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Part I Framing and Basic Technology Part I contains one chapterâChapter 2âwhich provides an introduc- tion to the technological and operational dimensions of cyberattack. The technological dimensions refer to what cyberattacks are and how they might be conducted. As the chapter makes clear, there are many differ- ent kinds of cyberattack with many different kinds of objectives, and the term âcyberattackâ without further qualification should be seen more as a statement about the use of a particular attack methodology than about its targets or purpose. The operational dimensions refer to the support that a successful cyberattack requires, such as intelligence information about its targets and ways to start, stop, and calibrate a cyberattack. Cyberexploita- tion is addressed separately and in contrast to cyberattack. Note to the reader: When the name of a nation is needed in this report, the names âZendiaâ and âRuritaniaâ are used as stand-ins. Depending on context, these nations may be a near-peer nation-state with military and economic stature and power comparable to that of the United States; a small, relatively undeveloped nation; or something in between. Generally in this report, Zendia is an adversary of the United States. 77