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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

UPDATED VERSION

Prudent Practices
in the
Laboratory

Handling and Management
of Chemical Hazards

Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG02-08ER15932; the National Institutes of Health under contract number N01-OD-4-2139, TO #200; and the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-0740356. Additional support was received from Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; the American Chemical Society; E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Eastman Chemical Company; the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and PPG Industries.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Prudent practices in the laboratory : handling and management of chemical hazards / Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Division on Earth and Life Studies. — Updated ed.

       p. cm.

   Includes bibliographical references and index.

   ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13864-2 (hardback)

   ISBN-10: 0-309-13864-7 (hardback)

   ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13865-9 (pdf)

   ISBN-10: 0-309-13865-5 (pdf)

 1. Hazardous substances. 2. Chemicals—Safety measures. 3. Hazardous wastes. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory.

   T55.3.H3P78 2011

   660’.2804—dc22

                                                       2010047731

Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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×

COMMITTEE ON PRUDENT PRACTICES IN
THE LABORATORY: AN UPDATE

CO-CHAIRS

WILLIAM F. CARROLL, JR., Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas

BARBARA L. FOSTER, West Virginia University, Morgantown

MEMBERS

W. EMMETT BARKLEY, Proven Practices, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland

SUSAN H. COOK, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

KENNETH P. FIVIZZANI, Nalco Company, Naperville, Illinois

ROBIN IZZO, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

KENNETH A. JACOBSON, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

KAREN MAUPINS, Eli Lilly & Company Drug Discovery, Indianapolis, Indiana

KENNETH MOLOY, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware

RANDALL B. OGLE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

JOHN PALASSIS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio

RUSSELL W. PHIFER, WC Environmental, LLC, West Chester, Pennsylvania

PETER A. REINHARDT, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

LEVI T. THOMPSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

LEYTE WINFIELD, Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

ANDREW CROWTHER, Postdoctoral Fellow

KEVIN KUHN, Mirzayan Fellow

KATHRYN HUGHES, Responsible Staff Officer

TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

KELA MASTERS, Senior Program Assistant (through October 2008)

JESSICA PULLEN, Administrative Coordinator

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Research Associate

SALLY STANFIELD, Editor

LYNELLE VIDALE, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

Co-chairs

RYAN R. DIRKX, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

C. DALE POULTER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Members

ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, Stanford, California

ROBERT G. BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley, California

HENRY E. BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware

EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

PABLO DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC, The Woodlands, Texas

CAROL J. HENRY, George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia

JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts

JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, District of Columbia

DARLENE J. SOLOMON, Agilent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California

ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York

WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego, California

DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

National Research Council Staff

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer

TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Program Officer

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Research Associate

RACHEL YANCEY, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Preface

In the early 1980s, the National Research Council (NRC) produced two major reports on laboratory safety and laboratory waste disposal: Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (1981) and Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories (1983). In 1995, the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology updated, combined, and revised the earlier studies in producing Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. More than 10 years later, the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology initiated an update and revision of the 1995 edition of Prudent Practices.

In 2007, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health, with additional support from the American Chemical Society, Eastman Kodak Company, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and PPG Industries, commissioned a study by NRC to “review and update the 1995 publication, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals.” The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update was charged to

   review and update the 1995 publication, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals;

   modify the existing content and add content as required to reflect new fields and developments that have occurred since the previous publication;

   emphasize the concept of a “culture of safety” and how that culture can be established and nurtured;

   consider laboratory operations and the adverse impacts those operations might have on the surrounding environment and community.

The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update was established in June 2008. The first meeting was held in August 2008, and two subsequent meetings were held, one in October 2008 and the other in February 2009. All meetings were held in Washington, D.C.

The original motivation for drafting Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 was to provide an authoritative reference on the handling and disposal of chemicals at the laboratory level. These volumes not only served as a guide to laboratory workers, but also offered prudent guidelines for the development of regulatory policy by government agencies concerned with safety in the workplace and protection of the environment.

Pertinent health-related parts of Prudent Practices 1981 are incorporated in a nonmandatory section of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Laboratory Standard (29 CFR § 1910.1450, “Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories,” reprinted in this edition as Appendix A). OSHA’s purpose was to provide guidance for developing and implementing its required Chemical Hygiene Plan. Since their original publication in the early 1980s, these reports have been distributed widely both nationally and internationally. In 1992, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the World Health Organization published Chemical Safety Matters, a document based on Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983, for wide international use.

The next volume (Prudent Practices 1995) responded to societal and technical developments that were driving significant change in the laboratory culture and laboratory operations relative to safety, health, and environmental protection.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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The major drivers for this new culture of laboratory safety included an increase in regulations regarding laboratory practice, technical advances in hazard and risk evaluation, and an improvement in the understanding of the elements necessary for an effective culture of safety.

Building on this history, the updated (2011) edition of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory also considers technical, regulatory, and societal changes that have occurred since the last publication. As a reflection of some of those changes, it provides information on new topics, including

   emergency planning,

   laboratory security,

   handling of nanomaterials, and

   an expanded discussion of environment, health, and safety management systems.

Throughout the development of this book, the committee engaged in discussions with subject matter experts and industrial and academic researchers and teachers. The goal of these discussions was to determine what the various constituencies considered to be prudent practices for laboratory operations.

Public support for the laboratory use of chemicals depends on compliance with regulatory laws, respect by organizations and individuals of the concerns of the public, and the open acknowledgment and management of the risks to personnel who work in laboratory environments. Addressing these issues is the joint responsibility of everyone who handles or makes decisions about chemicals, from shipping and receiving clerks to laboratory personnel and managers, environmental health and safety staff, and institutional administrators.

The writers of the preface to the 1995 edition stated that, “This shared responsibility is now a fact of laboratory work as inexorable as the properties of the chemicals that are being handled,” and we restate that sentiment here. Organizations and institutions must create environments where safe laboratory practice is standard practice. Each individual influences the “culture of safety” in the laboratory. All of us should recognize that the safety of each of us depends on teamwork and personal responsibility as well as the knowledge of chemistry. Faculty, research advisors, and teachers should note that a vital component of chemical education is teaching students how to identify the risks and hazards in a laboratory. Such education serves scientists well in their ultimate careers in government, industry, academe, and the health sciences.

The promotion of a “culture of safety” has come a long way since 1995; however, in some ways, the “culture of chemistry” is still at odds with that of safety. Some of us may have witnessed unsafe behavior or minor accidents, and yet, rather than viewing these incidents with concern and as opportunities to modify practices and behavior, we often have failed to act upon these “teachable moments.” Ironically, however, we shudder when, even today, we hear of accidents—some fatal—that might have been our near misses.

Rigorous practitioners argue that, in principle, all accidental injuries are preventable if systems and attitudes are in place to prevent them. Even in these days of technological advancements, tracking of near misses and adaptation of systems to eradicate them is inconsistent across the enterprise. Within the research and teaching communities, less rigorous practitioners seem to accept different safety tolerances for different environments. It is common during a discussion of laboratory safety to hear the statement, “Industry is much stricter on safety than academia. Things happen in academic research labs that would never be allowed where I work.” This is often accompanied by a “when I was a student …” story. The path to failure illustrated by this colloquy should be obvious and unacceptable. To fully

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

implement a culture of safety, even with improved technology, everyone who is associated with the laboratory must be mindful of maintaining a safe environment.

Prudent Practices (1995) has been used worldwide and has served as a leading reference book for laboratory practice. The committee hopes that this new edition of the book will expand upon that tradition, and that this edition will assist the readers to provide a safe and healthy laboratory environment in which to teach, learn, and conduct research.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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Acknowledgments

Many technical experts provided input to this book. Their involvement, by speaking to the committee or by providing technical reviews of material prepared by the committee, greatly enhanced this work. The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update thanks the following people for their contributions to this revision of Prudent Practices.

Chyree Batton, Spelman College

Kevin Charbonneau, Yale University

Jasmaine Coleman, Spelman College

Dennis Deziel, Department of Homeland Security

Michael Ellenbecker, Toxic Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts–Lowell

Drew Endy, Stanford University

Dennis Fantin, California Polytechnic State University

Charles Geraci, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Lawrence Gibbs, Stanford University

Laura Hodson, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Barbara Karn, Environmental Protection Agency

Cathleen King, Yale University

Robert Klein, Yale University

Stanley K. Lengerich, Eli Lilly & Company

Thomas J. Lentz, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Clyde Miller, BASF Corporation

John Miller, Department of Energy

Richard W. Niemeier, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Todd Pagano, Rochester Institute of Technology

Tammy Stemen, Yale University

Cary Supalo, Pennsylvania State University

Candice Tsai, Toxic Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts–Lowell

Bryana Williams, Spelman College

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report:

Robert J. Alaimo, Proctor & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, retired

Bruce Backus, Washington University

Janet Baum, Independent Consultant

L. Casey Chosewood, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Rick L. Danheiser, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Louis J. DiBerardinis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Charles L. Geraci, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Lawrence M. Gibbs, Stanford University

Stephanie Graham-Sims, West Virginia University

Scott C. Jackson, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company

Donald Lucas, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Edward H. Rau, National Institutes of Health

Robin D. Rogers, University of Alabama

Timothy J. Scott, The Dow Chemical Company

Robert W. Shaw, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, retired

Erik A. Talley, Cornell University

William C. Trogler, University of California, San Diego

Douglas B. Walters, KPC, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stanley Pine, University of California, San Diego. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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×

Contents

1    The Culture of Laboratory Safety

1.A    Introduction

1.B    The Culture of Laboratory Safety

1.C    Responsibility and Accountability for Laboratory Safety

1.D    Special Safety Considerations in Academic Laboratories

1.E    The Safety Culture in Industrial and Governmental Laboratories

1.F    Other Factors That Influence Laboratory Safety Programs

1.G    Laboratory Security

1.H    Structure of the Book

1.I    Summary

2    Environmental Health and Safety Management System

2.A    Introduction

2.B    Chemical Hygiene Plan

2.C    Safety Rules and Policies

2.D    Chemical Management Program

2.E    Laboratory Inspection Program

2.F    Emergency Procedures

2.G    Employee Safety Training Program

3    Emergency Planning

3.A    Introduction

3.B    Preplanning

3.C    Leadership and Priorities

3.D    Communication During an Emergency

3.E    Evacuations

3.F    Shelter in Place

3.G    Loss of Power

3.H    Institutional or Building Closure

3.I    Emergency Affecting the Community

3.J    Fire or Loss of Laboratory

3.K    Drills and Exercises

3.L    Outside Responders and Resources

4    Evaluating Hazards and Assessing Risks in the Laboratory

4.A    Introduction

4.B    Sources of Information

4.C    Toxic Effects of Laboratory Chemicals

4.D    Flammable, Reactive, and Explosive Hazards

4.E    Physical Hazards

4.F    Nanomaterials

4.G    Biohazards

4.H    Hazards from Radioactivity

5    Management of Chemicals

5.A    Introduction

5.B    Green Chemistry for Every Laboratory

5.C    Acquisition of Chemicals

5.D    Inventory and Tracking of Chemicals

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

5.E    Storage of Chemicals in Stockrooms and Laboratories

5.F    Transfer, Transport, and Shipment of Chemicals

6    Working with Chemicals

6.A    Introduction

6.B    Prudent Planning

6.C    General Procedures for Working with Hazardous Chemicals

6.D    Working with Substances of High Toxicity

6.E    Working with Biohazardous and Radioactive Materials

6.F    Working with Flammable Chemicals

6.G    Working with Highly Reactive or Explosive Chemicals

6.H    Working with Compressed Gases

6.I    Working with Microwave Ovens

6.J    Working with Nanoparticles

7    Working with Laboratory Equipment

7.A    Introduction

7.B    Working with Water-Cooled Equipment

7.C    Working with Electrically Powered Laboratory Equipment

7.D    Working with Compressed Gases

7.E    Working with High or Low Pressures and Temperatures

7.F    Using Personal Protective, Safety, and Emergency Equipment

7.G    Emergency Procedures

8    Management of Waste

8.A    Introduction

8.B    Chemical Hazardous Waste

8.C    Multihazardous Waste

8.D    Procedures for the Laboratory-Scale Treatment of Surplus and Waste Chemicals

9    Laboratory Facilities

9.A    Introduction

9.B    General Laboratory Design Considerations

9.C    Laboratory Ventilation

9.D    Room Pressure Control Systems

9.E    Special Systems

9.F    Maintenance of Ventilation Systems

9.G    Ventilation System Management Program

9.H    Safety and Sustainability

9.I    Laboratory Decommissioning

10   Laboratory Security

10.A   Introduction

10.B   Security Basics

10.C   Systems Integration

10.D   Dual-Use Hazard of Laboratory Materials

10.E   Laboratory Security Requirements

10.F   Security Vulnerability Assessment

10.G   Dual-Use Security

10.H   Security Plans

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11   Safety Laws and Standards Pertinent to Laboratories

11.A   Introduction

11.B   Regulation of Laboratory Design and Construction

11.C   Regulation of Chemicals Used in Laboratories

11.D   Regulation of Biohazards and Radioactive Materials Used in Laboratories

11.E   Environmental Regulations Pertaining to Laboratories

11.F   Shipping, Export, and Import of Laboratory Materials

11.G   Laboratory Accidents, Spills, Releases, and Incidents

Bibliography

Appendixes

A   OSHA Laboratory Standard

B   Statement of Task

C   Committee Member Biographies

Index

Supplemental Materials on CD

1.   Sample Inspection Checklist

2.   ACS Security and Vulnerability Checklist for Academic and Small Chemical Laboratory Facilities

3.   Chemical Compatibility Storage Guide

4.   Chemical Compatibility Storage Codes

5.   Sample Incident Report Form

6.   Laboratory Closeout Checklist

7.   Laboratory Emergency Information Poster

8.   Laboratory Hazard Assessment Checklist

9.   Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR Parts 261 and 262) Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative Requirements for Hazardous Waste Determination and Accumulation of Unwanted Material at Laboratories Owned by Colleges and Universities and Other Eligible Academic Entities Formally Affiliated With Colleges and Universities; Final Rule

10.   Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries

11.   Blank Form for Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries

12.   Procedures for the Laboratory Scale Treatment of Surplus and Waste Chemicals

13.   Electronic Copy of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards

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Tables, Figures, Boxes, and Vignettes

FIGURES

2.1

Overview of environmental health and safety management system

2.2

Accident report form


3.1

Impact/Likelihood of occurrence mapping


4.1

GHS placards for labeling containers of hazardous chemicals

4.2

A simple representation of possible dose-response curves

4.3

The fire triangle

4.4

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) system for classification of hazards


4.5

U.S. Department of Energy graded exposure risk for nanomaterials


5.1

Compatible storage group classification system

5.2

Recommended inner packaging label for on-site transfer of nanomaterials


6.1


U.S. Department of Energy graded exposure risk for nanomaterials

7.1

Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet

7.2

Standard wiring convention for 110-V electric power to equipment

7.3

Schematic diagram of a properly wired variable autotransformer

7.4

Example of a column purification system


8.1

Flowchart for categorizing unknown chemicals for waste disposal

8.2

Example of Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest


9.1

Open versus closed laboratory design

9.2

Specifications for barrier-free safety showers and eyewash units

9.3

Laminar versus turbulent velocity profile

9.4

Effect of baffles on face velocity profile in a laboratory chemical hood

9.5

Effect of sash placement on airflow in a nonbypass laboratory chemical hood

9.6

Effect of sash placement on airflow in a bypass laboratory chemical hood

9.7

Diagram of a typical benchtop laboratory chemical hood

9.8

Diagram of a typical distillation hood

9.9

Diagram of a typical walk-in laboratory chemical hood

9.10

Schematic of a typical laboratory chemical hood scrubber

9.11

Fume extractor or snorkel

9.12

Diagrams of typical slot hoods

9.13

Example of a Class II biosafety cabinet

9.14

Examples of postings for laboratory chemical hoods

9.15

Carbon inventory of a research university campus


10.1

Concentric circles of physical protection

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

TABLES

4.1

Acute Toxicity Hazard Level,

4.2

Probable Lethal Dose for Humans

4.3

Examples of Compounds with a High Level of Acute Toxicity

4.4

NFPA Fire Hazard Ratings, Flash Points (FP), Boiling Points (bp), Ignition Temperatures, and Flammable Limits of Some Common Laboratory Chemicals

4.5

Additional Symbols Seen in the NFPA Diamond

4.6

Examples of Oxidants

4.7

Functional Groups in Some Explosive Compounds

4.8

Classes of Chemicals That Can Form Peroxides

4.9

Types of Compounds Known to Autooxidize to Form Peroxides

4.10

Examples of β Emitters

4.11

Radiation Quality Factors

4.12

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Dose Limits

5.1

Examples of Compatible Storage Groups

5.2

Storage Limits for Flammable and Combustible Liquids for Laboratories with Sprinkler System

5.3

Container Size for Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

7.1

Summary of Magnetic Field Effects

8.1

Assignment of Tasks for Waste Handling

8.2

Classes and Functional Groupings of Organic Chemicals for Which There Are Existing Treatment Methods

8.3

Classes and Functional Groupings of Inorganic Chemicals for Which There Are Existing Treatment Methods

9.1

Some Activities, Equipment, or Materials That May Require Separation from the Main Laboratory

9.2

Examples of Equipment That Can Be Shared Between Researchers and Research Groups

9.3

Laboratory Engineering Controls for Personal Protection

9.4

US FED STD 209E Clean Room Classification

9.5

ISO Classification of Air Cleanliness for Clean Rooms

9.6

Comparison of Biosafety Cabinet Characteristics

10.1

Security Features for Security Level 1

10.2

Security Features for Security Level 2

10.3

Security Features for Security Level 3

11.1

Federal Safety Laws and Regulations That Pertain to Laboratories

11.2

Chemicals Covered by Specific OSHA Standards

BOXES

1.1

Tips for Encouraging a Culture of Safety Within an Academic Laboratory

2.1

Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities in a Typical Academic Institution

2.2

Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities in a Typical Industry Research Facility

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