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D Representative Projects of the Rapid Reaction Technology Office The Department of Defenseâs (DODâs) Rapid Reaction Technology Office (RRTO) has initiated and supported many projects over its many-phased history (see the subsection entitled âMissionâ in Chapter 2 for information on the five phases of the organizationâs history to date). Areas of focus have varied but include the testing and fielding of capabilities for wide-area surveillance and tracking; standoff detection of explosives; special communications capabilities; counter-improvised explosive device (IED) applications; and counter-weapons of mass destruction (WMD) capabilities. The subset of projects discussed here is sufficiently representative to demonstrate the breadth and range of the orga- nizationâs accomplishments and its influence on fielded and emerging military capabilities. Airborne Global Information Grid The Airborne Global Information Grid (AGIG) is an operational wireless, high-data-rate, Internet Protocol (IP)-based network for tactical edge users. AGIG modules can be installed on multiple classes of unmanned aircraft sys- tems (UASs) from small (e.g., Manta sized) to midsize craft (e.g., Tiger Shark class). The AGIG system also includes a ground control station. The station can be connected with available infrastructure providing Non-Classified Internet â Information provided to the committee indicates that the RRTO has been actively involved in more than 300 projects since its inception in September 2001. â Project descriptions provided by the RRTO in personal communication with the committee on January 15, 2009. 72
APPENDIX D 73 Protocol Router Network (NIPRnet) connectivity. The system enables net- worked warfighters by providing access to data on the mobile tactical network. Access includes data from multiple sensor sources and command and control of the data sources, as well as situational awareness. The migration of the AGIG wideband capability to small, expendable UASs has provided increased intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability across the net- work. AGIG has been transitioned to the Navy and is also a component within the ongoing Zephyr High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. Alternative Strategies The Alternative Strategy Initiative has developed over the past 3 years into a school of thought (model) that can be used by the U.S. government and U.S. busi- nesses engaged in what are regarded as a key multiplier in the war against terror and extremism: the social development of civil societies. Current successes build on previous alternative strategy sessions, including the following: the networking of women activists in Iraq and Afghanistan, where women participated as agents of conflict resolution and reconciliation; and a youth forum focusing on conflict resolution and deradicalization. In 2008 the RRTO sponsored a Creative Media Workshop for Fostering Tolerance in the Philippines and a Civil Counter Insur- gency (COIN) Under Fire study to maximize the impact of civilian contributions to COIN in violent areas and to minimize security costs. Representatives from the DOD and Department of State have used the results of these alternative strategies. This research is empowering Southeast Asian moderates to use conventional and unconventional media platforms to espouse a more moderate ideology. Biometric Automated Toolset The Biometric Automated Toolset (BAT) is a mobile capability for collecting biometrics markers and screening personnel (see Figure D.1). When deployed to Iraq it was the first mobile system to be able to collect and share standard bio- metrics information on personnel of interest. The U.S. Army has deployed BAT systems extensively across Iraq and Afghanistan. The Biometric Identification System for Access (BISA) is a semimobile biometrics enrollment station that collects fingerprints, iris scans, and other biometric information on personnel seeking access to a controlled facility. BISA allows for rapid enrollment and queries of biometric databases to screen personnel. The system fuses commercial off-the-shelf biometric enrollment equipment into a module and packets the col- lected information in a format used to query national databases. Since the first unit was operationally deployed, BISA has been responsible for detecting numer- ous persons of interest. Additional units are in procurement through the Armyâs Biometrics Task Force.
74 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism FIGURE D.1 Biometric Automated Toolset (BAT). SOURCE: Cour- tesy of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. D.1 color The RRTO co-funded the initial development and early deployment of the BAT. The organization continues to work with the Army Biometrics Task Force and the National Ground Intelligence Center, with thousands of BAT systems deployed to both Iraq and Afghanistan. Biometric Information Technology Evaluation Under RRTO sponsorship, the Institute for Defense Analyses created a base- line map of deployed biometric systems currently in operation in theater, includ- ing designed and alternative employment modes in the form of a process-oriented flow model. This project answered a critical need for an integrated information and analysis environment to support currently deployed biometric capabilities as well as to enable their future growth. The baseline developed by the Biometric Information Technology Evaluation (BITE) program has enabled more rapid assessment of the overall performance of biometric systems in theater, improved the integration of biometrics into the command structure, and facilitated the analysis of technological gaps and the prioritization of investments. BITE is being used by representatives from the Office of Defense Biometrics and the Biometrics Task Force. Bluegrass The Bluegrass project assembled multisensor data for the evaluation of per- sistent, wide-area surveillance concepts in a complex rural and urban background. This experiment provided a fundamental database for evaluating approaches for
APPENDIX D 75 detecting and unraveling data on nefarious activity hidden in realistic clutter. Bluegrass products have been distributed to more than 50 organizations (govern- ment laboratories, industry, academia, intelligence organizations, and others) to facilitate the development of various ISR capabilities. Common Operational Research Environment Laboratory Key objectives of the Common Operational Research Environment (CORE) program are to educate a generation of military officers with respect to the useful- ness of irregular warfare methodologies, to leverage advanced information tech- nologies to help users understand and analyze network-based adversaries in the irregular warfare environment, and to stay current with the leading innovations in related analytical technologies. The CORE laboratory is providing much-needed training to military officers who will operate in an irregular warfare environ- ment. The training has been well received by students, and course enrollment has increased significantly. Counter Insurgency Pattern Assessment The Counter Insurgency Pattern Assessment (CIPA; see Figure D.2) uses historical data and multiple (hundreds of) geospatial data layers to predict poten- FIGURE D.2 Counter Insurgency Pattern Assessment (CIPA). SOURCE: Courtesy of the Rapid Reaction Technology Office, Di- rector, Defense Research and Engineering. D.2 color
76 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism tial areas of future activities of interest. CIPA inputs have provided numer- ous operational users with information vital to employing limited ISR plat- forms more effectively. The CIPA capability is embedded in various intelligence analysis tools and has been employed in operations in U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM), and U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM). Detection of unintended radiation Detection of Unintended Radiation (DURAD) is an electronic surveillance system for detecting and localizing activity of interest. Details of the system are classified. DURAD has been deployed to support SOUTHCOM and CENTCOM. Current efforts are focusing on further enhancing the system. The Defense Intel- ligence Agency (DIA) has been the proponent for additional development and follow-on deployments. Explosives Particulate Analysis There have been significant advancements in fluorimetric detection technol- ogy through the development of a fluorescent detection âinkâ that is able to detect trace amounts of conventional high explosives. This technology has been engi- neered into the simple-to-use, low-power, portable, and highly robust Explosives Particulate Analysis (XPAK) (see Figure D.3). Using the XPAK, explosives are indicated by the presence of dark spots on a bright blue background. The XPAK is currently forward-deployed in support of DIA and Army units. FIGURE D.3 Explosives Particulate Analysis (XPAK). SOURCE: Courtesy of RedXDefense, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Rockville, Md. D.3 color
APPENDIX D 77 JADOO Jadoo is a hydrogen fuel cell capability to power payloads aboard tactical unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The fuel cell is reusable and provides cost savings over traditional batteries, and its handling does not require hazardous materials procedures. (There is a significant hazardous materials cost associated with the disposal of traditional batteries.) Navy UAVs with Jadoo power supplies are currently deployed in support of Special Operations Command (SOCOM) units. Joint Cultural Understanding and Relationship Exploitation Joint Cultural Understanding and Relationship Exploitation (JCURE) was one of the initial DOD efforts to enhance military operations through an under- standing of the cultural environment. The initial project focused on a province in Iraq and produced marked positive results. The JCURE results have precipi- tated significant follow-on investments in human, social, and cultural projects by the Services and the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO). Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment The Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE) leverages the Gallup World Poll to identify the emergence of groups willing to use WMD in order to locate the seeds of hostility as they arise, and to do that on a worldwide basis, thereby affording the United States the opportunity to stop potential problems before they escalate. The Gallup World Poll presents a unique opportunity to mine consistent data gathered globally on a regular basis. Comprising survey (opinion) data, it is complementary to the observational data already being used by Joint Forces Command in producing an initial estimate of âhot spotsâ and provides insights into popular reactions to local and national environmental factors. JIPOE products have been presented to senior decision makers within the U.S. government. Long-Endurance Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) systems are currently widespread throughout the military (see Figure D.4). However, real-world operations of many of these systems are yet to be realized, partly owing to limitations in the ability of many vehicles to conduct long-range, long-endurance operations with large payloads. The large UUV (LUUV) testbed has been designed to be flexible
78 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism FIGURE D.4 Long-endurance unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV). SOURCE: Courtesy of the Applied Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University. D.4 color and adaptable to allow missions that are significant to the warfighter to be easily demonstrated and refined and ultimately integrated into the available operational arsenal. The RRTO sponsored sensor enhancements and battery and power sys- tem improvements to LUUVs that will result in a 2009 operational deployment aboard a U.S. naval vessel. Maritime Automated Super Track Enhanced Reporting Early recognition that âawareness and threat knowledge are critical for secur- ing the maritime domain and the key to preventing adverse eventsâ led to funding MASTERâMaritime Automated Super Track Enhanced Reportingâas a key enabler for this important capability in protecting the country. MASTER is a network system that fuses data from multiple sources, automatically tracks global shipping of all sizes, associates tracks with cargo, and provides the analyst with alerts on unusual activities. The RRTO supported the initial development and test- ing of MASTER. After the feasibility of MASTER was shown, it became a Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) in 2007 and continues to grow in use. Operational users in the testing and demonstrations include NORTHCOM, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Third Fleet, Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. Coast Guard Intelligence, and the U.S. Coast Guard Maritime Intelligence Fusion Centers Atlantic and Pacific. Three funded transitions are now in place. â See The National Strategy for Maritime Security, 2005, September, p. 16. Available at http://www. dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/HSPD13_MaritimeSecurityStrategy.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2009.
APPENDIX D 79 Measuring Progress in Conflict Environments Measuring Progress in Conflict Environments, the system called MPICE, was developed to provide a basic metrics analysis capability suitable for broad interagency use applicable to any stabilization and reconstruction environment of interest. The system was developed in part through case study application in Afghanistan and Sudan and is being employed in support of the U.S. Department of Stateâs Haiti Stabilization Initiative, as well as in stabilization efforts in Kosovo and Nigeria. The system can be used both as an organizing guide for policy mak- ers and planners and as a comprehensive means of analyzing progress across sectors over time. MPICE allows users to develop a visual story with flexibility to adapt to their particular needs. The MPICE process is being evaluated as the NATO standard to measure metrics in combat environments. Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles The Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) project developed a coop- erative, multiple, autonomously operating UAV system that provides users with capabilities to continuously collect intelligence, conduct surveillance, and per- form reconnaissance for mission planning and execution, protection of friendly forces, and exploitation of enemy weaknesses. The U.S. Air Force Academy completed a multiple-UAV experiment in which four UAVs successfully searched for, detected, and located a ground target cooperatively and autonomously. Using distributed onboard decision-making capabilities, it was the first experiment to be successfully accomplished with real-time onboard control, sensing, and commu- nications systems. Spiral development of this project will bring the autonomous operating capability to unmanned surface vessels. National Counterterrorism/Counterinsurgency Integrated Test and Evaluation Center and Joint Experimentation Range Complex The National Counterterrorism/Counterinsurgency Integrated Test and Eval- uation Center (NACCITEC) and Joint Experimentation Range Complex (JERC) provide a test capability located within Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. These facilities are discussed in detail in Appendix C, âRapid Reaction Technology Office Test Planning, Conduct, Analysis, and Reporting,â in this report. The capability was initiated under RRTO sponsorship to help prepare U.S. forces prior to deployment to operating areas with terrorist threats in the civilian infrastruc- ture. Representatives from each Service, numerous government laboratories, and industry have tested at the JERC. Construction of NACCITEC and JERC began in December 2003, with the first test of a counter-IED capability occurring in January 2004. The JERC grew to include a significant number of buildings, roads, and other infrastructure in
80 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism FIGURE D.5 The Joint Experimentation Range Complex (JERC) at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. SOURCE: Courtesy of the Rapid Reaction Technology Office, Direc- tor, Defense Research and ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Engineering. simulated urban and suburban desert environments (see Figure D.5). The site has become highlycolor for its ability to test systems in preparation for deployment D.5 valued to Iraq or Afghanistan, with systems being tested on an almost â24/7â basis. Although the RRTO began transitioning oversight of the JERC to the Army in 2006, the office still sponsors regular test periods to evaluate emerging technolo- gies and still provides a significant portion of the JERC funding. National Tactical Integrated Processing System The National Tactical Integrated Processing System (NTIPS) was designed to provide multi-intelligence Web enhancements, plug-and-play applications, and new data layers. These developments have been added to the existing infrastruc- ture and used to support military operations within the existing Fusion Analysis Development Effort (FADE) concepts of operations. The FADE previously only supported the warfighter exclusively in the CENTCOM theater of operations. NTIPS/FADE now supports multiple combatant commands, while simultane- ously improving support to CENTCOM. The project has improved real-time multiagency oversight and collaborative analytic participation. â Plug and play refers to the automatic configuration and recognition of computer hardware devices without user intervention.
APPENDIX D 81 Nova Nova is an electronic IED pre-detonation capability. It has been deployed to Iraq and has been instrumental in saving coalition lives. Details of the system are classified. Nova has been incorporated into an Air Force program of record. Passive Attack Weapon The Passive Attack Weapon was a low-collateral-damage penetrator deliv- ered and completed in less than 100 days for integration into the F-16 aircraft. This work resulted in the project team being named a Packard Award winner for exemplary innovation and defense acquisition best practices. Similar quick- response projects were accomplished in equipping the Marine Corps âDragon Eyeâ Advanced Tactical Reece Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a chemical-bio- logical detector and video system, and with the âThermobaric Hellfireâ that improved the performance of the AGM-114N attack missile. Persistent Threat Detection System The Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) is a persistent surveillance capability consisting of a tethered aerostat with an embedded camera, distributed queuing sensors, and a control module (see Figure D.6). When an event of interest is detected, the camera, in an integrated suite, is slewed to the target and tracks it until reaction forces arrive. Acoustic, infrared, and radar sensors queue an optical sensor aboard the aerostat. The camera can be automatically or manually slewed to the target while the control module communicates with reaction forces. FIGURE D.6 Persistent Threat Detection Sys- tem (PTDS). SOURCE: Courtesy of the Rapid Reaction Technology Office, Director, Defense Research and Engineering.
82 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism The PTDS was developed and exclusively funded by the RRTO and was deployed to Baghdad in 2004. It has since been taken over by JIEDDO, which has spent approximately $225 million procuring and deploying additional sys- tems into Iraq and Afghanistan. The system has now become an Army system of record. Pollen Identification and Backtracking An automated shape-comparison and shape-matching system for digital microscopy of pollen was developed. The effort established the worldâs first central repository for knowledge about pollen and accepts new digital micro- scopic images of pollen samples for forensic comparison and matching. Now warfighters in the field can quickly screen individuals to see if the pollen on their clothing or in the air filter of their vehicles matches the information derived from other means. Using this system, an unskilled operator can match pollen microscopy, obtaining a clear âyes-or-noâ match, and, based on the information in the knowledge base, can offer details about where the pollen(s) might have originated. SKOPE SKOPE is a joint intelligence cell with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), SOCOM, and the U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM). It began with a specific request for sensors to help narrow the search space for terrorists and terror groups. The RRTO recommended the development of the SKOPE approach and was the sole funding source for the initial operating capa- bility of the analytic cell. Currently the RRTO is developing new tools in response to specific requests from commanders based on the success and experience with this operational capability. The SKOPE cell applies all-source, multi-intelligence analysis linked to a spot on Earth. Through its application of human terrain analysis, SKOPE incor- porates aspects of the Human Terrain System (HTS), a new proof-of-concept pro- gram run by the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command and serving the joint community. The near-term focus of the HTS program is to improve the ability of the military to understand the highly complex, local sociocultural environment in areas of deployment. In the long term however, it is hoped that HTS will assist â According to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency briefing at the U.S. Geospatial Intel- ligence Foundation GEOINT 2008 Symposium, October 27-28, 2008, Nashville, Tenn., human terrain analysis is a multi-intelligence, multidisciplinary scientific approach to describing and predicting spatial and temporal patterns of human behavior by analyzing the attributes, actions, reactions, and interactions of groups or individuals in the context of their environment.
APPENDIX D 83 FIGURE D.7 Stiletto. SOURCE: Courtesy of U.S. Navy. the U.S. government in understanding foreign countries and regions prior to an engagement within a region. According to the Army Web site, the HTS program D.7 color represents the first time that social science research and advising have been done systematically, on a large scale, and at the brigade level. Sonoma (renamed Constant Hawk) The Constant Hawk (originally named Sonoma) aerial surveillance capability can record activities within a given area of interest so that users can detect the activities and derive tracking information about personnel or vehicles through postflight analysis. This capability to counter IEDs is a project that was achieved through partnerships. The RRTO helped the effort progress through a number of iterations in both the design of sensors and the analysis and processing of new and complex information. These efforts transitioned to the Army and JIEDDO and are migrating into significant acquisitions and other spin-off capabilities. Stiletto Stiletto is an experimental, high-speed vessel designed to transport opera- tional forces to their missions quickly (see Figure D.7). It has a top speed of more â Additional information is available at http://humanterrainsystem.army.mil/. Accessed April 15, 2009.
84 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism than 50 knots. The RRTOâs Emerging Capabilities Division has sponsored opera- tional experimentation to explore the military usefulness of concept-technology pairing and other unique capabilities of Stilettoâs hull form, speed, wake, draft, configurability, and payload fraction; its command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) connectivity; and other characteristics. By offering industry the opportunity to plug hardware and software into its âdigital hull,â Stiletto has supported and accelerated the development of the tools, tech- nologies, and concepts that will enable other communities to realize better C4I connectivity, proximate command and control, better situational awareness, more robust networking, and the employment of unmanned vehicles. In June 2008, Sti- letto was deployed to SOUTHCOM to aid in a demonstration of counter-narcotics efforts. During the 2008 deployment, Stiletto was operationally controlled by the DOD and embarked personnel from the Department of Homeland Security and the Columbian Navy. Sudan The Sudan Strategic Assessment (SSA) Strategic Multilayer Assessment effort focused on how to understand a complex âstateâ that lacks true borders, that experiences many competing internal and external interests at work, and for which there are comparatively few âvettedâ data and analytical products. A unique and critical aspect of the project was that of bringing together two types of social scientists (i.e., quantitative or computational types, or modelers, and qualitative types, or subject-matter experts in regional and/or area studies) with analysts and operational planners in a single venue to maximize the strengths of each group and to mitigate the weaknesses of the individual groups working alone. The key deliverable from the SSA effort was the development of an evi- dence-based, empirically driven framework for reducing bias and for increasing the understanding of the dynamics of a complex environment and the potential impact of a group of people on that environment through their actions. The actions in this case span the spectrum of the instruments of national power, with particular emphasis on diplomatic, information, and economic aspects and less emphasis on military aspects. Tactical infrared networked awareness Tactical Infrared Networked Awareness (TINA) provides a tactical overlay and high-data-rate information exchange over tactically significant distances. Data are exchanged by means of laser communications that are difficult to intercept and not susceptible to normal radio-frequency interference. TINA was developed as a product of two separate RRTO-sponsored projects: one to develop high-data-rate communications by means of a laser link and the other to provide easy-to-read tactical information on videoscreens. Details of the program are
APPENDIX D 85 classified. TINA is currently deployed in support of SOCOM units. Spiral devel- opment in 2009 will bring the TINA capability to U.S. Navy surface vessels and submarines. Tactical Satellites The Tactical Satellites (TacSats) effort has stimulated an entirely new class of satellites that can be built quickly at low cost. This work was initiated by the Office of Force Transformation, and then the RRTO took over its management. The RRTO brought in more government and industry participants and helped establish the Operationally Responsive Space Office, which is now to carry on the TacSats efforts. The RRTO not only funded a number of the satellites and payloads but also supported developing a âTasking, Collecting, Processing, Exploitation, and Disseminationâ set of tools and developed the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC).Â Space systems have become an important part of military operations. Most satellites have been developed to support carefully vetted requirements and have taken significant amounts of time and funding. The TacSat concept was developed with the goal of having rapid response times, with tailored payloads and specific tactical theater support. The TacSats initiative became part of the RRTO in 2006. The RRTO supported a range of initiatives such as the following: (1) expanding the payloads, for example, by adding the ship-tracking Automatic Identification System that supports the MASTER worldwide ship-tracking program (discussed above); (2) developing a low-cost VMOC, as well as leveraging the Secret Inter- net Protocol Router Network (SIPRnet) for rapid tasking and data dissemination; and (3) helping to establish the Operationally Responsive Space Office and tran- sitioning TacSats to a long-term organization. To date, four TacSats have been built, all with reasonable costs and schedules. TacSat-2, launched in December 2006, collected a range of data in 2007. TacSat-3 was launched in May 2009, and TacSat-4, shown in Figure D.8, is scheduled to launch in September 2009. Wolf Pack Wolf Pack improves the tactical effectiveness of small combat units by find- ing, coordinating, integrating, and experimenting with emerging but relatively mature concepts and technologies. These concepts and technologies must be sus- tainable and deployable and have strong potential to quickly help correct current Army/Marine/coalition capability gaps to support small-unit operations across a spectrum of environments and mission profiles, such as in Iraq and Afghanistan. A variety of mounted and dismounted technologies, including camera systems; a laser range-finder and target designator; a portable, multimodal biometric tool kit; and handheld ruggedized personal digital assistants are connected through a digital backbone. Portions of the Wolf Pack projects have spiraled to operational users.
86 Experimentation and Rapid Prototyping in Support of Counterterrorism FIGURE D.8 Tactical Satellite-4. SOURCE: Courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory, Department of the Navy.