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Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009)

Chapter: Appendix B: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

« Previous: Appendix A: Statement of Task
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
Page 39

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Appendix B Biographies of Committee Members and Staff WILLIAM W. HOOVER, Co-Chair, is a consultant for avia- Defense Agency), including the SP-100 and Topaz programs. tion, defense, and energy matters. He is a former Assistant He served as a member of NASA’s Lunar Surface Fission Secretary, Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, Power System Study in support of the Exploration Systems where he was responsible for the U.S. nuclear weapons Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005, as a member of NASA’s development program, including production, research, test- Nuclear Strategic Roadmap committee in 2004-2005, and as ing, safety, and security. He is also a Major General, USAF a member of an NRC thermionics study committee in 2000. (retired), and a former chair of the NRC’s Aeronautics and He was awarded AIAA’s Aerospace Power Systems Award Space Engineering Board. for career achievements in space power in 2008. RALPH L. McNUTT, JR., Co-Chair, is a senior space SAMIM ANGHAIE is a professor of nuclear and ­radiological physicist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics engineering at the University of Florida, where he also is Laboratory. Dr. McNutt is currently the Project Scientist and director of the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propul- a Co-Investigator on the MESSENGER Discovery mission sion Institute (INSPI). He has been a professor at Florida to Mercury, a Co-Investigator on the New Horizons mis- since 1986, before which he was an assistant professor at sion to Pluto, and a Co-Investigator on the Voyager Plasma Oregon State University for two years. His research interests Science (PLS) and Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) include thermal hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics experiments. He is also a member of the Ion Neutral Mass and heat transfer, high temperature nuclear fuels and mate- Spectrometer Team for the Cassini Orbiter spacecraft. He rials, inverse radiation transport methods, advanced reactor has worked on the physics of the magnetospheres of the design, direct energy conversion, and space nuclear power outer planets, the outer heliosphere (including solar wind and propulsion. dynamics and properties of VLF radiation), Pluto’s atmo- sphere, pulsars, high current electron beams, the physics of RETA F. BEEBE is a professor in the Astronomy Depart- active experiments in the mesosphere/thermosphere (arti- ment at New Mexico State University. She is a leading ficial aurora), and the solar neutrino problem. Dr. McNutt expert in the study of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, previously served as a member of the NRC Committee for and in particular, studies of cloud motion and development the Study of the Next Decadal Mars Architecture (2006), in Jupiter’s atmosphere. She undertakes her studies using the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by a variety of techniques including ground- and space-based Nuclear Power and Propulsion: A Vision for Beyond 2015 telescopic observations and remote-sensing studies using (2004-2006), the Committee to Assess Solar System Explo- spacecraft. Most recently, she has served as an associate ration (2007-2008), and the Committee to Review New member of the Galileo imaging team and has led the team Opportunities in Solar System Exploration (2007-2008). of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope to provide context images for the Galileo project. Dr. Beebe currently DOUGLAS M. ALLEN, the General Manager of Schafer serves as the program scientist for the Planetary Data ­System Corporation’s Dayton operations, has 28 years experience (PDS). Dr. Beebe has also been extensively involved in the in aerospace technology, with an emphasis on space power management and implementation of the research and analy- technology. He formerly was the program manager of nuclear sis programs that provide basic research funding to planetary power system development for SDIO (now the Missile scientists. 36

APPENDIX B 37 WARREN W. BUCK, an internationally known theoretical systems and the risk of software-intensive space systems, physicist, is professor of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences and he has served on NRC committees as an expert panelist and chancellor emeritus at the University of Washington, for space systems risk assessment. He has authored and has Bothell (UWB). He is also adjunct professor of physics at been the co-editor of technical textbooks and has published the Seattle campus of the University of Washington. Prior to close to 80 papers in refereed journals and conference pro- joining UWB, Dr. Buck was professor of physics and direc- ceedings. His latest work in the area of mission assurance is tor of the Nuclear/High Energy Physics Research Center of documented in The Aerospace Corporation Mission Assur- Excellence at Hampton University. He was also a member ance Guide, which is currently being published and distrib- of the team that established the scientific program at the uted across the Company. Dr. Guarro’s direct nuclear power Department of Energy’s Jefferson Laboratory in Newport expertise was applied in jobs with the Nuclear Regulatory News, Virginia. Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (NRC/ACRS) and with the Lawrence Livermore National BEVERLY A. COOK has over 30 years’ experience in Laboratory, where he was a project leader in the nuclear nuclear safety, materials research, facilities operations systems safety program. He is still currently a consultant and management. She is currently the Jet Propulsion to the NRC/ACRS. At Aerospace, he started his career as L ­ aboratory’s ­Planning and Integration Manager for the Deep an Engineering Specialist and then carried several ETG Space Network (DSN) Program. Prior to joining the DSN management positions, including that of Manager of the team, she supported the JPL development and use of space Reliability and Risk Assessment Section and then, before nuclear power systems in NASA missions. In her prior work his current appointment, of Director of the Risk Planning for the Department of Energy, she was responsible for the and Assessment Office. fabrication and delivery of the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for the Cassini mission as well as delivery ROGER D. LAUNIUS is senior curator in the Division of of RTGs to other DOE customers. She also interacted with Space History at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air Congress, OMB, and NASA on issues related to funding and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Between 1990 and and support for continued development of nuclear power 2002 he served as chief historian of the National Aeronautics systems for space applications. Prior to joining JPL in 2004, and Space Administration. He has written or edited more Ms. Cook served as the Assistant Secretary of Energy for than 20 books on aerospace history, including Critical Issues Environment, Safety, and Health. Other positions at the DOE in the History of Spaceflight, Space Stations: Base Camps to included Manager of the Idaho Operations Office and Deputy the Stars, and Frontiers of Space Exploration. He has also Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. completed a study of the history of radioisotope thermo­ electric generators. SERGIO B. GUARRO is a Distinguished Engineer in the Engineering and Technology Group (ETG), Systems FRANK B. McDONALD (NAS) is a pioneer and leader in Engineering Division (SED) of the Aerospace Corporation. cosmic-ray astrophysics and high-energy astronomy in gen- He applies multi-decade expertise in systems engineering, eral. He is also well known in the areas of solar wind and risk assessment, and risk management disciplines onto the planetary magnetospheres. He is currently a senior research development, coordination, and implementation of mission scientist in the Institute for Physical Science and Technology assurance processes in National Security Space (NSS) and at the University of Maryland, College Park, and formerly NASA programs. He provides leadership in the development served as NASA chief scientist. Dr. McDonald has been and establishment of risk management and mission assurance involved in the study of energetic particles in the heliosphere best practices within Aerospace by assisting NSS programs for many years. His energetic particle experiments on the in the setting and execution of their risk management and Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft continue to be a resource for mission assurance goals and activities. He also supports studying the dynamics of the outer heliosphere and the prop- the corporate Aerospace Corporation Chief Engineer and erties of low-energy galactic and anomalous cosmic rays. Systems Engineering organizations in the development Dr. McDonald is a former NAS section 16 liaison and was of risk management and mission assurance guidance and chair of the NRC Panel on Space Sciences. He also served on implementation tools for use in all NSS programs supported the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and Com- by Aerospace. In the course of his career Dr. Guarro has mittee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment. developed risk assessment methodologies for both space and nuclear power systems, such as the one adopted for ALAN R. NEWHOUSE is a consultant in the field of the launch approval of the NASA Cassini nuclear-powered space nuclear power and related technologies. In 1995, he mission, and the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) retired from the Department of Energy where he served as for the risk analysis of dynamic systems. He is the author the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Space and of the chapters of the NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment Defense Power Systems. As such, he was responsible for the Procedures Guide that address the risk modeling of physical management and execution of programs to provide nuclear

38 RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS power systems for space and national security applications, research involves the study of the origin of mineral deposits for Cassini RTG production, for development of the SP-100 and the distribution and location of mineral and mineral space nuclear reactor, and for several classified programs. fuel resources. His research has also included the study of He initiated technical development of new energy conversion chemical baselines of trace elements in rocks and ores for technologies for space and terrestrial applications. During environmental purpose. 2002, Mr. Newhouse was a consultant to NASA’s Office of Space Science on the Nuclear System Initiative (later Project EMANUEL TWARD is a consultant to Northrop Grumman Prometheus). In 2003 he joined NASA and was in charge of Space Technology, an organization from which he retired in Project Prometheus. In late 2004 he was appointed as the 2006. At the time, he was the cryogenics business area man- Program Executive for Radioisotope Power Systems in the ager and project manager for a number of flight cryocooler Science Mission Directorate and as a senior technical advisor development projects (13 in orbit) and for development of a to the Development Division of NASA’s Exploration Sys- thermoacoustic Stirling power converter. Dr. Tward has also tems Directorate. He retired again from government service worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Low Temperature at the end of 2004. Physics Group, where he was active in the development of long-lived cryocoolers for spacecraft. Dr. Tward was previ- JOSEPH A. SHOLTIS, JR., Lt Col, USAF (retired), is a ously an associate professor of physics at the University nuclear and aerospace engineer with 38 years of experience of Regina, where he was developing a gravitational wave with advanced nuclear systems and programs for a variety detector. of applications. Areas of particular focus include space and advanced terrestrial nuclear systems and their safety, EARL WAHLQUIST worked in the Radioisotope Power and risk assessment of space missions employing nuclear System program for the Department of Energy for more than systems or materials, including preparation and delivery of 20 years, and he was the program director for the program formal studies and analyses to middle and top management for the last 8 years before he retired in 2006. In that role in the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Energy Mr. Wahlquist managed the development of the RTG for the (DOE), NASA, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Pluto spacecraft that was launched in 2006. This included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the White responsibility for the contractors producing the RTG and House, and Congress. Mr. Sholtis is the owner and principal the DOE facilities and infrastructure that processed the 238Pu consultant of Sholtis Engineering and Safety Consulting. into heat sources and assembled the heat sources into the Current and prior customers include Sandia National Labo- generators. It also included directing the review and assur- ratories, Rocketdyne, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Los ance of the safety of the systems, including interfacing with A ­ lamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Office of the interagency review group that independently reviews the Space Commercialization, and the joint DoD, DOE, NASA, safety. Mr. Wahlquist also managed efforts to centralize all EPA, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interagency of the DOE RTG processing and assembling facilities at a Nuclear Safety Review Panel. Areas currently being inves- single location. He also directed several studies looking at tigated include Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric either purchasing 238Pu from foreign sources or producing Generator (MMRTG) safety, Mars Science Laboratory mis- the material within the United States. sion risk, as well as assessment and advancement of coated particle fuel for future radioisotope power systems. During Staff his career, Mr. Sholtis has worked at Sandia National Labo- ratories (on advanced reactors), the Defense Nuclear Agency ALAN C. ANGLEMAN, Study Director, has been a senior (on research and test reactors and radiation sources), and program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering DOE Headquarters (on the joint DOE/DoD/NASA SP-100 Board (ASEB) since 1993, directing studies on a wide ­variety Space Reactor Power System Development Program). He of aerospace issues. Previously, Mr. Angleman worked for has been involved in the nuclear safety and risk assessment consulting firms in the Washington, D.C., area providing of every U.S. nuclear-powered space mission launched since engineering support services to the Department of Defense 1974; i.e., Viking 1 and 2, Lincoln Experimental Satellites and NASA Headquarters. His professional career began with (LES) 8 and 9, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars the U.S. Navy, where he served for nine years as a nuclear- P ­ athfinder, Cassini, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) A and trained submarine officer. He has a B.S. in engineering B, and Pluto-New Horizons. p ­ hysics from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in applied physics from the Johns Hopkins University. SPENCER R. TITLEY (NAE) is a professor in the Depart- ment of Geosciences at the University of Arizona. He previ- DWAYNE A. DAY, a program officer for the Space ­Studies ously worked on NASA’s Lunar Orbiter program and was Board (SSB), has a Ph.D. in political science from the also a member of the Apollo Field Geology Investigation George Washington University and has previously served Team, serving on Apollo missions 16 and 17. His current as an investigator for the Columbia Accident Investigation

APPENDIX B 39 Board. He was on the staff of the Congressional Budget studies that concern oil spill dispersants, nonnative oysters Office and also worked for the Space Policy Institute at the in the Chesapeake Bay, mitigating shore erosion, explor- George ­ Washington University. He has held ­ Guggenheim ing the seas, a science plan for the North Pacific Research and Verville fellowships and is an associate editor of the Board, coastal zone mapping, vehicles in deep submergence German spaceflight magazine Raumfahrt Concrete, in addi- science, and a review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan. tion to writing for such publications as Novosti ­Kosmonavtiki She is currently a research associate for the Air Force ­Studies ( ­ Russia) and Spaceflight and Space Chronicle (United Board. Ms. Capote earned her B.A. in history from the Uni- K ­ ingdom). He has served as study director for several NRC versity of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. reports, including Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration (2006), Grading NASA’s Solar Sys- CELESTE A. NAYLOR was a senior program assistant tem Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008), and for SSB from November 2008 through January 2009. She Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New is currently SSB’s information management associate. Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008). Ms. Naylor joined the SSB in 2002 and has worked with the Committee on Assessment of Options to Extend the Life of CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an editor with the Space Stud- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Committee on Astronomy ies Board. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in and Astrophysics, and the Task Group on Research on the 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988. She was International Space Station. Ms. Naylor is a member of the a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Society of Government Meeting Professionals and has more Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. than 10 years of experience in event management. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. ANDREA M. REBHOLZ joined the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board as a program associate in January 2009. SARAH M. CAPOTE was a program associate for the ASEB She began her career at the National Academies in Octo- through November 2008. During her time with the ASEB, ber 2005 as a senior program assistant for the Institute of she worked on a variety of studies pertaining to space radia- Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and tion, wake turbulence, assessing the research and develop- Translation. Prior to the Academies, she worked in the ment plan for the next generation air transportation system, communications department of a D.C.-based think tank. NASA aeronautics research, NASA’s exploration technology Ms. Rebholz graduated from George Mason University’s development program, as well as an assessment of NASA’s New Century College in 2003 with a B.A. in integrative National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service (NAOMS) s ­ tudies–event management and has over 7 years of experi- Project. Before joining ASEB, Ms. Capote worked for the ence in event planning. Ocean Studies Board for several years. She assisted with

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Spacecraft require electrical energy. This energy must be available in the outer reaches of the solar system where sunlight is very faint. It must be available through lunar nights that last for 14 days, through long periods of dark and cold at the higher latitudes on Mars, and in high-radiation fields such as those around Jupiter. Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are the only available power source that can operate unconstrained in these environments for the long periods of time needed to accomplish many missions, and plutonium-238 (238Pu) is the only practical isotope for fueling them.

Plutonium-238 does not occur in nature. The committee does not believe that there is any additional 238Pu (or any operational 238Pu production facilities) available anywhere in the world.The total amount of 238Pu available for NASA is fixed, and essentially all of it is already dedicated to support several pending missions--the Mars Science Laboratory, Discovery 12, the Outer Planets Flagship 1 (OPF 1), and (perhaps) a small number of additional missions with a very small demand for 238Pu. If the status quo persists, the United States will not be able to provide RPSs for any subsequent missions.

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