority children, 242, 245 intervention or instruction nutritional deficiency and, 67 planning, 1, 264-265 quality of environment and, 164, “labeling” concerns, 46 166, 167, 170, 174-177 large-scale assessments, 40, 266- reliability and validity of tests, 96- 267, 273, 279 97, 194 outcome measures, 275-276 research needs, 362-363 population characteristics, 261 screening instruments, 81-82, principles of assessment, 267-270 122-127 progress monitoring, 263, 265-266, self-regulation, 70, 89, 90, 92, 93-94, 267 95, 96, 108, 123, 311, 365 purposes of assessment, 260, social competence, 89, 91-92, 96, 262-267 108, 126, 127, 148, 164, 166, 167, reporting outcomes, 47 170, 194 research needs, 367 testing all children, 96, 242, 255 research-related assessments, 266- Special education, 31, 153, 239, 252, 267, 272 255, 256, 261, 262-263, 264, 267, response to intervention approach, 271, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 348, 263-264 367, 369 screening, 262

482 INDEX universal design principles, 276- K-12 learning standards, 87, 88, 279, 353 445-447 validity of assessments, 261, 270 prekindergarten programs, 18-19, Standardization 44, 45, 161, 167, 302, 322, 326, in administration of tests, 40, 74- 327, 328, 431 75, 287 quality rating systems for early bias in samples and methods and, care and education, 147 237-238, 241, 243, 253, 271 Strange Situation test, 84, 122 instructions and scoring, 227 Study of Early Child Care and Youth samples of tests, 237-238, 243, 271 Development, 110, 152, 153, test administration, 40, 74-75 162, 170 Standardized tests, 28, 40, 101, 110, Sulzby Classification Schemes: 111, 118, 187, 202, 236-237, 238, Emergent Storybook Reading, 254-255, 259-260, 270-272, 275, 140 278, 426, 427 Sulzby Familiar Storybook Reading Standards. See also Guidelines scale, 102 and accountability, 307 Summative assessments, 60, 117, 118, achievement (performance), 308 133, 136, 140, 149, 427 for assessment, 250-251, 309, 323, Supports for Early Literacy 350 Assessment (SELA), 170, 172, content, 308, 311, 439-444 177 defined, 308-309 Supports for English Language by funding source, 326-327 Learners Classroom K-12 learning standards, 1, 44, 87, Assessment (SELLCA), 172-173, 88, 89, 445-447 177 learning performances approach, System of assessment 309, 310-311, 313 accountability assessment in, 35-36 learning progressions approach, assessment approaches, 8, 75-76, 309-310, 311, 312 205-206, 305, 313, 333-334, NCLB framework, 307-308 335-336 organizing around big ideas, 311 coherence in, 339-340, 341 and reporting assessment results, components, 331-332 314 cost of implementing, 297-298, 322 state early childhood education current landscape, 324-328 standards, 16, 45-46, 116, 327- development and learning 338, 437-447 opportunities, 9, 306, 319-320, systems perspective, 8, 304, 305, 339 307-313, 335 environmental ratings, 148 Standards-based assessments, 371, features of systems, 302-303 427, 431 feedback loops, 303-304 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 113, guidelines, 8-12, 356-360 130, 131, 134, 136, 141, 242 importance of systematicity, 2, 75- State. See also individual states 76, 302-304, 336-340 assessment systems, 44, 161, 167, inclusiveness, 9, 76, 306, 320-321, 328-336 330-331 early childhood education infrastructure, 230-231, 304-324 standards, 16, 45-46, 116, 335, monitoring and evaluation, 9, 148, 437-448 306, 322-324

INDEX 483 professional development, 9, 306, Tools of the Mind curriculum, 94, 95, 317-319, 322, 332, 334-335, 339 99, 335 program quality assessment, 226- Tower of Hanoi, 128, 130 231, 334 Training of assessors, 3, 33, 64, 102, rationale for guidelines, 354-356 150, 256, 260, 285-286, 291, 294- reporting procedures, 9, 230-231, 295, 364. See also Professional 305-306, 314-317, 339-340 development resources, 9, 306, 321-322 scenarios for developing, 222-233 standards, 8, 304, 305, 307-313, 335, U 339 state efforts, 328-336 Universal design principles, 8, 33-34, 276-279, 353, 366, 374 Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test T (UNIT), 253 University of Nebraska, 215 Tandem mass spectrometry, 65 U.S. Department of Education, 23, Teacher-child relationships, 91-92, 95, 249, 267, 271, 333, 348 147, 157, 160-161, 163, 164, 165, U.S. Department of Health and 171, 257, 287, 372 Human Services, 52-53, 430, 431 Teacher Rating Scale, 100 Office of Head Start, 2, 20, 450 Temperament, screening instruments, U.S. Government Accountability 81, 83 Office, 23, 54, 55 Temperament and Atypical Behavior U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Scale (TABS), 81 66, 67 Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Use of assessments. See Appropriate Peabody, 252 use of assessments; Purpose of Test of Early Language Development assessments (TELD), 79, 102, 141, 143, 159 Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA), 136, 137 V Test of Early Reading Ability (TERA), 140, 144 Validity argument, 187 Test of Language Dominance (TOLD), Validity of assessments. See also Bias 102, 139 in assessments Testing. See Diagnostic testing for accountability, 40, 54-55, 198 Threats to normative development as argument, 186-191 genetic/metabolic screening, 64-65 consequence of use and, 194-196 iron deficiency screening, 67 consistency of assessment. See lead screening, 68 Reliability of assessments newborn hearing screening, 66 construct, 185-186, 193, 197, 236- vision screening, 66-67 237, 243, 250, 254, 255, 274-275 Toddler Behavior Assessment contemporary views of evidence, Questionnaire (Carey Scales), 192-196 83 content, 100, 184-185, 192, 193, 235- Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior 236, 244, 250, 254, 255 Questionnaire, 120 convergent/divergent evidence, Toddlers. See Infant and toddler 194 assessments criterion model, 183, 211

484 INDEX defined, 181, 427 Vocabulary, 16-17, 32, 40, 53, 58, 79, external variables and, 101, 193- 98, 101, 102, 103, 106, 107, 116, 194, 197, 203 135, 139, 142, 146, 154, 158, 166, generalization, 187, 210-213 215, 236, 242, 248, 252, 286-287, history of evidence, 182-186 291, 292-293 instrument-specific, 67, 70 Vygotskian play-based preschool integrated views of, 186, 313 curriculum, 94, 99 internal structure and, 100, 193, 197 interpretive argument, 187, W 188-190 from intervention data, 194 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for by observation, 150, 157 Children, 113, 245, 253 plausible alternative hypotheses, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale 190-191 of Intelligence (WPPSI), 113, of program quality, 196-198 130, 133, 141, 242, 245 psychometric issues, 4, 23, 40, 96, Welfare reform policies, 153 181, 194, 235, 240, 243, 370, 371, Westat, 24, 53-54 372 Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Tests response processes and, 192-193, of Cognitive Abilities, 113, 118, 205, 364-365 121, 130, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, social consequences and, 195-196, 139, 140, 144, 242, 252 239-240 Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Tests of standardization and, 187, 237, 250, Cognitive Ability (WJ-R COG), 254 253 treatment studies, 193-194 Work Sampling for Head Start trinitarian model, 184-186 (WSHS) measure, 119 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II, Work Sampling System (WSS), 33, 82 119, 120, 122, 124, 135, 138, 139, Vineland Social-Emotional Early 297 Childhood Scales (SEEC), 121, 127 Vineland Social-Emotional Maturity Y Scale, 81 Ypsilanti Carnegie Infant Education Vision screening, 29, 66-67, 75-76, 255, project, 111 262

Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Get This Book
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The assessment of young children's development and learning has recently taken on new importance. Private and government organizations are developing programs to enhance the school readiness of all young children, especially children from economically disadvantaged homes and communities and children with special needs.

Well-planned and effective assessment can inform teaching and program improvement, and contribute to better outcomes for children. This book affirms that assessments can make crucial contributions to the improvement of children's well-being, but only if they are well designed, implemented effectively, developed in the context of systematic planning, and are interpreted and used appropriately. Otherwise, assessment of children and programs can have negative consequences for both. The value of assessments therefore requires fundamental attention to their purpose and the design of the larger systems in which they are used.

Early Childhood Assessment addresses these issues by identifying the important outcomes for children from birth to age 5 and the quality and purposes of different techniques and instruments for developmental assessments.

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