National Academies Press: OpenBook

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases (2009)

Chapter: Appendix C: Novel Human Pathogen Species

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Novel Human Pathogen Species." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2009. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12625.
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Page 293
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Novel Human Pathogen Species." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2009. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12625.
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Appendix C Novel Human Pathogen Species TABLE C-1 List of 87 Novel Human Pathogen Species Discovered Since 1980 Year Pathogen Species Year Pathogen Species 1987 Suid herpevirus 1 1980 Puumala virus Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 Sealpox virus 1981 Dhori virus Microsporidian africanum 1982 Seoul virus 1988 Picobirnavirus Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 Barmah Forest virus 1989 Hepatitis C virus Borrelia burgdorferi 1983 Human immunodeficiency virus 1 European bat lyssavirus 1 Human adenovirus F Corynebacterium amycolatum Hepatitis E virus 1990 Vittaforma corneae Trubanaman virus Helicobacter pylori Semliki Forest virus Capnocytophaga canimorsus Candiru virus Reston Ebola virus 1984 Gan gan virus Scedosporium prolificans Rotavirus B Banna virus Human torovirus 1991 Nosema ocularum 1985 Guanarito virus Pleistophora ronneafiei Enterocytozoon bieneusi Encephalitozoon hellem Borna disease virus Ehrlichia chaffeensis 1986 Rotavirus C 1992 Dobrava-Belgrade virus Kokobera virus Bartonella henselae Kasokero virus 1993 Sin Nombre virus Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Gymnophalloides seoi Human herpesvirus 6 Encephalitozoon intestinalis European bat lyssavirus 2 Bartonella elizabethae Cyclospora cayetanensis continued 

 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE TO zOONOTIC DISEASES TABLE C-1 Continued Year Pathogen Species Year Pathogen Species 1994 Sabia virus 1998 Trachipleistophora anthropophthera Human herpesvirus 8 Menangle virus Human herpesvirus 7 Brachiola vesicularum Hendra virus 1999 TT virus Nipah virus Anaplasma phagocytophila 1995 New York virus Ehrlichia ewingii Hepatitis G virus Brachiola algerae Côte d’Ivoire Ebola virus 2000 Whitewater Arroyo virus Black creek canal virus 2001 Cryptosporidium felis Bayou virus Human metapneumovirus 1996 Usutu virus Baboon cytomegalovirus 2002 Trachipleistophora hominis Cryptosporidium hominis 2003 SARS coronavirus Metorchis conjunctus Juquitiba virus 2004 Human coronavirus NL63 2005 Human T-lymphotropic virus 4 Ehrlichia canis BSE agent Human T-lymphotropic virus 3 Australian bat lyssavirus Human coronavirus HKU1 Andes virus Human bocavirus 1997 Laguna Negra virus 2007 Ki virus Wu virus Bartonella clarridgeiae Melaka virus NOTE: Approximately 80 percent of these are associated with nonhuman reservoirs or origins. SOURCE: Adapted from Woolhouse, M., and E. Gaunt (2007). Ecological Origins of Novel Human Pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol 33(4):231–242.

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H1N1 ("swine flu"), SARS, mad cow disease, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples of zoonotic diseases-diseases transmitted between humans and animals. Zoonotic diseases are a growing concern given multiple factors: their often novel and unpredictable nature, their ability to emerge anywhere and spread rapidly around the globe, and their major economic toll on several disparate industries.

Infectious disease surveillance systems are used to detect this threat to human and animal health. By systematically collecting data on the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals, investigators can track the spread of disease and provide an early warning to human and animal health officials, nationally and internationally, for follow-up and response. Unfortunately, and for many reasons, current disease surveillance has been ineffective or untimely in alerting officials to emerging zoonotic diseases.

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases assesses some of the disease surveillance systems around the world, and recommends ways to improve early detection and response. The book presents solutions for improved coordination between human and animal health sectors, and among governments and international organizations.

Parties seeking to improve the detection and response to zoonotic diseases--including U.S. government and international health policy makers, researchers, epidemiologists, human health clinicians, and veterinarians--can use this book to help curtail the threat zoonotic diseases pose to economies, societies, and health.

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