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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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Index

A

Absorbents/absorbency

Amberlite® polymeric resins, 204

chemical hood filters, 196, 231

gloves, 176

spill containment, 28, 120, 125, 133, 134, 145, 177, 302

waste management, 193, 203, 204

Absorption in the body (see also Exposure)

gastrointestinal tract, 58

prevention, 124, 179

radiation, 81

respiratory tract, 57, 124, 166, 179

skin, 55, 58, 60, 62, 124, 139, 166, 179

Academic laboratories

Chemical Hygiene Officer, 16

chemical hygiene responsibilities, 16-17, 187

culture of safety, 2, 3-4, 5, 6

department chairperson or director, 16-17

departmental safety committee, 17

facilities, maintenance, and custodial personnel, 17

high school laboratories, 3

laboratory personnel, 17, 187

laboratory supervisor, 17

liability concerns, 6

management of chemicals, 88, 93, 102, 296-297

recordkeeping, 3

regulations for, 194

research laboratories, 4

training program, 250

undergraduate laboratories, 3-4

ventilation design, 251

waste management, 3, 186-187, 194, 196, 201

Access control, 20, 22, 28, 29, 92, 95, 101, 123-124, 126, 163, 206, 208, 214, 256, 257, 262, 263, 264, 301, 302

Accidents (see also Emergency; Fire; Injuries and illnesses; Safety and emergency equipment; Spills and releases)

CHP component, 295, 299, 300, 302, 303

costs of, 6

equipment-related, 149, 150, 151, 153

liability consequences, 6, 102, 116

misuse of materials, 7

MSDS information, 50

plant-scale, 139

preparation for, 107, 110, 125, 130, 150, 153, 158, 160, 299

prevention, 16-17, 21, 86, 87, 95, 110, 113, 140, 141, 150, 151, 155, 216, 302

regulations, 272, 281, 299

reporting and record keeping, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, 281, 299

reviews, 3, 17

slips, trips, and falls, 77, 150, 164

vehicular, 102, 193

working alone and, 17

Acetaldehyde, 67, 72, CD

Acetic acid, 67, 68, 72, 96, 134, 136, 189, 202, 203, 204, CD

Acetone

control banding, 64

–dry ice coolant, 173

dual-use hazard, 260

flammability, 65, 67, 68, 120, 173

inhalation, 57

LCSS, CD

spills, 48

storage of chemical in, 135

waste management, 85, 190

Acetyl peroxide, 303

Acetonitrile, 67, 69, 160, 204, CD

2-Acetylaminofluorene, 273

Acetylene and acetylenic compounds, 62, 69, 71, 72, 129, 135, 140, 166, 172, CD

Acetylides, 70, 71, 130

ACGIH (see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)

Acid baths, 220

Acid inhibitors, 70

Acids (see also specific compounds)

allergic response to, 61

chemical hoods and exhaust systems, 139, 214, 224, 226, 233-234, 236, 240, 242, 254

cleaning with, 73, 86, 138, 139-140

corrosivity, 190, 245

decontamination concerns, 254

digestion bombs for microwaves, 159

dilution/dilute, 17, 137, 138, 140, 189, 209

drying with, 140

emergency procedures, 118, 120, 180

in environmental rooms, 245

equipment for use with, 88

explosion hazards, 70, 71, 96, 130, 131, 136, 139-140, 214, 224

fire hazards, 67, 68, 69, 98, 99, 128-129

gloves and protective clothing, 111, 113

incompatibilities, 70, 73, 96, 98, 100, 128-129, 138, 139

injuries, 58, 61, 118, 137, 138, 180, 214, 260

labels/classification, 69

neutralization of, 120, 137, 138, 195, 196, 209

neutralization with, 121, 136, 208

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

oxidizers, 69, 73, 96, 98, 120, 128-129, 131, 138, 188

peroxidizables, 72, 134, 139

radioactive mixtures, 202, 203, 205

rules for working with, 301

scrubbers, 236

spills, 28, 120

storage, 20, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 125

testing with, 188, 189

waste management, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 209, 210, 301

Acquisition of chemicals

CHP component, 295, 297, 298

compressed gases, 89, 140, 164-165

computerized, 88, 89

controlled substances, 261

cost containment, 5, 92

donations and gifts, 87, 92

just-in-time deliveries, 43, 89

minimization, 5, 21, 84, 164, 186

monitoring, 16, 19

ordering, 21, 86, 88-89

receiving, 21, 79, 89-90, 263, 278, 299

in smaller containers, 86

standards for, 21, 22, 278, 299

Acrolein, 60, 70, 303, CD

Acrylamide, CD

Acrylonitrile, 112, 273, 303, CD

Action levels, 16, 123, 269, 289, 292, 293-294

Activated carbon, 73, 136, 204, 231, 236

Acute toxicity (see also Allergens, sensitizers, and allergic reactions; Corrosives and corrosivity; Irritants)

aquatic, 50

defined, 59

dose-response relationships, 54

employee protection standards, 274, 275, 290, 293, 295, 301-302

empty containers, 191

examples of highly toxic compounds, 56, 60, 275, 301

exposure factors, 60

information sources, 48, 50, 51, 59

lethal dose/lethal concentration, 54-55, 59, 60, 275

oven drying of samples, 156-157

“particularly hazardous substances,” 55, 59, 274-275

risk assessment, 54, 55, 59-60

signs and symptoms, 19, 123, 137, 141

storage of chemicals, 97, 101

systemic effects, 59

waste regulation, 277

Administration and supervision (see also Chemical Hygiene Officers; Chemical Hygiene Plan; Documentation and record keeping; Inspections and audits)

chemical hygiene responsibilities, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 24, 297, 298-299

and culture of safety, 2, 3, 5, 7

emergency preparedness, 39, 42, 117, 178, 180, 281, 299

hazard controls, 14, 18, 19, 24, 108, 142

hazard evaluation and risk assessment, 47, 55, 60, 66, 75, 108, 123, 131, 301

laboratory supervisor, 17, 22, 24, 26, 75, 117, 177, 178, 180, 231, 297-298, 299

management of chemicals, 84, 123, 173

OSHA recommendations for, 296-300

reporting to supervisors, 15, 16, 17, 226, 301

security, 123, 145, 262

statutory requirements, 279, 280, 281, 295

waste management, 209, 302

Adverse reactions, 271, 279

Aerosols

biological hazards, 60, 126, 221

defined, 57

in environmental rooms, 245

filters and scrubbers, 124, 236, 301, 302-303

flammable, 50, 99, 290

housekeeping and, 114

inhalation, 57-58, 110, 221

monitoring, 144

radioactive, 204, 208, 221

risk assessment, 55, 60, 80, 221

suppression, 114, 124, 126, 208, 236, 240, 244, 301, 302-303

Air (see also Hot air; Respirators; Ventilation and environmental control systems)

autooxidation, 136

cleanliness in clean rooms, 244

compressed, 145, 165, 171, 180-181

dispersion modeling, 124

filters, 124, 126, 142, 143, 178, 179, 221, 236

liquefied, 69, 135, 138

motors, 151, 154

pollutants, 86, 234, 235-236

pressure control, 214, 219, 240

reactivity in, 70, 72, 87, 93, 125, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 143, 160, 173

showers, 244

supply, 179, 180-181, 217, 222, 226, 227, 241

Airborne contaminants (see also Exhaust systems; Filters and filtration)

action levels, 269

in chemical hoods, 291

dry materials, 144

evaluating exposure, 209

explosive limits, 65, 66-67

lethal (LC) values, 56

monitoring, 60, 143, 144, 208, 228, 298

nanoparticles in, 135, 143, 144, 248

particulate materials, 57

pressure buildup and, 135

preventing exposure, 107, 178, 219, 296

protection against, 127, 144, 178-180

risk assessment, 219

skin exposure, 179

threshold limits, 60

vapor pressure and, 57

ventilation systems and, 219, 221, 241, 251, 296, 298

ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, 82, 219, 221

Alarms

audibility in environmental rooms, 245, 299

building code requirements, 218

in chemical hoods, 169, 226, 250

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

equipment, 216

fire, 15, 27, 28, 43, 107, 117, 121, 122, 127, 166, 176-177, 178, 217, 245, 249, 299

gas detectors, 137, 168, 169, 249

heat sensors and smoke detectors, 100, 178, 249

low-oxygen, 163, 173

security, 124, 256, 258, 264

signage and postings for, 250

spills and releases, 35, 82, 124

testing/inspection, 43, 193, 245, 249, 250

Alcohols (see also Specific compounds)

consumable, 95, 245

denatured, 259

disinfection with, 247

flammability, 99

incompatibilities, 73, 130, 139

secondary, 72

shipment of samples in, 101

in thermometers, 88

Aldehydes, 210

Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 133

Alkali metals, 59, 70, 73, 128, 130-131, 140, 178, 190, 210

Alkalis and bases

explosive hazards, 69, 70, 73, 130-131, 190

fire control, 140, 178

incompatibilities, 73, 128

injuries, 58

neutralization, 120, 209, 210

spills, 120

waste management, 209, 210

Alkenes, 72, 135

Alkyl chloromethyl ethers, 63-64

Alkyl nitrites, 71

Alkyl perchlorates, 71

Alkylating agents, 64

Alkylbenzenes, 203

Alkylhydroperoxides, 71

Alkyllithium compounds, 96, 135-136

Allergens, sensitizers, and allergic reactions, 16, 58, 59, 60-61, 279, 295, 301

Allylic halides, 61, 72

Alumina, 136, 160, 236

Aluminum chloride, see Aluminum trichloride

Aluminum trichloride, 136, CD

Amberlite® polymeric resins, 204

American Biological Safety Association, 80

American Chemical Society, 17, 53, 86, 109, 116, 218, 262, 267, 274

American Chemistry Council, 267

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 267, 297

exposure limits, 48, 86

ventilation manual, 239

American Heart Association, 180

American Industrial Hygiene Association, 267, 269

American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 267

American National Standards Institute, 48, 108, 162, 217, 253, 269, 270

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 253, 273

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 170-171

Americans with Disabilities Act, 6, 218, 272

Aminechromium peroxocomplexes, 71

Ammonia, 57, 61, 69, 121, 129, 136, 141, 164, 166, 170, 260, 270, 303, CD

Ammonium hydroxide, 71, 96, CD

Ammonium nitrate, 69, CD

Ammonium phosphate extinguishers, 178-179

Anaphylactic shock, 61, 112

Anhydrides, 61, 115, 210

Aniline, 303, CD

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 205, 260, 270, 273

Animals (see Laboratory animals; Service animals)

Annual Report on Carcinogens, 63, 291, 304

Anosmia, 60

ANSI (see American National Standards Institute)

ANSI/ASHRAE standards, 221, 222, 225, 227, 231, 249

Aprons, 15, 113, 138, 175

Aqueous solutions acids, 121

bleach, 206

corrosives, 61, 121

hydrogen fluoride, 137

hydroxides, 61, 139

pH testing, 188, 189

plastic equipment for, 168

potassium iodide, 134, 189

reducing agents for peroxides, 134

waste management, 107, 185, 190, 192, 195, 196, 202, 203, 204-205, 206, 207

Argon, 62, 130, 131, 134, 135, 159, 160, 161, 172, 174, 234

Armored

chemical hoods, 132

mercury thermometers, 88

Aromatic hydrocarbons, 63, 133

Arsine, 60, 239, CD

Asbestos, 57, 141, 179, 273

Ascarite®, 136

ASHRAE (see American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers; ANSI/ASHRAE standards)

Asphyxiants and asphyxiation, 62, 74, 90, 100, 140, 163, 168, 172, 173, 178, 242, 245

Aspirators, 75, 110, 153, 174

Assembly point, emergency, 39, 193

Atomic absorption

spectrophotometers, 121, 237, 254

Atomic Energy Act, 202, 271

Audits (see Inspections and audits)

Autoclaves and autoclaving, 171

animal carcasses, 208

canopy hood, 239

contaminated labware, 206

dedicated rooms or equipment, 208, 215

headspace, 166

hydrogenation reactions, 135

infectious waste, 206

multihazardous waste, 205, 206, 207, 208

pressurization, 135, 166, 172

testing for interior surface contamination, 208

thermometer, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Autoignition, 65-66, 69, 73, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140, 141, 156

Autoxidation, 72, 73, 136

Azides, 60, 70-71, 96, 130, 136, 210, 260, 303, CD

Azo compounds, 72, 273

B

Back injuries, 77

Bar code labeling, 19, 91

Barriers and barricades, 74, 82, 108, 110, 120, 123, 125, 131, 132, 137, 151, 213, 223, 224, 229, 252, 256, 258

Bases (see Alkalis and bases)

Benchtop

ventilated enclosures, 143, 220, 228, 240

Benzene, 57, 63, 65, 86, 96, 190, 273, 303, CD Benzyl azides, 96

Benzyl halides, 61

Benzylamine, 96

Benzylic hydrogens, 72

Benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, 96

Biodegradation and biodegradable materials, 88, 196, 203

Biological materials and biohazards

aerosols, 60, 126, 221

animal tissues and carcasses, 205, 206, 207-208, 303

biosafety levels, 80, 126, 126

Chemical Hygiene Plan, 15

containment and biosafety facilities, 75, 80, 126, 143, 220, 221, 231, 236, 243, 244, 245-248, 251

disinfection and decontamination, 206, 254

dual-use agents, 256

exposure limits, 51

filters, 236

gloves and protective clothing, 111

information sources, 51, 79, 80, 126, 189, 246, 260, 276

procedures for working with, 126-127

radioactive, 207-208

regulation, 79, 189, 270-271, 272, 276, 278, 280-281

risk assessment, 13, 79, 80, 207, 221

security, 256, 260, 262, 263, 264

select agents, 79, 270

shipping, export, and import, 101, 272, 278, 280-281

storage, 97

synthetic microorganisms, 79

waste management, 87, 108, 127, 185, 187, 189, 195, 201, 202, 205-208, 278

Biosafety cabinets (BSCs), 75, 80, 126, 143, 220, 221, 231, 236, 244, 245-248, 251

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 79, 80, 126, 189, 246, 260, 276

Biosafety levels, 80, 126

Birth defects (see Developmental toxicity)

Bis(chloromethyl)ether, 54, 273, 303

Blankets, 36, 119, 121, 122, 180

Boiling chips, 73

Boiling eruptions, 73

Boiling points, 48, 65, 67, 68, 73, 86, 99, 139, 172

Boron halides, 136

Boron trichloride, 140, 303

Boron trifluoride, 140, 170, 303, CD Bourdon tubes, 167

Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 52, 65, 304

Bromine, 61, 62, 303, CD

Building code requirements, 11, 22, 27, 95, 98, 100, 215, 217, 218, 242, 253, 272-273

Bulk materials, 77, 78, 87, 89, 94, 107, 133, 141, 142, 145, 195, 198, 236

Bunsen burners, 27, 69, 128

Bunsen tube, 172

Burns, 19, 28, 58, 59, 61, 66, 75, 113, 118, 119, 122, 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 149, 161, 173, 214

tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, 303, CD

Butyllithiums, 135, 139, 140, CD

C

Cabinets (see Biosafety cabinets; Storage)

Cadmium, 273

Calcium, 130

Calcium gluconate gel, 138

Calcium oxide, 61, 70

Calorimetry, 131

Cancer, 51, 59, 63, 64, 82, 101 (see also Carcinogens)

Canopy hoods, 220, 237, 239, 247, 298

Capacitors, 76, 150, 152, 153

Carbon-14, 81

Carbon brushes, 151

Carbon dioxide, 62, 86, 132, 135, 138, 140, 170, 173, 177, 178, 205, 245, 252

Carbon disulfide, 56, 62, 66, 67, 69, 128, 129, 136, 303, CD

Carbon inventory, 251

Carbon monoxide, 56, 62, 63, 69, 129, 166, 179, 303, CD

Carbon powder, 73, 131, 136

Carbon steel, 174

Carbon tetrachloride, 137, 140, 178, 303, CD

Carbonyls, 166, 302, 303

Carcinogens

clothing and protective apparel, 113

combinations of compounds, 64

defined, 63, 275, 291-292

examples, 54, 63, 302

experiment planning, 64

exposure factors, 56, 64

information resources, 48, 50, 52, 53, 63, 291, 304

labeling, 101

LCSS information, 63

minimizing/avoiding exposure, 55, 64, 86, 274

MSDS information, 48

radiation, 75

risk assessment, 54, 55, 63-64

select carcinogens, 55, 59, 63-64, 86, 97, 274-275, 290, 291-292

spills, 273

standards for handling, 59, 63, 101, 273, 275, 290, 293, 302

storage, 97, 101

Card files, 91, 92

Carts, 6, 23, 77, 89, 90, 114, 153, 168, 216

Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 52

Catalog of Teratogenic Agents, 52, 62

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Catalysts, 70, 72, 73, 74, 78, 130, 135, 136-137, 139, 160, 210

Cathode ray tubes, 163

Cathodes, 75

Caustics, 28, 58, 111, 120, 196 (see also Corrosives and corrosivity)

Celite, 84

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 77, 111, 205, 207, 260, 270, 273, 276

Centrifuges, 88, 161-162, 172, 216, 217

Characterization of waste

identification responsibilities, 187

for offsite management, 186-187

test procedures for unknowns, 187-189

unidentified materials (unknowns), 187

Checklists

continuity of laboratory operations, 41

emergency planning, 41

inspection, 23, 25, 26, 27

laboratory closeout, 253, CD

laboratory hazard assessment, CD

security vulnerability, 262

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), 52-53

registry numbers, 87, 91, 94

Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System, 53

Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 89, 259, 261, 270, 273

Chemical hazardous waste

academic laboratories, 186-187, 194, 196, 201

acids, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 209, 210, 301

alkalis and bases, 209, 210

assignment of tasks for handling, 194

atmospheric disposal, 196

central area for, 192-194

characteristic waste, 189-190

characterization, 186-189

choosing transporter and disposal facility, 198

collection and storage, 191-194

container size and fill level, 23

determining regulatory status, 190-191

empty containers, 191

gases, 198

at generation site, 191-192

generator types and definitions, 276

hazard reduction in-laboratory, 186

identification responsibilities, 187

incineration, 193, 195, 196, 197, 199

inspection, 26

labeling, 23

liability concerns, 198-199

limited waste, 190

manifesting, 199

minimization, 277

minimum requirements for

generators, 277

monitoring offsite transport and management, 197-198

nonhazardous and

nonregulated waste managed as, 194-195

offsite management, 186-187, 197-198

“on-site” definition, 276-277

preparation for shipment, 198

records and recordkeeping, 199-201

regulation, 189-191, 194, 271, 276-278

sanitary sewer disposal, 196

test procedures, 187-189

transportation of, 277-278

treatment and recycling, 196-197

unidentified materials (unknowns), 187-189

Chemical hoods (see also Exhaust systems)

acid use in, 139, 214, 224, 226, 233-234, 236, 240, 242, 254

adsorbents, 236

airborne contaminants, 291

airflow types, 229-232

airfoils and baffles, 229

alarms, 169, 226, 250

alternatives to, 252

armored, 132

auxiliary air, 230-231

benchtop, 232

bypass, 230

California chemical fume hood, 233

in clean rooms, 234, 244

compressed gas cylinders in, 222

configurations, 232-234

constant air volume, 229-230

constant operation, 224-225

distillation (knee-high or lowboy), 229, 232, 233

ductless, 231-232

energy conservation, 251, 252

exhaust treatment and systems, 234-237, 241

explosion-proof, 248

exposure monitoring, 228

design and construction, 229-232

face velocities, 221-222, 226-227

filters, 196, 220, 231, 232, 235, 236

general design recommendations, 229

general rules, 15, 110

housekeeping, 223

instrumentation, 228

liquid scrubbers, 235-236

low-flow or high-performance, 231, 251

maximizing efficiency, 222-223

nonbypass, 229-230

perchloric acid, 233-234

performance-related factors, 222

proximity to windows and doors, 222

radioisotope hoods, 234

sashes, 223-224, 252

scrubbers and contaminant removal systems, 235

shielding, 131-132, 160, 177, 187

supply air diffuser proximity, 222

testing and verification, 225-228

thermal oxidizers and incinerators, 237

traffic proximity, 222

variable air volume, 230, 252

walk-in, 232-233

and waste disposal, 222

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Chemical Hygiene Officers (CHOs), 2-3, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28 n.4, 47, 51, 63, 79, 114, 274, 289, 290, 295, 297

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

academic institutions, 16

access to, 19, 47, 293

compliance with, 17, 19, 23

defined, 15, 289

development and implementation, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 289, 292, 293, 295, 296, 303-305

elements/topics, 3, 15, 47, 104, 117, 222, 274, 275, 292-293, 295, 296-305

general principles for work with chemicals, 296-297

governmental laboratory, 20

guidance for development, 296-305

industry research facility, 18

information resources for developing, 303-305

laboratory facility, 297-298

MSDSs, 303

OSHA Laboratory Standard, 3, 15, 47, 269, 274, 275, 292-293, 295, 296

responsibility for chemical hygiene, 3, 51, 297

review and update, 15, 19, 293

rules and procedures for working with chemicals, 61, 300-303

safety recommendations, 303

training and communication on, 17, 18, 29

Chemical management program (see Acquisition of chemicals; Inventory and tracking; Shipment and transport; Storage; Waste management)

Chemical properties (see Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries; Material

Safety Data Sheets; specific properties) Chemicals of interest (COI), 23, 89, 259, 260, 261, 262, 270, 275

Children, 16

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 63, 136

Chlorine, 60, 61, 69, 70, 136, 170, 260, 303, CD

Chlorine dioxide, 75, 130, 136

Chlorine trifluoride, 140-141, 303

Chloroform, 137, 202, 204, 205, 303, CD

1-Chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bis(tetrafluoroborate), 86

Chloromethyl methyl ether, 63-64, 273, CD

Chromates, 69, 73, 130, 210

Chromatography/chromatographs, 24, 69, 86, 93, 113, 134, 192, 195, 216, 220, 237, 241

Chromic acid, 86, 98, 99

Chromium, 61, 73, 138, 174, 205

Chromium-51, 81

Chromium trioxide and other chromium(VI) compounds, 71, 86, 98, 99, 273, CD

Chromosomal damage, 62, 275, 291

Chronic exposure, 19, 56, 87

Chronic toxicity and health effects, 11, 18, 19, 48, 50, 51, 52, 56, 59, 62, 63, 87, 121, 123, 290, 295, 301, 302 (see also Carcinogens; Neurotoxicity; Reproductive toxins)

Circuit boards, 94

Circuit breakers and fuses, 28, 76, 120, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 162, 218

Clean Air Act, 196, 278

Clean benches/laminar-flow hoods, 143, 219, 221, 239, 248, 250

Clean rooms

casework, furnishings, and fixtures, 216, 244

chemical hoods, 234, 244

classification, 243, 244

pressure control system, 219, 243

protocols, 243-244

Clean Water Act

Cleaning (see Housekeeping and cleaning)

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 269

Clinical laboratories, 79, 201, 202, 205, 269, 276, 281

Closure or loss of institution or building (see also Decommissioning)

alternative laboratory facilities, 42, 43

checklist for continuity of operations, 41

laboratory closeout checklist, CD

long-term, 42

short-term, 41-42

Clothing and protective apparel (see also Gloves and hand protection; Personal protective equipment)

aprons, 15, 113, 138, 175

choosing, 175

contaminated, 118, 122, 126, 137, 144, 146, 175, 181, 300, 301, 302

disposal, 113, 118, 144, 302

entanglement in equipment, 153, 163

fires on, 122, 178, 180, 181

footware, 120, 144, 175-176, 244, 300, 302

jumpsuits, 175, 303

laboratory coats, 15, 19, 26, 109, 113, 126, 131, 132, 138, 144, 172, 214, 244, 247, 301, 303

laundering, 109, 113, 118, 144, 175

materials, 111-112, 132

for nanomaterials work, 143, 144

radiation protection, 80, 127, 162

static discharge from, 128

storage, 113, 175

survival kit, 36

Cobalt, 61, 136

Cold baths, 173

Cold burns, 66, 74, 119, 173

Cold rooms, 76, 97, 109, 152, 245, 298, 299, 300

Cold storage, 97-98

Cold traps, 75, 115, 151, 172, 173-174

Color coding for identification, 100, 165

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Combustion (see Explosive and highly reactive hazards; Fire; Flammability and flammable chemicals; Ignition sources and causes)

Commingling of waste, 191, 193, 194, 198, 203

Communication during emergencies

contact list, 38

e-mail, 38

emergency contacts for individual staff, 39

internet and blogs, 38-39

media and community relations, 39

plan for, 38-39

telephone, 38

text messages, 38

Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 51, 59

Compressed air, 145, 165, 171, 180-181

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standards, 168, 169

Compressed gas cylinders (see also Pressure vessels and reactions)

acquisition and returns, 89, 140, 164-165

in chemical hoods, 222

code requirements, 164, 168

fire extinguishers, 178

hazards, 19

inspection, testing, and records, 26, 27, 164, 165, 169, 170

labeling, 140, 165

leak prevention and control, 120-121, 140, 169, 170

lecture bottles, 89, 100, 165, 239

outlet connections, 168-169

outside location, 34

precautions for handling and use, 164-165, 168-170, 303

pressure-relief devices and regulators, 26, 164, 168, 169-170

securing and storing, 26, 35, 90, 96, 100, 111, 114, 154, 164, 166, 168, 170

transporting, 111, 114, 168

valves, 168, 169

venting, 168, 170

Compressed gases

chemical hazards, 74, 140-141

compatibility, 96

corrosive, 121

defined, 164, 290

in environmental rooms, 245

flammable, 69-70, 74, 114, 120-121, 165, 170, 190

inert, 165

information sources, 15

in-house gas systems, 100, 140

inventory control, 140, 164

list of hazardous chemicals, 140-141

monitors and alarms, 169

oxidizing, 120-121, 170

physical hazards, 74, 291

procedures for working with, 140-141

regulations, 114, 164, 270, 290, 291

toxic gases, 96, 121

transferring, 166

Computer simulation of experiments, 5

Computer systems and services backup systems, 36, 259

cables and wiring, 216

checklist programs, 26

communication during emergencies, 38-39

EHS information services, 52-53

ergonomic considerations, 77, 216

face velocity testing, 227

facilities for, 213, 214, 216

fire extinguishers for, 177

information and data security, 258-259, 262

inventory and tracking, 22, 91

loss of data or systems, 36, 38

MSDSs, 47-48, 89

physical protection, 35

purchasing systems, 88, 89

viewing laser operations on, 75

Condensation, 69, 74, 92, 98, 133, 151, 152, 172, 173-174, 224, 225, 232

Condensers and condensing, 93, 115, 116, 130, 133, 135, 138, 149, 156, 172, 173, 174, 222, 232, 292

Confidential or Sensitive Information, 259

Connectors, 115, 139, 156, 166, 167, 169

Consumer Product Safety Commission, 49

Contact lenses, 36, 109, 127, 301

Containers and packages (see also Compressed gas cylinders; Glass and glassware; Labels and labeling)

accumulation containers, 209

on benchtops, 113

bulk and economy sizes, 21, 87, 114

caps and seals, 154, 159, 192

corrosives, 137, 192

cyanide, 22

damaged or deteriorating, 90, 92, 114

dry ice in, 136

empty, 92, 94, 137, 190, 191, 198

flammable and combustible substances, 22, 23, 58, 69, 88, 98-99, 128, 129

gases, 102, 198

hazardous, 137, 191

headspace, 23, 73

for hydrogen fluoride, 137

inspection of, 22, 135

inventory and tracking, 91

metal, 69, 90, 128

in microwaves, 75-76, 159

for nanomaterials, 103, 143, 145

opening, 77, 100, 139

overpacks, 97

for peroxide formers, 21, 69, 133, 134

plastic, 99, 129, 145

recycling, 93-94, 191

in refrigerators, 154

regulatory standards, 21, 94, 103, 191, 194, 298, 301

remote handling, 132

secondary containment, 23, 98, 113, 114, 125, 145, 298, 301

securing, 95, 97

sharps disposal, 58, 111, 114, 206-207

small, 86-87

for storing chemicals, 35, 77, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98-99, 113, 114, 125

transfers among, 23, 84, 87, 94, 104, 113, 123, 125, 240-241

transport, 6, 23, 89, 90, 114, 125, 298

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

unpacking and inspecting, 90

vented, 139-140

waste, 23, 58, 87, 93, 110, 111, 114, 120, 125, 127, 144, 145, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199, 206-207, 209

Contingency plans, 12, 15, 55, 66, 107, 125, 193, 197, 199, 302

Contractors, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 264, 281

Control banding, 64-65

Controlled substances. 95, 261

Convulsions, 119

Cooling baths, 76, 136, 149, 158, 170, 173

Copper, 85, 133, 137, 138, 160, 165-166, 167, 174, 189

Corrosives and corrosivity (see also specific classes and chemicals)

classes, 61

containers for, 137, 192

engineering controls, 220

equipment compatibility and damage, 50, 76, 88, 165-166, 167, 170, 171, 174

evacuation of systems, 153, 16

examples, 61, 73, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140-141

experiment planning, 61, 66

eye contact, 58, 61, 135, 141, 190

gases and gas leaks, 61, 121, 140-141, 165-166, 167, 170, 172, 174

gloves and protective apparel, 111, 113, 176

information sources, 52, 303

inhalation, 61

labeling, 69, 165, 192, 199

neutralization, 209

PPE, 171-172, 176

shipping and transport, 199

skin contact, 58, 61, 111, 135, 141, 190

storage, 97, 100, 166, 192, 221

wastes, 153, 174, 190, 191, 192, 199, 209

Cryogens

asphyxiation hazard, 163, 173

explosion hazard, 131

gases, 75, 90, 100, 173, 242

information sources, 52

liquids, 19, 27, 74, 75, 76, 119, 135, 163, 170, 172-174, 176

nonflammable, 74

short-term storage and conveyance, 175

transfer lines, 174

Culture of laboratory safety academic laboratories, 3-4, 5

accessibility for scientists with disabilities, 6-7

administration and supervision, 2, 3, 5, 7

communication and, 15

continuous learning environment, 14

environmental impact, 5-6

and federal funding, 6

industrial and governmental laboratories, 4-5

legal and regulatory changes, 6

management commitment to, 10

operational excellence, 14

oversight, 14

responsibility and accountability, 2-3, 4, 14

security considerations, 7

technology and, 5, 6

tips for encouraging, 5

Custodial and maintenance personnel, 17, 25, 58, 110, 120 n.3, 142, 177 n.3, 216, 219, 245, 253, 268-269, 282

Cuts, 58, 76, 115, 118-119, 149, 164

Cutting and drilling tools and operations, 16-17, 77, 78, 140, 143, 149, 152, 164

Cyanides, 22, 54, 56, 60, 62, 63, 70, 125, 166, 180, 187, 189, 190, 210, 260, 275, 301, 303

Cyanogen bromide, CD

Cyanogen chloride, 260

Cylinders (see Compressed gas cylinders)

D

Deactivation, 86, 127, 139, 160, 209

Decay in storage, 203-204, 207, 208, 278

Decommissioning

ANSI standard, 253, 254, 269

checklist, 253, CD

cleaning and decontamination, 254

clearance, 254

donated materials from, 92

equipment, 163, 171

hazard assessment, 253-254

information sources, 253

laboratories, 92, 93, 94

removal of hazards, 92, 253, 254

Decomposition, 70, 76, 87, 93, 130, 133, 135, 136, 138, 139, 157, 166, 290, 292

Decontamination

of accident victims, 28, 29

authorized personnel, 29

biosafety cabinets, 247-248

in chemical hoods, 124

of chemical hoods, 234

devices, 75

documentation, 253

of equipment and glassware, 124-125, 208, 302

facilities for personnel, 143

of gloves and other PPE, 112, 124, 176

information sources on, 253, 293

of laboratories for decommissioning, 253, 254

radiological, 127, 205, 208, 234, 253

regulatory standards, 275, 293, 300, 302

respiratory protective equipment for, 178

verifying, 121, 254

of waste, 205, 206, 207, 208, 300, 302

of work surfaces and work areas, 27, 121, 124-125, 302

Dehydrating and drying agents, 61, 136, 138, 139, 140, 159, 160, 175

Delivery (see also Receiving rooms and loading areas; Shipment and transport)

service disruptions, 42

Department of Energy (DOE)

exposure limits, 78, 82, 143

Integrated Safety Management System, 13-14

nanomaterials guidelines, 77, 141, 142, 145

pollution prevention, 201

Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 23, 36-37, 89, 259, 261, 262, 263, 267, 275

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Department of Transportation (DOT), 23, 49, 68, 90, 94, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103-104, 116, 164, 172, 186, 190, 193, 197, 198, 199, 267, 271, 277, 278, 279, 300

Desiccators, 115, 140, 175

Design of laboratory facilities access control, 214-215

accommodations for individuals with disabilities, 6, 218

adaptability, 215-216

casework, 216

closed or separate laboratory spaces, 214-215

doors, 216

equivalent linear feet of workspace, 215

flooring, 216

furnishings and fixtures, 216

layout, 215-216

noise and vibration issues, 216-217

older facilities, 218-219

open design, 213-214

safety equipment, 217-219

storage rooms, 22

utilities, 217-218

wet spaces relative to other spaces, 213

windows and walls, 216

Designated areas, 22, 36, 39, 89, 101, 123, 125, 135, 145, 275, 290, 293

Detergents, 85, 86, 162, 191

Developmental toxicity, 52, 53, 55, 62

Dewar flasks, 74, 115, 133, 138, 148, 172, 173, 174-175, 300

Diaacetylene, 71

Diacyl peroxides, 71

Dialkyl peroxides, 71

Diazomethane, 60, 61, 70, 72, 132, 136, 301, CD

Diborane, 60, 239, CD

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane, 273

Dichloroacetylene, 140

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), 57, 64, 136, 160, 190, 273, CD

Dichromates, 69, 73, 301

Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 61

Diethyl ether, 28, 65, 67, 68, 69, 72, 120, 128, 134, 136, 303, CD

Diethylamine, 67, 96, 302, 303

Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme), 72

Diethylnitrosamine, 273, 302, 303, CD

Differential manometers, 88

Differential scanning calorimetry, 131

Differential thermal analysis, 131

Digital thermometers, 58

Diisopropyl ether, 136

Diisopropylfluorophosphate, 301, 303

Diisopropylnaphthalene, 203

Dilution of

acids, 17, 137, 138, 140, 189, 209

bases, 209

bleach, 206

chemical hood effluent, 241, 242

flammable substances, 129, 162, 228, 240

high-energy reagents, 115

peroxides, 133, 134

vapors and toxic gases, 129, 162, 240, 242-243

waste chemicals, 134, 196, 204, 209

Dimethoxyethane, 120

Dimethyl sulfate, CD

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 58, 67, 68, 136, CD

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, 273

Dimethylformamide, 204, CD

2,5-Dimethylhexane, 72

Dimethylmercury, 29, 60, 302

Dioxane, 72, 85, 134, 136, CD

Diphosgene (trichloromethyl) chloroformate, 85

Disabilities (see Scientists with disabilities)

Disinfection, 79, 126, 127, 206, 207, 208, 245, 247, 254

Disposal (see Waste management)

Distillation

avoiding, 159

chemical hoods and exhaust systems, 229, 232, 233, 237, 241

column purification systems, 160-161

commercial recyclers, 185

containment, 128, 159, 174, 204

explosive compounds, 109

flammable/combustible compounds, 159

heat guns and, 159

peroxide hazards, 72, 134, 136

PPE, 174

radioactive solutions, 204

rotary flash evaporation, 204

shutoff device, 159

solvent stills, 93, 159-160

thermal, 160

vacuum, 140, 153, 159, 174

venting stills, 140, 153, 300

waste, 195, 204

Distilled water, 77, 157, 189

Divinyl acetylene, 72

Documentation and record keeping

academic laboratories, 3

accidents, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, 281, 299

compressed gas cylinders, 26, 27, 164, 165, 169, 170

equipment, 42-43, 165, 167, 170-171

exports and imports, 280

waste management, 199-201

Donations and gifts of chemicals, 87, 92

Dose-response relationships, 54

Downdraft hoods or tables, 220, 237, 239

Drains, 16, 28, 34, 114, 154, 180, 217, 232, 233, 234, 235 (see also Sewer discharges)

Drills and exercises, 37, 43, 125, 259, 299

Dry benzoyl peroxide, 136

Dry fire extinguishers and sprinkler systems, 177, 178, 217

Dry ice, 40, 41, 77, 109, 133, 136, 140, 153, 164, 172, 173, 245

Dry nanoparticles, 78, 103, 142, 143, 144, 145, 248

Dry sand, 131

Dry sweeping, 114, 145, 302

Dry traps, 216

Dryboxes, 89, 132, 173

Drying

with acids, 140

agents, 61, 136, 138, 139, 140, 159, 160, 175

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

gases, 136

glassware, 17, 85, 156, 157, 159

ignition hazards, 128, 136, 156, 233

oven drying of samples, 151, 156-157

radioactive waste, 204, 208

solvents, 78, 140

and spontaneous combustion, 73

train, 139

Dual-use materials, 95, 256, 257, 258, 259-260, 261, 262, 263

Dusts (see Powders and dusts)

E

Earthquakes (see Seismic activity)

Eating and drinking, 26, 109, 175, 300

ECOTOX, 53

Education and training in safety practices

academic laboratories, 3-4

case studies, 53

computer simulations, 5

and culture of safety, 2, 3, 4

EHS management system, 12

emergencies and spills, 34

first aid, 16, 29, 37, 137, 138, 299

hands-on, 4, 5, 29, 53, 121, 146

informal, 4

new employees, 29

radioisotope users, 13

regulatory requirements, 4

risk assessment and, 53

student manuals, 4

in teaching laboratories, 3-4

topics, 29

Electrical equipment (see also Distillation; Heaters and heating equipment; Refrigerators and refrigeration; Vacuum systems and operations; other types of equipment)

capacitors, 76, 150, 152, 153

codes, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154

electromagnetic radiation hazards, 162-164

general principles, 149-153

high-current or high voltage, 152-153

as ignition sources, 21, 69, 76, 128, 129, 149, 153, 154, 245

inspection, 26

instruments, 162

magnetic field hazards, 163

noise extremes, 164

outlet receptacles, 150

personal safety techniques, 152

precautions, 151-152

rotating equipment and moving parts, 163

stirring and mixing devices, 154

ultrasonicators, 161

wiring, 26, 150-151

Electrical fires, 68, 76, 150, 177, 178

Electrical power interruption

discontinuation of experiments, 40

dry ice, 41

environmental and storage conditions, 40

generator power, 41

laboratory procedures, 40

long-term, 40

potential effects, 40

preplanning, 40-41

security issues, 40

short-term, 40

UPS, 41

Electrochemical equipment, 149

Electrocution and electric shock, 76

Electromagnetic radiation hazards

laser light sources, 75, 162

radio frequency and microwave sources, 75-76, 162

visible, ultraviolet, and infrared laser light sources, 75, 162

X-rays and electron beams, 162-163

Elephant trunks, 220-221, 237, 241, 250

Elevators, 23, 39, 69, 90, 114, 298

Emergency action plan, 15, 22, 23, 27

Emergency equipment (see Safety and emergency equipment)

Emergency preparedness

administration and supervision, 39, 42, 117, 178, 180, 281, 299

assembly point, 39

checklists, 41

communications, 38-39

community-wide emergencies, 42

data or computer systems, 36

decision makers, with succession, 37

delivery and service disruptions, 42

drills and exercises, 43

equipment or materials losses, 36, 43

essential knowledge and supplies, 36-37

essential personnel, 37-38

evacuations, 39

fire, 34, 42-43

flood, 34

general preparation, 117

highly toxic materials, 125

high-profile visitors, 35

high-value or difficult-to-replace equipment, 36

impact/occurrence mapping, 34

institutional or building closure, 41-42

intentional acts of violence or theft, 35-36

leadership, 37-38

loss of laboratory, 42-43

mission-critical equipment, 34, 36

outside responders and resources, 43

pandemic-related, 35

political or controversial researchers or research, 35

power loss, 40

preplanning, 33-37, 40-41, 43

priorities, 37

records for replacement of equipment, 42-43

regulations, 281

seismic activity, 35

shelter in place, 39-40

spills or releases, 35, 117, 125

staff shortages, 35, 42

survival kit, 36-37

training of laboratory personnel, 29, 37

vulnerability assessment, 33-36

weather-related, 34-35

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Emergency response (see also Safety and emergency equipment)

accident procedures, 29, 117

acid spills, 118, 120, 180

burns from heat, 119

clothing contamination, 118

cold burns, 119

convulsions, 119

cuts, 118-119

eye splashes, 118

fires, 27, 121-122

gas cylinder leaks, 120-121

general procedures, 181

information sources, 48

ingestion, 119

notification of personnel, 117

skin exposures, 118

spills, 28-29, 118, 120

training, 29

treatment of contaminated/injured personnel, 117-119

unconscious victims, 119

Engineering controls, 14, 220 (see also Chemical hoods; Gloveboxes)

Environmental health and safety (EHS) management systems (see also Chemical Hygiene Plan; Chemical management program; Emergency …; Inspections and audits; Safety rules and policies)

change management, 13

elements, 10, 11

employee safety training program, 29

example, 13-14

functions, 14

implementation, 12

information sources, 11, 14

management commitment to performance, 3, 10

performance measurement, 12-13

planning, 10-12

policy and policy statement, 10

principles, 13-14

regulations, 10

review by management, 13

safety committees, 12, 16-17, 23, 24-25, 64, 276

staff and responsibilities, 3

Environmental health and safety policy, 10

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 49, 53, 56, 83, 94, 102, 117, 145, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 194, 195, 198, 199, 201, 202, 205, 206, 207, 219, 253, 261, 267, 271, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279-280, 281

Environmental rooms (see also Cold rooms)

acids in, 245

aerosols in, 245

alarm audibility in, 245, 299

alternatives to, 245

compressed gases in, 245

design, 245

guidelines for working in, 245

Equipment (see also Electrical equipment; Safety and emergency equipment; Vacuum systems and operations)

accidents with, 149, 150, 151, 153

for acid use, 88

alarms, 216

cutting and drilling tools, 164

glass components, 167-168, 171-172

high-termperature, 27

incompatibility with corrosives, 50, 76, 88, 165-166, 167, 170, 171, 174

inspections, 24

low temperature, 172-174

noise extremes, 164

pressure extremes, 170, 172

repair and maintenance, 114-115

rotating, 27, 160, 162, 163

safety switches, 27

water-cooled, 149

Ergonomics, 77, 149, 164, 216, 239

Ethane, 62

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol), 67, 196, 206, 270, CD

Ethers, 72, 114, 136, 138 (see also specific compounds)

Ethidium bromide, CD

Ethyl acetate, 72, 190, CD

Ethyl benzene, 190

Ethyl chloromethyl ether, 63

Ethyl ether, 190

Ethylene dibromide (EDB), CD

Ethylene glycol ethers, 62, 72, 149

Ethylene oxide, 60, 137, 273, CD

Evacuation of systems, 153, 167

Evacuations, 27, 36, 37, 39, 82, 117, 120, 127, 169, 178, 299

Excess material (see Unused and excess material)

Exhaust systems (see also Chemical hoods)

benchtop ventilated enclosures, 143, 220, 228, 240

canopy hoods, 220, 237, 239, 247, 298

clean benches/laminar-flow hoods, 143, 219, 221, 239, 248, 250

downdraft hoods or tables, 220, 237, 239

elephant trunks, 220-221, 237, 241, 250

filters, 239, 243, 302

flammable-liquid storage cabinets, 239-240

fume extractors, 237, 239

gas cabinets, 239

hybrid, 242

manifolded (common header), 242

room purge, 242

slot hoods, 220, 237, 238

snorkels, 143, 220-221, 226, 237, 238, 240, 241, 250, 251, 298

stacks, 242-243

ventilated balance enclosures, 220, 238

Exits and passageways, 27, 28, 39, 95, 113, 117, 122, 123, 127, 193, 213, 214, 264, 277, 299

Experiment planning (see also Hazard evaluation; Risk assessment)

access control, 123-124

change management, 13

corrosives, 61, 66

demonstrations and magic shows, 116

designated areas, 123

emergency response to accidents and spills, 125

explosive and highly reactive substances, 130-140

highly toxic substances, 64, 122-122

minimizing exposure, 124-125

multihazardous materials, 125

protocols, 123

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

scaled-up reactions, 13, 115-116, 130

storage and waste disposal, 125

unattended experiments, 116

working alone, 116

Expiration (see Shelf life and expiration dates)

Explosive and highly reactive hazards

acids, 70, 71, 96, 130, 131, 136, 139-140, 214, 224

airborne concentrations, 65, 66-67

alkalis and bases, 69, 70, 73, 130-131, 190

azo compounds, 72

boiling eruptions, 73

catalysts, 130

conducting reaction operations, 133

cryogens, 131

decomposition rates, 130

emergency planning, 130

experiment planning, 130-140

gases, 133, 135, 136, 140-141, 172, 174

glassware, 70, 72, 73-74, 109, 131-132, 136, 153, 157, 174, 175

hydrogenation reactions, 135

incompatibles, 130-131, 140

information sources list of materials requiring special attention, 135-140

other oxidizers, 73

peroxides and peroxidizables, 19, 72-73, 133-135

personal protective apparel, 132

powders and dusts, 19, 73

protective shields and devices, 131-132

quantities of reactants, 132-133

reaction rates, 130

risk assessment, 70-74, 132

scaling up experiments, 130

shielding, 109, 110, 130, 131, 161, 174

Exports and imports

biological materials, 280-281

chemical exports, 23, 279-280

imports from R&D Labs, 280

R&D exemption, 279

record-keeping requirements, 280

TSCA requirements, 279-280

Exposure

airborne contaminants, 60, 107, 178, 219, 296

biohazards, 51

duration and frequency, 19, 56

engineering controls, 108

eye protection, 108-109

highly toxic substances, 56, 64, 86, 109-110, 124-125, 274

limits, 51, 60, 81 (see also Lethal dose/lethal concentration)

minimization, 18-19, 51, 56, 64, 86, 107, 108-113, 124-125, 178, 219, 274, 296

radioactive materials, 81

safety rules and policies, 18-19

risk assessment, 57-58, 209

routes, 18-19 (see also Eye contact and effects; Ingestion hazards; Inhalation hazards; Injection hazards; Skin contact and effects)

signs and symptoms, 60

Extension cords, 151-152, 159, 217

Eye contact and effects

corrosives, 58, 61, 135, 141, 190

emergency response, 118

protection against, 15, 26, 36, 61, 75, 108-109, 114, 124, 131, 132, 144, 162, 173, 174, 176

toxic chemicals, 58

Eyeglasses

contact lenses, 36, 109, 127, 301

prescription, 109, 164, 176

safety, 26, 36, 75, 108, 109, 124, 132, 144, 162, 176

Eyewashes and eyewash units, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, 117, 118, 125, 128, 176, 180, 181, 217, 218, 273, 297, 299

F

Face shields, 26, 61, 108, 109, 114, 131, 132, 138, 144, 162, 173, 174, 176

Facilities (see Laboratory facilities) Fail-safe devices, 40, 150, 156

Falls (see Slips and falls) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 271

Ferrous sulfate, 134, 136

Fiberglass, 57, 157-158, 233

Filters and filtration

activated alumina, 136, 160, 236

activated carbon, 73, 136, 204, 231, 236

for aerosols, 124, 236, 301, 302-303

air, 124, 126, 142, 143, 178, 179, 221, 236

aqueous-based wastes, 195

biosafety cabinets, 236, 246, 247, 248

in chemical hoods, 196, 220, 231, 232, 235, 236

clean rooms, 243

disposal of contaminated filters, 107, 191, 192

in exhaust systems, 239, 243, 302

flammable paper, 139

gas phase, 236

for gases, 153, 223, 235, 236, 237, 240, 247, 302

HEPA, 79, 124, 126, 143, 145, 221, 231, 234, 235, 236, 239, 243, 247, 248, 302-303

hydrogenation reactions, 130

molecular sieves, 236

nanomaterials, 79, 142, 143, 145, 221, 236, 240, 244, 248

oil filters, 179

radioactive particles, 236

replacing filters, 236

in respirators, 178-179

solvent use, 84

ultra-low penetration air (ULPA), 236, 248

vacuum cleaners, 121, 145, 302-303

Fire

code requirements, 11, 22, 27, 51, 89, 95, 98, 100, 113, 114, 128, 151, 154, 214, 216, 243, 270, 272-273

on clothing, 122, 178, 180, 181

control, 140, 178

electrical, 68, 76, 150, 177, 178

emergency response, 121-122

information resources, 51-52

vulnerability assessment, 34

Fire department inspections, 25

Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, 51

Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, 52, 68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Fire safety equipment

alarms, 15, 27, 28, 43, 107, 117, 121, 122, 127, 166, 176-177, 178, 217, 245, 249, 299

automatic fire-extinguishing system, 21, 178, 244

blankets, 15, 28

fire extinguishers, 15, 16, 27-28, 29, 34, 37, 43, 68, 113, 117, 121-122, 125, 127, 128, 130, 138, 140, 156, 177-178, 180, 181, 193, 217, 234, 299

fire hoses, 178

heat sensors and smoke detectors, 34, 100, 178, 249

training, 34

First aid

equipment and supplies, 15, 28, 36, 125, 137, 180

information, 27, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 66, 94, 299

procedures, 137-138, 152, 181

regulations, 272, 299

training, 16, 29, 37, 137, 138, 299

Flammability and flammable chemicals (see also Fire; Flash …; Ignition sources and causes)

acids, 67, 68, 69, 98, 99, 128-129

aerosols, 50, 99, 290

alcohols, 99

basic precautions, 129

catalyst ignition of, 130

characteristics, 65-67

classification systems, 67-69

containers, 22, 23, 58, 69, 88, 98-99, 128, 129

filter paper, 139

gases, 69-70, 74, 114, 121, 129, 165, 170, 190

information sources, 65

LCSSs, CD

limits, 66-67

liquids, 129

procedures for working with, 127-130

risk assessment guide, 66

storage hazards, 98-99

substances, 65

Flash arrestors, 129, 170

Flash hazards, 128, 152

Flash lamps for lasers, 151

Flash points, 65, 67, 68, 69, 86, 99, 127, 128, 140, 158, 188, 190, 290

Floods, 34

Fluorides, 137, CD Fluorination, 86

Fluorine, 61, 86, 137, 141, 170, CD Formaldehyde, 54, 57, 61, 139, 207, 220, 273, CD

Formalin, 206, 273

Food and beverages, 109, 300

Footware, 120, 144, 175-176, 244, 300, 302

Freezing, 72, 119, 149, 169, 176, 192, 224, 234 (see also Refrigerators and refrigeration) Friction, 70, 132, 133, 161, 190, 290

Friction tape, 172, 174-175

Frostbite, 141, 172, 173

F-TEDA-BF4, 86

Fume extractors, 237, 239

Furnaces, 75, 146, 154, 157, 158, 172

G

Gamma rays, 81, 203

Gas burners, 128

Gas cabinets, 239

Gas chromatographs, 24, 216, 220, 237, 241

Gas cylinders (see Compressed gas cylinders)

Gases (see also Compressed gases; specific gases)

byproducts of reactions and fires, 73, 122, 130, 131, 153, 190

corrosive, 61, 121, 140-141, 165-166, 167, 170, 172, 174

cryogenic, 75, 90, 100, 173, 242

detectors and alarms, 34, 137, 168, 169, 249

drying, 136

equipment composition and, 174

explosive, 133, 135, 136, 140-141, 172, 174

exposure monitoring, 228

filters, scrubbers, and exhaust systems, 153, 223, 235, 236, 237, 240, 247, 302

flammable, 50, 69-70, 74, 114, 121, 129, 135, 141, 165, 170, 172, 190

hydrogenation reactions, 135, 171

inert, 116, 128, 129, 135, 140, 145, 159, 160, 165, 168, 169, 173, 174

inhalation, 55, 57, 141

in-house systems, 100

liquefied, 69-70, 114, 135, 138, 140-141, 164, 166, 172-174, 176, 242

oxidizing, 50, 70, 141, 291

packagings, 102, 198

pressure reactions, 171

reactive, 57, 70, 133, 135, 140, 141

respirator protection, 179

toxic, 57, 85, 122, 140, 172, 190, 261, 275

tracer, 221

waste, 198

Gastrointestinal tract, 58 (see also Ingestion hazards)

Gauges

diaphragm, 167

liquid-level, 167

magnehelic, 249

McLeod, 75

pressure, 88, 167, 172, 180, 243, 249

thermal conductivity, 75

vacuum, 75

Genetic Toxicology Data Bank, 53

Gifts (see Donations and gifts of chemicals)

Gland joints, 166, 169

Glass and glassware (see also Cuts)

airbaths and tube furnaces, 158

amber, 73

beads, 140

breakage, 35, 74-75, 76, 114, 115, 119, 191, 258

cleaning and decontamination, 70, 73, 85, 86, 93, 114, 124, 138, 214, 215, 302

contaminated, 58, 114, 138, 144

cooling, 138

cutting, 16-17

drying, 17, 85, 156, 157, 159

equipment, 167-168, 171-172

explosion hazards, 70, 72, 73-74, 109, 131-132, 136, 153, 157, 174, 175

for food and beverages, 109, 300

handling and storage of, 16-17, 76-77, 115, 164, 176, 223, 229, 300

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

heating elements, 155

high-temperature operations, 109

hose connections, 115

inspection, 26, 66, 76-77, 115, 174

pressure and vacuum equipment, 26, 74-75, 109, 115, 131-132, 135, 149, 153, 167, 170, 171-172, 174-175

protective apparel and equipment, 26, 36, 75, 108, 109, 124, 132, 172, 176, 214

reactivity with, 137, 141

recycling, 94

shielding materials, 177, 225, 229, 248

stirring and mixing devices and, 154

stoppers, 133, 154

storage in, 73, 94, 99, 100, 129, 133, 137, 154, 191, 192, 302

tubing, 76, 115, 164

windows, 132, 258

waste disposal, 77, 114, 115, 203, 205

Glassblowing, 109, 115, 167

Glasses (see Eyeglasses; Goggles; Personal protective equipment)

Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Hazard Communication, 47 n.1, 49-50

Glovebags, 234

Gloveboxes, 19, 58, 110, 112, 123, 124, 126, 127, 145, 220, 221, 243, 244, 247, 248, 293, 298, 300, 302

Gloves and hand protection (see also Personal protective equipment), 19, 23, 26

absorbency, 176

butyl, 111

chemical-resistant, 111, 124

cleaning/decontamination, 111, 124, 176, 206

corrosion-resistant, 36, 111, 113

cut-resistant, 16-17, 77, 111, 115, 176

disposable, 112

disposal, 144, 203, 205, 208

double gloves, 111, 132, 144, 176

gauntlet-type, 144

heat-resistant, 158

inspection, 15

insulated, 152, 173, 176

Kevlar®, 111, 115, 176

latex, 111, 112, 176

leather, 111, 115, 132, 176

neoprene or rubber, 111, 112, 138, 139, 152, 233, 303

nitrile, 111, 112, 144, 176

polyethylene, 112

polyurethane, 112

poly(vinyl chloride), 112

radiation-resistant, 80

selection and use guidelines, 61, 109, 111-113, 118, 120, 124, 126, 127, 131, 144, 149, 162, 172, 173, 176, 247, 301

Silvershield® or 4H®, 112, 138

spill cleanup, 48, 120, 121

storage and replacement, 112, 144, 176

Viton®, 111, 112

Goggles (see also Personal protective equipment), 19, 26, 108-109, 120, 132, 138, 144, 162, 173, 176, 233

Governmental laboratories, 4-5, 20

Green chemistry

degradable products, 86

experiment planning and risk assessment, 87

less toxic reagents, 85

mercury replacements, 87-88

microscale work, 84-85

multihazardous waste minimization, 87

real-time controls, 86-87

safer solvents and other materials, 85-86

waste prevention, 84

wet chemistry elimination, 85

Ground-fault circuit interrupters, 150, 152, 159, 217-218

Grounding, 22, 66, 69, 76, 128, 129, 132, 150, 152, 153, 155, 158, 159, 168, 193

H

Hair

dryers, 159

facial, 178-179, 181

long, 163, 300

Halides, 14, 61, 70, 136, 210

Haloacetylene derivatives, 71

Halocarbons, 70

Halogens and halogenating agents, 62, 71, 73, 115, 130, 136, 137, 141, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 205

Halon, 128, 178

Hands (see Gloves and hand protection)

Hazard classifications, 26-27

Hazard evaluation (see also Risk assessment)

administration and supervision, 47, 55, 60, 66, 75, 108, 123, 131, 301

basic principles, 53-58

environmental, 49

explosivity, 70-74

flammability, 65-70

health hazards, 26, 48, 50

information sources, 47-53

nanomaterials, 49, 77-79

physical hazards, 48, 50, 74-77

reactivity, 70

toxicity, 53-65

Hazard reduction (see Waste management)

Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act, 277

Hazardous Substance Data Base, 53

Health hazards (see also Acute toxicity; Carcinogens; Chronic toxicity and health effects; Exposure)

information sources, 48

Heat of reaction, 131

Heat sensors and smoke detectors, 100, 178, 249

Heat transfer, 115, 130, 158

Heaters and heating equipment (see also Hot air; Hot plates; Ovens)

general precautions, 154-156

mantles and tapes, 157-158

oil, salt, or sand baths, 158

tube furnaces, 158

Heavy metals, 56, 70, 86, 132, 135, 136

Helium, 62, 76, 135, 143, 163, 169, 171, 172

HEPA filters, 79, 124, 126, 143, 145, 221, 231, 234, 235, 236, 239, 243, 247, 248, 302-303

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Hexafuoropropylene, 96

Hexamethylphosphoramide, CD

Hexane, 62, 67, 86, 120, CD

High-performance liquid chromatography, 69, 134, 204, 216, 241

High-pressure reactions, 26, 74, 165 (see also Pressure vessels and reactions)

High school laboratories, 3, 218, 277

Horseplay, 300

Hoses, 115, 149, 156, 169, 170, 171, 178, 179, 217, 237 (see also Tubing)

Hot air

baths, 129, 133, 154, 156, 158

guns, 69, 154, 159

Hot plates, 66, 128, 136, 149, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 225

Housekeeping and cleaning (see also Laundry)

acids, 73, 86, 138, 139-140

and aerosols, 114

chemical hoods, 223

dry sweeping, 114, 145, 302

general practices, 19-20

glassware, 70, 73, 85, 86, 93, 114, 124, 138, 214, 215, 302

inspection of, 23, 24, 114, 297, 298

nanomaterials and, 144-145

personal, 300

rules, 113-114, 298

safety aspects, 19-20, 77, 113-114, 122, 163

security aspects, 20

vacuum cleaners, 121, 145, 302-303

Hydrazine, CD

Hydrides, 70, 90, 86, 122, 128, 136, 138, 177, 178, 210

Hydrobromic acid, CD

Hydrocarbons, 52, 63, 115, 133, 136, 140, 168, 177, 190, 236

Hydrochloric acid, 61, 96, 134, 188, 189, 205, 209, CD

Hydrocyanic acid (see Hydrogen cyanide)

Hydrogen, 34, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 81, 129, 130, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 165-166, 172, 173, 174, 190, CD

Hydrogen chloride, 54, 57, 136, 170, 303

Hydrogen cyanide, 56, 60, 62, 70, 125, 166, 275, 301, 303, CD

Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 61, 96, 137, 141, CD

Hydrogen peroxide, 61, 69, 70, 96, 130, 138, 139, 260, 291, CD

Hydrogen phosphides, 141

Hydrogen selenide, 141

Hydrogen sulfide, 56, 60, 69, 96, 129, 141, 170, 189, 275, 303, CD

Hydrogenation reactions, 74, 130, 135, 171, 224

I

Ice, 74, 77, 113, 119, 154, 164, 216, 224 (see also Dry ice)

Ice baths, 172

Ice chests, 109

Ignition sources and causes

catalysts, 130

compressed or liquefied gases, 69-70, 121, 170

controlling/eliminating, 42, 65, 98, 99, 113, 128, 129, 135-136, 153, 154, 228, 240

electrical equipment, 21, 69, 76, 128, 129, 149, 153, 154, 245

gas burners and heating equipment, 69, 128, 129

heating elements and hot surfaces, 66, 128, 136, 156, 159, 160

nanomaterials, 142

oxidants other than oxygen, 69

pyrophorics, 70, 135-136

risk assessment, 34, 65, 66

shock-sensitive compounds, 72, 136

spontaneous combustion, 69, 73, 130, 135, 136, 139, 140, 141

static discharge from fabric, 113, 128

Ignition temperature, 65-66, 67, 68, 155

Incineration and incinerators

waste, 85, 87, 185, 193, 195, 196, 197, 199, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 235, 237, 278, 297, 300, 302, 303

Incompatibility of chemicals

acids, 70, 73, 96, 98, 100, 128-129, 138, 139

alcohols, 73, 130, 139

alkalis and bases, 73, 128

compressed gases, 96

with equipment materials and fittings, 166, 167, 169

explosive and highly reactive, 130-131, 140

information sources, 52

storage guidelines, 21, 22, 27, 96-97

Induction heaters, 75

Induction motors, 151, 154

Induction periods, 73, 74, 116, 130

Industrial hygienists, 3, 29, 47, 52, 60, 62, 108, 164, 228, 229, 231, 237, 249

Industrial laboratories, 2, 3, 4-5, 18-19, 48, 52, 65, 186, 194, 196, 242, 263

Inert gases, 116, 128, 129, 135, 140, 145, 159, 160, 165, 168, 169, 173, 174

Infectious agents (see Biological materials and biohazards) Information sources (see also Documentation and recordkeeping; Education and training in safety practices; Labels and labeling; Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries; Material Safety Data Sheets)

ADA compliance, 6-7

biohazards, 51, 79, 80, 126, 189, 246, 260, 276

carcinogens, 48, 50, 52, 53, 63, 291, 304

compressed gases, 15

computer services, 52-53

corrosives, 52, 303

cryogens, 52

fire protection, 51-52

first aid, 27, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 66, 94, 299

flammability, 51-52

GHS, 47 n.1, 49-50

incompatible chemicals, 52

informal forums, 53

LCSS preparation, 52, CD reactivity of chemicals, 52

risk assessment, 47-53

toxicity, 48, 50, 51, 52, 59

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Infrared radiation, 75, 162, 176

Ingestion hazards, 58, 109-110, 119

Inhalation hazards, 55, 57-58, 61, 110, 141, 221

Inhibitors, 70, 72, 73, 134

Injection hazards, 58, 111

Injuries and illnesses (see also Accidents)

acid burns, 58, 61, 118, 137, 138, 180, 214, 260

alkalis and bases, 58

assisting recovery and return to work, 12

cuts, 58, 76, 115, 118-119, 149, 164

emergency response, 117-119

regulations, 281

Inorganic compounds, 28, 52, 57, 61, 62, 73, 96, 97, 120, 125, 130, 134, 135, 136, 139, 189, 196, 210, 273, 279

Inorganic Syntheses, 209

Inspections and audits

alarm systems, 43, 193, 245, 249, 250

checklists, 23, 25, 26, 27

compressed gas cylinders, 26, 27, 164, 165, 169, 170

conducting, 26

containers, 22, 135

corrective actions, 26

EHS management system performance, 24-25

elements of, 25-26

fire department, 25

glassware, 26, 66, 76-77, 115, 174

hazardous waste, 26

items to include in, 26-27

peer, 24

PPE, 15, 180

preparing for, 25

pressure equipment, 165, 167, 170-171

program audits, 24

regulatory agencies, 25

reports, 26

routine, 24

self-audits, 24

storage, 27

types, 24-25

ventilation systems, 250

Insurance, 36, 42, 43, 95, 102, 116, 198, 267, 269

Integrated Risk Information System, 53

Integrated Safety Management system, 13-14

Interlocks, 40, 108, 124, 149, 155, 170

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 63, 275, 291

International Air Transport Association, 23, 101, 271, 279

International Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, 23

International Chemical Safety Cards, 51

International Civil Aviation Organization, 279

International Code Agency, 98

International Code Council, 273 n.1

International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation, 76

International Conference of Building Officials, 273 n.1

International Electromagnetic Field Project, 76

International Labour Organization, 49

International Mechanical Codes, 242

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 78 n.3, 243, 280

International Programme on Chemical Safety, 51

International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER), 53

Inventory and tracking (see also Labels and labeling; Recycling)

benefits, 22

compressed gases, 140, 164

computerized, 23, 91

by container, 91

and emergency response, 94

exchanges between laboratories and stockrooms, 92-93

general considerations, 90-92

information in, 22-23

regulations, 22

safety issues when performing, 23

security issues, 23

Iodine, 61, 81, 87, 136, 159, 203, CD Ion exchange resins, 204

Ionizing radiation, 62, 80, 81, 162, 271

Irritants, 50, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 112, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 169, 179, 290

Isopropyl alcohol, 67, 172, 173

Isopropyl ether, 72

K

Kekulé, August, 1

L

Labels and labeling

acids, 69

bar code, 19, 91

color coding, 100, 165

compressed gas cylinders, 140, 165

corrosives, 69, 165, 192, 199

experimental materials, 94

flammability and flash point, 65, 68

GHS system, 47 n.1, 49-50

hazard communication, 49-50, 51, 68, 94

information to be included on, 94

inspection of, 22, 23, 27

and inventory and tracking, 94

nanomaterials, 103, 145

quality of information on, 51

reading and heeding, 22, 28

regulatory standards, 51, 92, 268, 270, 271, 272, 274, 277, 279, 294, 298

replacement, 92

by suppliers, 21, 51, 90, 94

transfer and storage containers, 21, 51, 87, 94, 154, 277

verification on receipt, 90, 298

warning, 51, 101

waste, 23, 187, 191, 192, 193, 194, 197, 198, 203, 206

Laboratory animals

biohazards, 80, 205

carcinogenicity testing and results, 63, 275, 291-292, 302

disposal of tissues and carcasses, 205, 206, 207-208, 303

facilities, 215, 239, 262

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

personal protection for working with, 303

security/protection of, 37, 260-261, 262

toxicity testing and results, 54-55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 78, 269, 295, 302-303

Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 91, 108, 129, 140

access to, 91, 123

content, 60, 62, 63, 68

criteria for selection of, 50-51

limitations of, 50

preparation of, 51, 52, 55, 63, CD

and risk assessment, 55, 59, 60, 61

Laboratory coats, 15, 19, 26, 109, 113, 126, 131, 132, 138, 144, 172, 214, 244, 247, 301, 303

Laboratory Decommissioning Standard (ANSI), 253, 254, 269

Laboratory facilities (see Closure or loss of institution or building; Decommissioning; Design of laboratory facilities; Ventilation and environmental control systems)

computer laboratories, 213, 214, 216

Laboratory security (see also Security plans)

administration and supervision, 123, 145, 262

alarms, 124, 256, 258, 264

barriers, 258

basics, 256-259

biohazards, 256, 260, 262, 263, 264

checklists, 262

chemicals of interest, 23, 89, 259, 260, 261, 262, 270, 275

controlled substances, 261

controversial research and researchers and, 35

and culture of safety, 7

door locks, 257

dual-use materials, 259-260, 262

elevated (Level 2), 263-264

high (Level 3), 264

information and data, 23, 258-259, 262

lighting, 258

normal (Level 1), 263

operational, 258

physical and electronic, 256-258

protesters and civil disobedience, 35

radioactive materials and related equipment, 261

requirements, 260-261

research animals, 260-261

risks to, 7

systems integration, 259

terrorist attacks, 35-36

video surveillance system, 258

vulnerability assessment, 261-262

Laboratory supervisor, 17, 22, 24, 26, 75, 117, 177, 178, 180, 231, 297-298, 299

Laboratory Ventilation Standard (AIHA/ANSI), 249

Labpacks, 87, 186-187, 193, 194, 198, 199

Lamps, 75, 151, 162

Landfills, 185, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 300

Lasers, 19, 29, 34, 75, 76, 109, 137, 149, 151, 162, 176, 214, 215, 216, 217

Laundry, clothing, 109, 113, 118, 144, 175

Lead and lead compounds, 62, 73, 81, 136, 166, 189, 193, 202, 203, 205, 206, 234, 273, 301, CD

Leadership, 2, 4, 37

Leaks

chemical hoods, 221, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 231

compressed gas cylinders, 120-121, 140, 166, 169, 170

corrosive gases, 121

detection, 100, 165, 171

flammable gases, 35, 69, 100, 120-121, 166, 170

gas cabinets, 239

gloveboxes, 243, 302

microwave, 159

packages, 21, 90

refrigerant, 245

reporting, 245

secondary containment and, 23, 98, 113, 114, 125, 127, 145, 298, 301

toxic gases, 121

waste containers, 185, 192, 197

water, 151

Lecture bottles, 89, 100, 165, 239

Lethal dose/lethal concentration, 54-55, 56, 59, 60, 275

Liability and litigation, 6, 102, 116

Life cycle analysis, 86, 251

Lifting injuries, 164

Light and lighting, 21, 41, 72, 100, 116, 154, 172, 216, 224, 245, 250, 252, 258, 262, 301

explosion hazards, 70, 130, 133, 248

fire hazards, 67, 136

Liquefied gases, 69-70, 114, 135, 138, 140-141, 164, 166, 172-174, 176, 242 (see also Compressed gases; Cryogens; specific gases)

Liquid scintillation counter, 85, 203

Liquid scintillation fluid, 202

Lithium, 70, 130, 178

Lithium aluminum hydride, 90, 96, 138, CD Lithium hydroxide, 96

Lower explosive limit (LEL), 66-67, 68, 228, 240

Low-valent metal salts, 70

M

Magnesium, 73, 122, 130, 131, 136, 141, 159, 178

Magnesium hydroxide, 209

Magnetic fields, 76, 163

Maintenance and repair, 4, 17, 24, 41, 76, 102, 110, 114-115, 143, 149, 150, 162, 166, 167, 171, 180, 218, 221-222, 231, 232, 241, 248-249, 250, 252, 257, 295, 297, 298-299

Manometers, 75, 87, 88, 249

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) access to, 27, 47-48, 89, 91, 268

audience for, 48-49, 78-79

content, 22, 48, 50, 62

for emergency responders, 117, 118, 119, 138, 181

for experimental materials, 101, 280, 281

guidelines on use of, 13, 15, 21, 22, 51, 59, 97, 108, 110, 118, 123, 127-128, 140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

information sources for preparing, 52-53

limitations, 49, 91

for nanomaterials, 103, 104

regulatory requirement, 47, 270, 272, 274, 279, 280

and risk assessment, 47-49, 51, 55, 59, 61, 62

spills and, 28, 29

from suppliers, 72, 89

McLeod gauges, 75

Mechanical shock, 70, 130, 131, 174-175

Melting points, 48, 116, 158

Mercaptans, 210, 240

Mercury, CD

bubblers, 170

decontamination, 254

incompatibilities, 166

in meters and gauges, 75, 87-88, 157

MSDSs, 303

properties, 57

reclamation, 93

replacement, 87-88

spills, 121, 157, 254

toxicity, 62, 75

waste, 174, 195, 196, 205, 206

Metal acetylides, 71

Metal alkyls, 128, 178

Metal azides, 210

Metal fires and explosions, 132, 140, 141, 160, 177-178, 254

Metal fulminates, 71

Metal halides, 70, 210

Metal hydrides, 70, 122, 128, 136, 178, 210

Metal hydroxides, 61

Metal nitrides, 70

Metal oxides, 57, 70, 86, 141

Metal perchlorates, 254

Metal peroxides, 71, 73, 130-131

Methane, 62, 70, 129, 172

Methanol, 57, 65, 67, 69, 96, 190, 196, 202, 203, 204, 214, 303, CD

Methyl acetate, 204

Methyl acetylene, 72

Methyl chloride, 141

Methyl chloroform, 278

Methyl cyclopentane, 72

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 67, CD

Methyl fluorosulfonate, 60

Methyl iodide (see CD)

Methyl-isobutyl ketone, 72, 190

Methyl lithium, 96

Methyl methacrylate, 72, 177 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 72

Methylene chloride, 57, 64, 160, 190, 273

Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, 61

Methylenedianiline, 273

Methylmercury, 275

Met-L-X, 122, 130, 178

Microscale and miniaturized operations, 5, 49, 70, 74, 84-85, 131, 203

Microwave ovens, 141

acid digestion bombs, 159

containers in, 75-76, 159

Microwaves, 75-76, 162

Molecular sieves, 204, 236

Molecular weights, 48

Monitoring (see also Laboratory security)

aerosols, 144

airborne concentrations, 60, 143, 144, 208, 228, 298

chemical hoods, 17, 23, 124, 223, 225, 226, 231, 236, 297-298

cold storage, 97-98

exposure, 16, 81, 228, 269, 289, 292, 293-294, 295

heating equipment, 157, 158

nanomaterials, 79, 144, 248

pressure equipment, 135, 141, 165, 166, 243

radiation, 81, 82, 127, 132

regulatory compliance, 20, 123, 272, 273, 294

spills and leaks, 35, 79, 140, 168, 245, 249

ventilation systems, 252, 298

wastes, 197-198

Multihazardous waste

animal tissues and carcasses, 206, 207-208

chemical–biological waste, 205-207

chemical–radioactive– biological waste, 208

chemical–radioactive waste, 202-205

commercial disposal services, 205

hazard reduction (treatment), 204-205

incineration, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208

labware, 206, 208

medical waste and sharps, 206-207

minimization, 202, 203, 207

offsite management, 207

radioactive–biological laboratory waste, 207-208

risk assessment, 202

sewer disposal, 206

storage, 203-204

Multimeters, 152

N

Nanomaterials

airborne concentrations, 135, 143, 144, 248

in biosafety cabinets, 248

in chemical hoods, 248

clothing and PPE, 143, 144

containers, 103, 143, 145

controls for R&D laboratories, 141-146

determining appropriate controls, 142-143

engineering controls, 143-146, 248

facilities, 248

filters 79, 142, 143, 145, 221, 236, 240, 244, 248

hazards, 77-79

housekeeping, 144-145

information sources, 142

marking, labeling, and signage, 145

monitoring and characterization, 111

offsite transport and shipment, 103

onsite transfer and transport, 103-104

personnel competency, 145-146

planning and hazard assessment, 142

regulations, 280

ventilation systems, 143, 248

waste disposal, 145

work area design, 143

work practices, 145

NARM (naturally-occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material), 80, 202

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

National Electrical Code (NEC), 149, 152

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, 270

National Fire Protection Association

chemical hood standards, 224, 231

electrical code, 149, 152

fire code, 22, 51, 67, 68, 95, 98, 224, 231, 243, 270, 273

fire protection guidelines, 52, 68

hazard classification, 68, 69

storage regulations, 22, 95, 98, 273

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 48, 51, 52, 53, 59, 60, 64, 66, 77, 78-79, 109, 111, 112, 141, 142, 144, 164, 178, 179, 268, 269

National Institutes of Health, 77, 79, 126, 201, 203, 207, 260

National Library of Medicine, 52, 53, 63

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES), 271

National Toxicology Program (NTP), 63, 275, 291

Near-infrared radiation, 75

Needle valves, 168

Needles and syringes, 30, 58, 111, 114, 131, 164, 206-207, 208, 278

Neurotoxicity, 54, 55, 56, 59, 62, 290

Neutralization and neutralizers acids, 120, 121, 136, 137, 138, 195, 196, 208, 209

alkalis and bases, 120, 209, 210

Nickel, 61

Nickel alloys, 166, 174

Nickel carbonyl, 60, 166, 302, 303, CD

Nitrates, 69, 70, 71, 96, 130, 138, 139, 190

Nitric acid, 69, 73, 96, 120, 131, 138, 139, 214, CD

Nitrites, 69, 71, 140

Nitrogen, 34, 62, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 111, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 138, 140, 153, 154, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 239, 243, 245

Nitrogen compounds, 71

Nitrogen dioxide, 56, 57, 60, 61, 275, 303, CD

Nitrogen mustard, 260

Nitrogen oxides, 138

Nitrogen triiodide, 70, 136

Nitrosamines (see CD)

N-Nitroso compounds, 70, 71, 138-139, 273, 302, 303

Noise extremes, 77, 132, 149, 164, 214, 216-217, 229, 250, 272

Notifying personnel of emergencies, 117

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), 79, 81, 82, 127, 189, 201, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208, 253, 261, 271, 276

Nucleating agents, 73, 129

O

Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, 108

Occupational Safety and Health Act, 268, 270, 281

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (see also OSHA Standards)

GHS implementation, 49

information resources, 53

state laws, 268

Odor and odor thresholds, 60, 92, 95, 99, 137, 139, 141, 179, 187, 216, 237, 240, 293, 301

Odorants, 70

Oil

baths, 88, 93, 128, 129, 133, 154, 155, 156, 158

bubblers, 170

filters, 179

fires, 174

PCBs, 275-276

reactivity, 139, 140, 165, 167, 169, 170

vacuum pump, 93, 133, 153, 173, 174

waste, 174, 277

Oil Dri, 120

Oily rags, 178

Olfactory fatigue, 60

Online services (see Computer systems and services; specific databases)

Open houses, 25

Ordering chemicals (see Acquisition of chemicals)

Organic compounds, 52, 58, 61, 62

acetylenic, 135

adsorbents, 236

air emissions, 278

azides, 70, 71, 72, 136

compatible, 98

drying, 157

explosion hazards, 138, 139-140, 141, 173

flammability/combustion, 65, 69, 159, 190, 205

halides, 136, 205

mercury, 62

nitrates, 70, 130

oxidizable, 73, 208

peroxides, 50, 70, 72, 73, 100-101, 130-131, 133-135, 189, 210, 290, 291

solvents, 62, 70, 76, 93, 111, 112, 136, 138, 139, 140, 151, 153, 157, 159, 177, 188, 190, 196

waste, 186-187, 188, 189, 190, 196, 203, 204-205, 208, 210

water solublity, 188, 192, 196

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 49

Organolithium compounds, 136

Organomercurial compounds, 301

Organometallic compounds, 70, 122, 130, 139, 170

Organophosphates, 62

OSHA standards

chemical-specific, 273

Control of Hazardous Energy Standard, 150

enforcement, 268

exposure limits, 269, 273

Hazard Communication Standard, 47, 48, 49, 51, 101, 268-269, 270, 275

Laboratory Standard, 2, 6, 13 n.2, 14-15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 48, 59, 62, 63, 101, 175, 268-269, 270, 272, 273-275, 289-305

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Occupational Exposure to

Bloodborne Pathogens

Standard, 79, 206

Personal Protective Equipment

Standard, 111, 112, 175

Respiratory Protection

Standard, 110, 178, 179, 180, 270

Osmium tetroxide, 60, 260, CD

Ovens

drying samples, 156-157

general precautions, 156-157

microwave, 141, 159

Oxidants and oxidation (see also specific compounds)

acids, 69, 73, 96, 98, 120, 128-129, 131, 138, 188

adsorbents, 236

corrosive, 61, 121, 138

fire hazard, 34, 69, 70, 128-129, 141

gases, 50, 69, 70, 120-121, 135, 137, 141, 169, 170, 291

incompatibilities, 70, 73, 139, 140

liquids, 69

metal oxidants, 57, 70, 86, 141

nonoxygen examples, 69

reactivity, 70, 130, 131, 139, 140

solids, 69

spills and leaks, 120-121

storage, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 140, 170

waste, 187, 188, 195, 204, 205, 208

Oxygen, 62, 65, 66, 67, 135, CD

cylinders/tanks, 139, 163, 169

depletion, 163, 173, 179, 245

gas/atmospheric, 70, 72, 73, 78, 129, 134, 135

isotopes, 203

leak testing, 169

liquefied, 69, 74, 135, 172, 173

monitors, 163, 173, 245

oil/lubricant reactivity, 139, 140, 165, 167, 169, 170

scavenging/scavengers, 160

Ozone, 57, 60, 69, 76, 139, 151, 271, 278, CD

P

Palladium on carbon, 139, 130, CD

Pandemic planning, 35

Paracelsus, 18

Particularly hazardous substances (PHSs), 5, 13, 14, 18, 23, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 80, 118, 216, 220, 274-275, 278, 293, 296

Particulates, 49, 57, 79-80, 144, 176, 179, 181, 221, 231, 235, 236, 237, 239, 243-244, 254 (see also Nanomaterials; Powders and dusts)

Pentanes, 67, 72, 120

Peracetic acid, 303, CD

Perchlorates, 69, 70, 71, 74, 98, 99, 130, 131, 139, 254

Perchloric acid, 69, 71, 73, 96, 100, 129, 131, 139, 224, 226, 233-234, 240, 242, 254, CD

Permanganates, 69, 73, 98, 99, 130, 139, 210, 236

Permissible exposure limits

(PELs), 60, 268, 269, 273, 274, 292, 294, 295, 297

Peroxides and peroxidizables (see also specific compounds)

acids, 72, 134, 139

containers, 21, 69, 133, 134

detection tests, 134

dilution, 133, 134

distillation, 72, 134, 136

explosives, 19, 72-73, 133-135

metal peroxides, 71, 73, 130-131

organic peroxides, 50, 70, 72, 73, 100-101, 130-131, 133-135, 189, 210, 290, 291

peroxidizable compounds, 134

precautions for handling, 133-134

reducing agents for, 134

storage, 21, 72, 100, 133-134

waste disposal, 134-135, 187, 188-189, 190, 210

Personal protective equipment (see also Clothing and protective apparel; Gloves and hand protection; Goggles; Respirators)

airborne contaminants, 127, 144, 178-180

corrosives, 171-172, 176

eye protection, 26, 36, 75, 108, 109, 124, 132, 144, 162, 176

face protection, 26, 61, 108, 109, 114, 131, 132, 138, 144, 162, 173, 174, 176

familiarity with, 22

foot protection, 175-176

glass hazards, 26, 36, 75, 108, 109, 124, 132, 172, 176, 214

PHSs and, 13

Petroleum ether, 120

Pets, 16

Phenol, 58, 61, 139, 202, 204, 303, CD

Phorbol esters, 64

Phosgene, 57, 60, 85-86, 239, 260, 303, CD

Phosphate buffer, 54

Phosphine, 139, 141

Phosphorus, 61, 69, 81, 90, 96, 139, 203, CD

Phosphorus pentachloride, 70

Phosphorus pentoxide, 61, 136

Phosphorus trichloride, 139

Physical hazards (see also specific hazards)

compressed gases, 74, 291

cryogens (nonflammable), 74

electrocution, 76

ergonomic, 77

high-pressure reactions, 74

information sources, 48

magnetic fields, 76

radio frequency and microwaves, 75-76

sharp edges, 76-77

slips, trips, and falls, 77

ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, 75

vacuum work, 74-75

Pipets and pipetting, 77, 110, 126, 127, 206, 252

Planning (see Chemical Hygiene Plans; Emergency action plan; Emergency response; Experiment planning)

Plastic equipment and containers, 76, 88, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 112, 113, 114, 115, 120, 128, 129, 130, 144, 145, 149, 150, 156, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, 191, 203, 224, 233, 234, 236, 240, 243, 244, 245, 302, 303

Platinum, 61, 130, 135, 139

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 187, 206, 270, 275-276

Polymerization, 70, 72, 73, 116, 130, 292

Polyols, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Potassium, 69, 70, 75, 130, 134, 140, CD

Potassium amide, 72

Potassium chloride, 195, 196

Potassium cyanide, CD

Potassium hydride, 122, CD

Potassium hydroxide, 120, 140, 207, CD

Potassium iodide, 134, 188, 189

Potassium metals, 72, 122, 134, 178, 180

Potassium permanganate, 73, 236

Potassium peroxides, 139

Powders and dusts, 55, 57, 60, 73, 78, 112, 124, 130, 131, 136, 145, 161, 177, 178, 179, 190, 222, 231, 237, 244, 248, 254, 302

Preparation (see Emergency preparedness; Experiment planning; Procedures for working with materials)

Pressure control systems/devices

air, 214, 219, 240

clean rooms, 219, 243

compressed gas cylinders, 26, 164, 168, 169-170

gauges, 88, 167, 172, 180, 243, 249

precautions, 166-167

Pressure vessels and reactions (see also Autoclaves and autoclaving; Compressed gases; Vacuum systems and operations)

and airborne contamination, 135

assembly and operation, 165-168

cleaning, 165

closed-system vessels, 166

compatibility of equipment materials and fittings with chemicals, 166, 167, 169

gas monitors and alarms, 168

glass equipment, 26, 74-75, 109, 115, 131-132, 135, 149, 153, 167, 170, 171-172, 174-175

headspace, 166

for highly reactive materials, 166

maintenance, 167

maximum allowable working pressure, 167

piping, tubing, and fittings, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169

plastic equipment, 168

pressure gauges, 167

records, inspection, and testing, 165, 167, 170-171

relief devices and regulators, 166-167

shielding, 166, 170, 172, 174, 175, 300

stuffing boxes and gland joints, 166

Teflon tape applications, 165, 168

valves, 166, 167, 168

venting, 167

warning signs, 166

Principal investigators and project managers, 3, 4, 6, 19, 38, 251, 262 (see also Laboratory supervisor)

Procedures for working with materials (see also Experiment planning)

biohazards, 126-127, 247-248

compressed gases, 140-141

equipment and glassware maintenance, 114-115

explosive and highly reactive materials, 130-140

flammable chemicals, 127-130

highly toxic substances, 122-125

housekeeping, 113-114

information sources, 48

minimizing exposure, 108-113, 124-125

nanomaterials, 141-146

personal behavior, 108

radioactive materials, 127

storage of chemicals, 114

transport of chemicals, 114

Procurement (see Acquisition of chemicals)

Publicly owned treatment works (POTW), 196, 202, 204, 278

Pull stations, 121, 127

Putrescible waste, 204, 206, 207, 208

Pyridine, 72, 303, CD

Pyrolysis, 73, 136

Pyrophorics, 19, 34, 50, 69, 70, 74, 96, 100, 113, 128-129, 135-136, 141, 145, 159, 233, 291

R

Radiation and radioactive materials (see also Multihazardous waste)

absorbed dose, 81-82

acids, 202, 203, 205

aerosols, 204, 208, 221

biological materials, 207-208

clothing and PPE, 80, 127, 162

decay in storage, 203-204, 207, 208, 278

disposal, 202-205, 207-208

filters, 236

hazards, 75, 79-82

procedures for working with, 127

shielding, 81, 82, 127, 203, 234

training requirements, 13

Radio frequency hazards, 75

Raney nickel, 73, 130, 136, 139

Reaction hazard index, 65

Reactivity (see also Explosive and highly reactive hazards; Incompatibility of chemicals; Pyrophorics; Water reactivity; specific compounds)

in air, 70, 72, 87, 93, 125, 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 143, 160, 173

gases 57, 70, 133, 135, 140, 141

glass, 137, 141

hazards, 70

information sources, 52, 65, 304

pressure reactions, 166

storage hazards, 100-101

Receiving chemicals, 21, 79, 89-90, 263, 278, 299

Receiving rooms and loading areas, 89-90, 240, 256

Recycling

characterization of wastes for, 187, 190

containers, packaging, and labware, 93-94, 191

energy reclamation, 195-196, 198

general considerations, 92, 93, 192, 194

information sources, 201

manufacturer and supplier role

multihazardous waste, 201, 202, 204, 205

nonhazardous solid waste, 192

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

off-site, 93, 185, 186, 198

regulations for chemical hazardous waste, 193-194, 195-196, 277, 300

solvents, 5-6, 84, 93, 185, 192

Reducing agents, 69, 70, 73, 100, 130, 133, 138, 139-140, 170

Refrigerators and refrigeration

access control, 123, 216

alarms on, 216

azo and peroxide storage, 72, 100, 133-134

containers, 154

decommissioning, 253, 254

defrosting and cleaning, 21, 154

explosion-proof, 21, 153-154

flammability hazards, 21, 153-154

food or beverages, 21, 153

freezer space for samples, 37

labeling of samples, 154

power loss, 40, 41, 76

safety precautions, 153

sharing between research groups, 216

spark-proof, 154

storage management, 97-98, 154

waste storage in, 207

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), 59

Regulations and legislation (see also Occupational Safety and Health Administration; OSHA standards; individual statutes)

accident reporting and record keeping, 272, 281, 299

acquisition of chemicals, 21, 22, 278, 299

acutely toxic substances, 274, 275, 290, 293, 295, 301-302

administration and supervision of laboratories, 279, 280, 281, 295

biohazards, 79, 189, 270-271, 272, 276, 278, 280-281

building codes, 11, 22, 27, 95, 98, 100, 215, 217, 218, 242, 253, 272-273

carcinogens, 59, 63, 101, 273, 275, 290, 293, 302

characteristic waste, 189-190

chemical hazardous waste, 189-191

Chemical Hygiene Plan, 3, 15, 47, 269, 274, 275, 292-293, 295, 296

chemicals used in laboratories, 270, 273

compliance monitoring, 3

compressed gases, 114, 164, 270, 290, 291

containers, 21, 94, 103, 191, 194 298, 301

and culture of safety, 6

determining regulatory status of waste, 190-191

electrical codes, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154

emergency preparedness and response, 6, 272, 299

employee information and training, 6

empty containers, 191

and experiment planning, 281-282

federal processes, 267

fire codes, 11, 22, 27, 51, 89, 95, 98, 100, 113, 114, 128, 151, 154, 214, 216, 243, 270, 272-273

limited waste, 190

participation in regulatory processes, 267

PCBs, 275-276

penalties for violations, 6, 23, 267-268

physical hazards, 6

radioactive materials, 79, 127, 270, 276, 278

rationale for, 267

relationships between regulations and standards, 268-269

risk-based performance standards, 89, 259, 261, 270, 273

shipping, export, and import, 23, 271-272, 278-281

state, 268

storage, 95

training in, 23

waste management, 6, 271, 276-278

Reporting

academic laboratories, 3

accidents, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, 281, 299

supervisors, 15, 16, 17, 226, 301

TSCA requirements, 279

Reproductive toxins, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 59, 62-63, 86, 97, 101, 274-275, 290, 291, 293

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 93, 189, 190, 193, 194, 196, 201, 202, 209, 267, 271, 272, 276, 277-278

Respirators

inspections, 180

procedures and training, 180

types, 179

Respiratory tract, 57, 124, 166, 179 (see also Inhalation hazards)

Risk assessment (see also Hazard evaluation)

aerosols, 55, 60, 80, 221

airborne contaminants, 219

biohazards, 13, 79, 80, 207, 221

carcinogens, 54, 55, 63-64

control banding, 64-65

existing control systems, 11

explosivity, 70-74, 132

flammability, 65-70

information sources, 47-49

review of, 12

toxicity, 54, 55, 58-60

Risk-Based Performance Standard (DHS), 262

S

Safety and emergency equipment (see also Fire safety equipment)

access to, 15, 27

automatic external defbrillators, 180

eyewash units and safety showers, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, 113, 117, 118, 121, 122, 125, 127, 128, 137, 176, 178, 180, 181, 217, 218, 273, 297, 299

first aid, 15, 28, 36, 125, 137, 180

respirators, 178-180

shields, 177

spill control kits and cleanup, 177

storage and inspection, 180-181

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Safety committees, 12, 16-17, 23, 24-25, 64, 276

Safety rules and policies

general guidelines, 15-17

housekeeping practices, 19-20

working alone, 17-18

Safety shields, 74, 108, 172, 176, 177, 187

Scientists with disabilities, 6-7

Scrubbers, 236

Security (see Laboratory security)

Security plans

elements, 262-263

levels of security, 263-264

managing security, 264

training, 264

Seismic activity, 35, 36, 70, 95, 96, 97, 100, 168, 199

Select agents, 79, 270

Select carcinogens, 55, 59, 63-64, 86, 97, 274-275, 290, 291-292

Sensitizers (see Allergens, sensitizers, and allergic reactions)

Service animals, 16, 218

Sewer discharges, 16, 35, 69, 85, 134, 145, 149, 153, 185, 186, 192, 193, 195, 196, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 222, 232, 276, 278, 300, 301

Sharps

disposal, 58, 111, 114, 206-207

hazards, 76-77

Shelf life and expiration dates, 21, 22, 92, 100, 101, 112, 125, 132, 134, 138, 261

Shielding

bench shields, 132

blast/explosion, 109, 110, 130, 131, 161, 174

chemical hoods, 131-132, 160, 177, 187

full-face, 26, 61, 108, 109, 114, 131, 132, 138, 144, 162, 173, 174, 176

glass materials, 177, 225, 229, 248

for magnetic fields, 76

microwave or radio frequency emissions, 162

pressure/vacuum reactions, 166, 170, 172, 174, 175, 300

radiation, 81, 82, 127, 203, 234

rotating equipment, 160, 162, 163

safety shields, 74, 108, 172, 176, 177, 187 (see also Face shields)

Shipment and transport (see also Exports and imports)

in alcohol, 101

biological materials, 101, 272, 278, 280-281

carts, 23

chemicals, within U.S., 280

containment, 6, 23, 89, 90, 114, 125, 298

corrosives, 199

gas cylinders 111, 114, 168

information sources, 48

“materials of trade” exemption, 102

nanomaterials, 102-104, 280

regulations, 23, 271-272, 278-281

training, 23

waste, 87, 186-187, 193, 194, 198, 199

Signage and postings, 39, 250, 298

Short-term exposure limits (STELs), 51, 60, 269

Showers

air, 244

safety, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, 113, 117, 118, 121, 122, 125, 127, 137, 176, 178, 180, 181, 217, 218, 273, 297, 299

Silver and silver compounds, 166, 167, CD

Skin contact and effects

absorption of toxins, 55, 58, 60, 62, 124, 139, 166, 179

airborne contaminants, 179

cold and cryogenic substances, 119

corrosives, 58, 61, 111, 135, 141, 190

emergency response, 118

minimizing, 111-113

toxic chemicals, 58

Slips and falls, 77, 164

Slot hoods, 220, 237, 238

Snorkels, 143, 220-221, 226, 237, 238, 240, 241, 250, 251, 298

Sodium, 69, 70, 75, 122, 130, 137, 139, 140, 159, 178, CD

Sodium amide, 72, 140

Sodium azide, 61, 136, 260, 303, CD

Sodium bicarbonate, 120, 177

Sodium bisulfate, 120, 136

Sodium bisulfite, 134

Sodium borohydride, 96

Sodium carbonate, 120, 195

Sodium cyanide, 54, 56, 60, 260, 303, CD

Sodium hydride, CD

Sodium hydrogen sulfide, 96

Sodium hydroxide, 61, 96, 136, 140, 190, 209, CD

Sodium hypochlorate, 96

Sodium nitrite, 140

Sodium peroxide, 90

Solvents (see also specific chemicals)

drying, 78, 140

filtration, 84

flammable, 28, 120

green chemistry, 85-86

organic compounds, 62, 70, 76, 93, 111, 112, 136, 138, 139, 140, 151, 153, 157, 159, 177, 188, 190, 196

recycling, 5-6, 84, 93, 185, 192

spills, 28, 120

stills, 93, 159-160

Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 273 n.1

Spills and releases

absorbents, 28, 120, 125, 133, 134, 145, 177, 302

acids, 28, 120

alarms, 35, 82, 124

alkalis and bases, 120

cleanup, 28-29, 120, 280-281

containment, 120

debris management, 120

disposal, 28

emergency planning and response, 28-29, 35, 118, 120, 121, 280-281

environmental releases, 28

flammable solvents, 28, 120

highly toxic substances, 29, 120, 273

information sources, 28

low-flammability and low-toxicity materials, 28

mercury, 121

policy, 28-29

regulations, 281-282

reporting, 28, 29, 281

Standards Completion Program, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Standards for Protection Against Radiation (USNRC), 79, 127, 270, 276

Static electric discharges, 22, 23, 69, 113, 128, 129, 132, 168, 170, 176

Stoppers, 133, 154

Storage (see also Refrigerators and refrigeration)

access control, 21, 22

acids, 20, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 125

biosafety cabinets, 75, 80, 126, 143, 220, 221, 231, 236, 244, 245-248, 251

carcinogens, 97, 101

chemical storage cabinets, 22

clothing and PPE, 113, 175

cold storage, 21, 97-98

compatibility, 21, 22, 27, 96-97

compressed gas cylinders, 26, 35, 90, 96, 100, 111, 114, 154, 164, 166, 168, 170

containers, 35, 73, 77, 89, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98-99, 100, 113, 114, 125, 129, 133, 137, 154, 191, 192, 302

controlled substances. 95

corrosives, 97, 100, 166, 192, 221

cyanides, 22

dating, 21

experiment planning, 125

flammable and combustible liquids, 22, 98-99

gas cylinders, 100

general considerations, 95-96, 114

in glass, 73, 94, 99, 100, 129, 133, 137, 154, 191, 192, 302

highly toxic substances, 22, 97, 101, 125

inappropriate places, 21

information sources, 48

inspection, 27

labeling, 21, 51, 94, 154

odiferous materials, 22

peroxides, 21, 72, 100, 133-134

reactive substances, 100-101

regulations, 95

rooms, 22

shelving, 21

size of containers, 99

sprinkler head distance, 21

ventilation, 22

Sulfur, 73, 81, 121, 131, 136, 203, 209

Sulfur dioxide, 96, 170, 303, CD

Sulfuric acid, 61, 69, 73, 96, 120, 139-140, CD

Suppression of aerosols, 114, 124, 126, 208, 236, 240, 244, 301, 302-303

Survival kit, 36

T

Teachers and instructors, 3-4

Teaching laboratories (see Academic laboratories)

Technology advances, and culture of safety, 5

Temperature sensors and smoke detectors, 100, 178, 249

Teratogens, 52, 62, 275, 291 (see also Developmental toxicity; Reproductive toxins)

Testing

with acids, 188, 189

alarm systems, 43, 193, 245, 249, 250

Tetrahydrofuran, 28, 67, 72, 96, 120, 134, 136, 138, 160, CD

Thermometers, 17, 87-88, 157

Titanium, 73, 136

Titanium dioxide, 49, 78-79, 141

Toluene, 67, 85, 86, 93, 96, 133, 140, 202, 203, CD

Toluene diisocyanate, 61, CD

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 279-280

Toxins and toxicity (see also Acute toxicity; Allergens, sensitizers, and allegic reactions; Asphyxiants and asphyxiation; Carcinogens; Chronic toxicity and health affects; Corrosives and corrosivity; Developmental toxicity; Exposure; Irritants; Neurotoxicity; Reproductive toxins)

access control, 123-124

compressed gases, 96, 121

designated areas, 123

dose-response relationship, 54-56

duration and frequency of exposure, 56

emergency planning, 125

exposure routes, 57-58

gases, 57, 85, 122, 140, 172, 190, 261, 275

hazard evaluation, 53-65

information sources, 48, 52

minimizing exposure, 124-125

planning experiments, 122-123

protocols, 123

risk assessment, 55, 58-60

storage, 101, 125

target organs, 63

types, 60-65

waste disposal, 125

TOXLINE, 53

TOXNET, 52, 53, 63

Tracer gases, 221

Training (see Education and training in safety practices)

Transfer and exchange of chemicals

between containers, 23, 84, 87, 94, 104, 113, 123, 125, 240-241

compressed gases, 166

nanomaterials, 103-104

Transport (see Shipment and transport) Trifluoroacetic acid, CD

Trimethylaluminum, CD

Trimethyltin chloride, CD

Tubing, 17-18, 76, 115, 128, 137, 149, 154, 156, 164, 165-166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 175, 176, 237, 239 (see also Hoses)

U

ULPA (ultra-low penetration air) filters, 236, 248

Ultrasonic equipment, 85, 86, 149, 161

Ultraviolet peroxidation, 203, 208

Ultraviolet radiation, 72, 75, 76, 109, 139, 151, 162, 176

Unattended experiments, 34, 39, 40, 41, 42, 116, 124, 128, 149, 151, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, 161, 170, 301

Unconscious victims, 119

Uniform Fire Code, 270

Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, 199, 200

United Nations

Environment Programme, 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
×

Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 49

Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 49

Unused and excess material, 73, 86, 87, 114, 133, 185, 192

V

Vacuum cleaners, 121, 145, 302-303

Vacuum systems and operations

assembly of apparatus, 175

desiccators, 175

Dewar flasks, 174-175

glass vessels, 26, 74-75, 109, 115, 131-132, 135, 149, 153, 167, 170, 171-172, 174-175

hazards, 74-75

pumps, 153

rotary evaporators, 175

spill cleanup, 121

Valves, gas cylinders, 168, 169

Vapor pressure, 56, 57, 65, 122, 128, 164, 219, 220, 290

Variable autotransformers, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 170

Vehicular accidents, 102, 193

Ventilated balance enclosures, 220, 238

Ventilation and environmental control systems (see also Chemical hoods; Exhaust systems)

and airborne contaminants, 219, 221, 241, 251, 296, 298

code requirements, 253

choosing, 253

commissioning, 251

constant air volume systems, 241

containers, 139-140

design criteria, 249-250

engineering controls for personal protection, 220

exhaust systems, 241-243

goals performance measurement, 250-251

information sources, 253

inspection, 250

maintenance, 248-249, 250

management program, 249-251

monitoring systems, 252

retrocommissioning, 252

risk assessment, 219-221

supply systems, 179, 180-181, 217, 222, 226, 227, 241

sustainability considerations, 251-253

training program, 250

Venting (see also Exhaust systems) gas cylinders, 168, 170

Vinyl acetylene, 71

Visible radiation, 75

Visitors, 15, 16, 35

W

Waste management (see also Characterization of waste; Chemical hazardous waste; Multihazardous waste)

absorbents, 193, 203, 204

academic laboratories, 3

administration and supervision, 209, 302

air emissions, 278

biohazards, 87, 108, 127, 185, 187, 189, 195, 201, 202, 205-208, 278

commingling of waste, 191, 193, 194, 198, 203

containers, 23, 58, 87, 93, 110, 111, 114, 120, 125, 127, 144, 145, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199, 206-207, 209

corrosives, 113, 118, 144, 302 wastes, 153, 174, 190, 191, 192, 199, 209

cost-effectiveness, 5-6

and culture of safety, 5-6

experiment planning, 125

filter disposal, 107, 191, 192

highly toxic materials, 125

information sources, 48

landfill disposal, 185, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 300

packaging and shipment, 87, 186-187, 193, 194, 198, 199

radioactive waste, 202-205, 208, 278

reduction/minimization, 5, 6, 85, 86, 108, 195, 201, 202, 203, 207, 277

regulations, 271, 276-278

sewer discharges, 16, 35, 69, 85, 134, 145, 149, 153, 185, 186, 192, 193, 195, 196, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 222, 232, 276, 278, 300, 301

sharps, 77, 114, 115, 203, 205

source reduction, 5, 122, 185, 195, 201, 202

treatment (laboratory-scale) of surplus and waste chemicals, 209-210

Water reactivity

hazardous materials, 70

Weather, severe, 34-35

Windows, 132, 258

Working alone, 15, 17-18, 116, 120, 122, 301

World Health Organization, 51, 76

X

Xylene, 62, 67, 85, 93, 190, 203

Z

Zirconium, 73, 136

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12654.
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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory--the book that has served for decades as the standard for chemical laboratory safety practice--now features updates and new topics. This revised edition has an expanded chapter on chemical management and delves into new areas, such as nanotechnology, laboratory security, and emergency planning.

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