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Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (2009)

Chapter: Attachment A: Specifications of Spaceborne Instruments Capable of Measuring CO2

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Suggested Citation:"Attachment A: Specifications of Spaceborne Instruments Capable of Measuring CO2." National Research Council. 2009. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12723.
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Suggested Citation:"Attachment A: Specifications of Spaceborne Instruments Capable of Measuring CO2." National Research Council. 2009. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12723.
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Attachment A: Specifications of Spaceborne Instruments Capable of Measuring CO2 Specification OCOa GOSATb SCIAMACHYc AIRSd IASIe Tropospheric CO2, O2 CO2, CH4, O2, O3, O4, N2O, CO2, CH4, O3, CO2, CH4, O3, gases O3, H2O NO2, CH4, CO, CO, H2O, SO2 CO, H2O, SO2, measured CO2, H2O, N2O SO2, HCHO CO2 sensitivity Total column Total column Total column Mid- Mid- including near including near including near troposphere troposphere surface surface surface Horizontal 1.29 × 2.25/5.2 FTS: 10.5/80- 30 × 60/960 15/1,650 12/2,200 resolution (km)f 790 CO2 1-2 4 14 1.5 2 uncertainty (ppm)g Instruments 3-Channel CAI, SWIR/TIR 8-Channel Grating Fourier grating Fourier grating spectrometer transform spectrometer transform spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer Viewing modes Nadir, glint, Nadir, glint, Limb, nadir Nadir Nadir target target Samples/day 500,000 18,700 8,600 2,916,000 1,296,000 Wavelength 0.757-0.772, 0.758-0.775, 0.24-0.44, 0.4- 3.74-4.61, 3.62-5.0, 5.0- bandpass (µm) 1.59-1.62, 1.56-1.72, 1.0, 1.0-1.7, 6.20-8.22, 8.26, 8.26-15.5 2.04-2.08 1.92-2.08, 1.94-2.04, 8.80-15.4 5.56-14.3 2.265-2.38 Signal/noise >300 @ 1.59- ~120 @ 1.56- <100 @ 1.57 ~2000 @ 4.2 ~1000 @ 12 (nadir, 5% 1.62 µm, >240 1.72 µm, ~120 µm µm, ~1400 @ µm, ~500 @ albedo) @ 2.04-208 @ 1.92-2.08 3.7-13.6 µm, 4.5 µm µm ~800 @ 13.6- 15.4 µm Orbit altitude 705 km 666 km 790 km 705 km 820 km Local time 13:30 ± 0:1.5 13:00 ± 0:15 10:00 13:30 21:30 Revisit 16 days/233 3 days/72 35 days 16 days/233 72 days/1,037 time/orbits orbits orbits orbits orbits Launch date failed on January 2009 March 2002 May 2002 October 2006 launch Nominal life 2 years 5 years 7+ years 7+ years 5 years NOTES: AIRS = Atmospheric Infrared Sounder; CAI = Cloud and Aerosol Imager; FTS = Fourier transform spectrometer; GOSAT = Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite; IASI = Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer; OCO = Orbiting Carbon Observatory; SCIAMACHY = Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography; SWIR = short-wavelength infrared; TIR = thermal infrared. a Crisp, D., C.E. Miller, and P.L. DeCola, 2008, NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory: Measuring the column averaged carbon dioxide mole fraction from space, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2, 023508, doi:10.1117/1.2898457; Crisp, D., 2008, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory: NASA’s first dedicated carbon dioxide mission, in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XII, Proceedings of SPIE, 7106, 710604. 5

b Shiomi, K., S. Kawakami, T. Kina, Y. Mitomi, M. Yoshida, N. Sekio, F. Kataoka, and R. Higuchi, 2007, Calibration of the GOSAT sensors, in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XI, Proceedings of SPIE, 6744, 67440G; Akihiko Kuze, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Personal communication, 2009; Hamazaki, T., Y. Kaneko, A. Kuze, and H. Suto, 2007, Greenhouse gases observation from space with TANSO-FTS on GOSAT, in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy/Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding of the Environment, Optical Society of America Technical Digest Series, paper FWB1. c <>; Burrows, J.P., E. Hölzle, A.P.H. Goede, H. Visser, and W. Fricke, 1995, “SCIAMACHY—Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography, Acta Astronautica, 35, 445-451; Noël, S., H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, J. Frerick, K.V. Chance, A.P.H. Goede, and C. Muller, 1998, The SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT-1, in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites II, Proceedings of SPIE, 3498, 94-104; Buchwitz, M., R. de Beek, S. Noël, J.P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Körner, and M. Heimann, 2005, Carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide columns retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Year 2003 initial data set, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5, 3313-3329. d Aumann, H.H., M.T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M.D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L.M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P.W. Rosenkranz, W.L. Smith, D.H. Staelin, L.L. Strow, and J. Susskind, 2003, AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua Mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41, 253; Chahine, M.T., L. Chen, P. Dimotakis, X. Jiang, Q. Li, E.T. Olsen, T. Pagano, J. Randerson, and Y.L. Yung, 2008, Satellite remote sounding of mid-tropospheric CO2, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L17807, doi:10.1029/2008GL035022. e Phulpin, T., D. Blumstein, F. Prel, B. Tournier, P. Prunet, and P. Schlüssel, 2007, Applications of IASI on MetOp- A: First results and illustration of potential use for meteorology, climate monitoring, and atmospheric chemistry, in Atmospheric and Environmental Remote Sensing Data Processing and Utilization III: Readiness for GEOSS, Proceedings of SPIE, 6684, 66840F; Crevoisier, C., A. Chedin, H. Matsueda, T. Machida, R. Armante, and N.A. Scott, 2009, First year of upper tropospheric integrated content of CO2 from IASI hyperspectral infrared observations, Discussion, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 8187-8222. f Instantaneous field-of-view/Swath. g The uncertainty represents the estimate of random errors (e.g., the effects of detector noise) and additional systematic errors (e.g., bias caused by cloud and aerosol effects) unaccounted for or otherwise eliminated from the total error. Bias is reduced by successful validation efforts. The GOSAT uncertainty is dominated by the precision (random errors). For OCO, Crisp et al. (2004) and Miller et al. (2007) discuss the observational system simulation experiments, including modeling of the OCO instrument performance characteristics, that led to an instrument design that would meet a measurement requirement of 1 ppm. The as-built OCO instrument performance was verified during prelaunch tests, which included direct solar observations. The analysis of the latter gave the best confirmation that the as-built instrument performance exceeded its design requirements. See Crisp, D., R.M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L.R. Brown, J.P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B.J. Connor, S.C. Doney, I.Y. Fung, D.J. Jacob, C.E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J.T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R.J. Salawitch, S.P. Sander, B. Sen, G.L. Stephens, P.P. Tans, G.C. Toon, P.O. Wennberg, S.C. Wofsy, Y.L. Yung, Z. Kuang , B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, 2004, The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission, Advances in Space Research, 34, 700-709; Miller, C.E., D. Crisp, P.L. DeCola, S.C. Olsen, J.T. Randerson, A.M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D.J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D.B.A. Jones, A.S. Denning, M.E. Nicholls, S.C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B.J. Connor, I.Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R.J. Salawitch, S.P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G.C. Toon, P.O. Wennberg, S.C. Wofsy, Y.L. Yung, and R.M. Law, 2007, Precision requirements for space- based XCO2 data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D10314, doi:10.1029/2006JD007659. The methods for bias reduction and validation are the same for GOSAT and OCO. Washenfelder et al. (2006) demonstrated the OCO validation concept and the essential role of ground-based measurements for meeting those objectives. Bösch et al. (2006) used these ground-based measurements to validate SCIAMACHY CO2. The GOSAT team also plans to use the same validation sites and instruments. OCO planned to include and use Aeronet measurements. The OCO validation plan purposely located ground-based validation measurements at ARM sites to capitalize on the wealth of ancillary atmospheric and surface measurements. See Bösch, H., G.C. Toon, B. Sen, R.A. Washenfelder, P.O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. deBeek, J.P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B.J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y.L. Yung, 2006, Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the OCO retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D23302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007080;; Washenfelder, R.A., G.C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, Z. Yang, N.T. Allen, P.O. Wennberg, S.A. Vay, D.M. Matross, and B.C. Daube, 2006, Carbon dioxide column abundances at the Wisconsin Tall Tower site, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D22305, doi:10.1029/2006JD007154. 6

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A National Research Council committee is conducting a study on how well greenhouse gas emissions can be measured for treaty monitoring and verification. The committee's analysis suggests that NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which failed on launch in February 2009, would have provided proof of concept for spaceborne technologies to monitor greenhouse gas emissions, as well as baseline emissions data. This letter focuses on the capabilities of an OCO and currently deployed satellites that measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and their potential role in monitoring and verifying a greenhouse gas treaty.

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