National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

PANEL REPORTS—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Science Frontiers Panels

Program Prioritization Panels

Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panels responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract NNX08AN97G between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Contract AST-0743899 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, and Contract DE-FG02-08ER41542 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Support for this study was also provided by the Vesto Slipher Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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SCIENCE FRONTIERS PANELS

Panel on Cosmology and Fundamental Physics

DAVID N. SPERGEL,

Princeton University,

Chair

DAVID WEINBERG,

Ohio State University,

Vice Chair

RACHEL BEAN,

Cornell University

NEIL CORNISH,

Montana State University

JONATHAN FENG,

University of California, Irvine

ALEX V. FILIPPENKO,

University of California, Berkeley

WICK C. HAXTON,

University of California, Berkeley

MARC P. KAMIONKOWSKI,

California Institute of Technology

LISA RANDALL,

Harvard University

EUN-SUK SEO,

University of Maryland

DAVID TYTLER,

University of California, San Diego

CLIFFORD M. WILL,

Washington University

Panel on the Galactic Neighborhood

MICHAEL J. SHULL,

University of Colorado,

Chair

JULIANNE DALCANTON,

University of Washington,

Vice Chair

LEO BLITZ,

University of California, Berkeley

BRUCE T. DRAINE,

Princeton University

ROBERT FESEN,

Dartmouth University

KARL GEBHARDT,

University of Texas

JUNA KOLLMEIER,

Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

CRYSTAL MARTIN,

University of California, Santa Barbara

JASON TUMLINSON,

Space Telescope Science Institute

DANIEL WANG,

University of Massachusetts

DENNIS ZARITSKY,

University of Arizona

STEPHEN E. ZEPF,

Michigan State University

Panel on Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

C. MEGAN URRY,

Yale University,

Chair

MITCHELL C. BEGELMAN,

University of Colorado,

Vice Chair

NETA A. BAHCALL,

Princeton University

ANDREW J. BAKER,

Rutgers University

ROMEEL DAVÉ,

University of Arizona

TIZIANA DI MATTEO,

Carnegie Mellon University

HENRIC S.W. KRAWCZYNSKI,

Washington University

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

JOSEPH MOHR,

Ludwig Maximilian University

RICHARD F. MUSHOTZKY,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

CHRISTOPHER S. REYNOLDS,

University of Maryland

ALICE SHAPLEY,

University of California, Los Angeles

TOMMASO TREU,

University of California, Santa Barbara

JAQUELINE H. VAN GORKOM,

Columbia University

ERIC M. WILCOTS,

University of Wisconsin

Panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation

LEE W. HARTMANN,

University of Michigan,

Chair

DAN M. WATSON,

University of Rochester,

Vice Chair

HECTOR ARCE,

Yale University

CLAIRE CHANDLER,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

DAVID CHARBONNEAU,

Harvard University

EUGENE CHIANG,

University of California, Berkeley

SUZAN EDWARDS,

Smith College

ERIC HERBST,

Ohio State University

DAVID C. JEWITT,

University of California, Los Angeles

JAMES P. LLOYD,

Cornell University

EVE C. OSTRIKER,

University of Maryland

DAVID J. STEVENSON,

California Institute of Technology

JONATHAN C. TAN,

University of Florida

Panel on Stars and Stellar Evolution

ROGER A. CHEVALIER,

University of Virginia,

Chair

ROBERT P. KIRSHNER,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Vice Chair

DEEPTO CHAKRABARTY,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

SUZANNE HAWLEY,

University of Washington

JEFFREY R. KUHN,

University of Hawaii

STANLEY OWOCKI,

University of Delaware

MARC PINSONNEAULT,

Ohio State University

ELIOT QUATAERT,

University of California, Berkeley

SCOTT RANSOM,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

HENDRIK SCHATZ,

Michigan State University

LEE ANNE WILLSON,

Iowa State University

STANFORD E. WOOSLEY,

University of California, Santa Cruz

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director,

Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA)

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY,

Astro2010 Study Director and Director, Space Studies Board (SSB)

BRANT L. SPONBERG, Associate Director,

SSB (until December 2009)

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer,

BPA

DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer,

BPA

CARMELA CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator,

SSB

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor,

SSB

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Research Associate,

BPA

LaVITA COATES-FOGLE, Senior Program Assistant,

BPA (until October 2009)

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate,

BPA

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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PROGRAM PRIORITIZATION PANELS

Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space

ALAN DRESSLER,

Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington,

Chair

MICHAEL BAY,

Bay Engineering Innovations

ALAN P. BOSS,

Carnegie Institution of Washington

MARK DEVLIN,

University of Pennsylvania

MEGAN DONAHUE,

Michigan State University

BRENNA FLAUGHER,

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

TOM GREENE,

NASA Ames Research Center

PURAGRA (RAJA) GUHATHAKURTA,

University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory

MICHAEL G. HAUSER,

Space Telescope Science Institute

HAROLD McALISTER,

Georgia State University

PETER F. MICHELSON,

Stanford University

BEN R. OPPENHEIMER,

American Museum of Natural History

FRITS PAERELS,

Columbia University

GEORGE H. RIEKE,

Steward Observatory, University of Arizona

ADAM G. RIESS,

Johns Hopkins University

PAUL L. SCHECHTER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

TODD TRIPP,

University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground

PATRICK S. OSMER,

Ohio State University,

Chair

MICHAEL SKRUTSKIE,

University of Virginia,

Vice Chair

CHARLES BAILYN,

Yale University

BETSY BARTON,

University of California, Irvine

TODD A. BOROSON,

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

DANIEL EISENSTEIN,

University of Arizona

ANDREA M. GHEZ,

University of California, Los Angeles

J. TODD HOEKSEMA,

Stanford University

ROBERT P. KIRSHNER,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

BRUCE MACINTOSH,

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

PIERO MADAU,

University of California, Santa Cruz

JOHN MONNIER,

University of Michigan

I. NEILL REID,

Space Telescope Science Institute

CHARLES E. WOODWARD,

University of Minnesota

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Panel on Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation

JACQUELINE N. HEWITT,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Chair

ERIC G. ADELBERGER,

University of Washington

ANDREAS ALBRECHT,

University of California, Davis

ELENA APRILE,

Columbia University

JONATHAN ARONS,

University of California, Berkeley

BARRY C. BARISH,

California Institute of Technology

JOAN CENTRELLA,

NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center

DOUGLAS FINKBEINER,

Harvard University

KATHRYN FLANAGAN,

Space Telescope Science Institute

GABRIELA GONZALEZ,

Louisiana State University

JAMES B. HARTLE,

University of California, Santa Barbara

STEVEN M. KAHN,

Stanford University

N. JEREMY KASDIN,

Princeton University

TERESA MONTARULI,

University of Wisconsin–Madison

ANGELA V. OLINTO,

University of Chicago

RENE A. ONG,

University of California, Los Angeles

HELEN R. QUINN,

Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory (retired)

Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground

NEAL J. EVANS II,

University of Texas,

Chair

JAMES M. MORAN,

Harvard University,

Vice Chair

CRYSTAL BROGAN,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

AARON S. EVANS,

University of Virginia

SARAH GIBSON,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, High Altitude Observatory

JASON GLENN,

University of Colorado at Boulder

NICKOLAY Y. GNEDIN,

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

CORNELIA C. LANG,

University of Iowa

MAURA McLAUGHLIN,

West Virginia University

MIGUEL MORALES,

University of Washington

LYMAN A. PAGE, JR.,

Princeton University

JEAN L. TURNER,

University of California, Los Angeles

DAVID J. WILNER,

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director,

Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA)

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Astro2010 Study Director and Director,

Space Studies Board (SSB)

BRANT L. SPONBERG, Associate Director,

SSB (until December 2009)

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer,

BPA

BRIAN DEWHURST, Program Officer,

ASEB (until July 2009)

JAMES LANCASTER, Program Officer,

BPA

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor,

SSB

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Research Associate,

BPA

CARMELA CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator,

SSB

LaVITA COATES-FOGLE, Senior Program Assistant,

BPA (until October 2009)

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate,

BPA

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

COMMITTEE FOR A DECADAL SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

ROGER D. BLANDFORD,

Stanford University,

Chair

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University,

Vice Chair

JOHN P. HUCHRA,1

Harvard University,

Vice Chair

MARCIA J. RIEKE,

University of Arizona,

Vice Chair

LYNNE HILLENBRAND,

California Institute of Technology,

Executive Officer

STEVEN J. BATTEL,

Battel Engineering

LARS BILDSTEN,

University of California, Santa Barbara

JOHN E. CARLSTROM,

University of Chicago

DEBRA M. ELMEGREEN,

Vassar College

JOSHUA FRIEMAN,

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

FIONA A. HARRISON,

California Institute of Technology

TIMOTHY M. HECKMAN,

Johns Hopkins University

ROBERT C. KENNICUTT, JR.,

University of Cambridge

JONATHAN I. LUNINE,

University of Rome, Tor Vergata

CLAIRE E. MAX,

University of California, Santa Cruz

DAN McCAMMON,

University of Wisconsin

STEVEN M. RITZ,

University of California, Santa Cruz

JURI TOOMRE,

University of Colorado

SCOTT D. TREMAINE,

Institute for Advanced Study

MICHAEL S. TURNER,

University of Chicago

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON,

Hayden Planetarium, American Museum of Natural History

PAUL A. VANDEN BOUT,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

A. THOMAS YOUNG,

Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director,

Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA)

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Astro2010 Study Director and Director,

Space Studies Board (SSB)

BRANT L. SPONBERG, Senior Program Officer,

BPA (until December 2009)

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer,

BPA

BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Program Officer,

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (until July 2009)

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Program Officer,

BPA

1

This report is dedicated to John P. Huchra, who served as a vice chair for the Astro2010 decadal survey.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer,

BPA

TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator,

BPA (from November 2009)

CARMELA CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator,

SSB

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor,

SSB

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Research Associate,

BPA

LaVITA COATES-FOGLE, Senior Program Assistant,

BPA (until October 2009)

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate,

BPA

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

ADAM S. BURROWS,

Princeton University,

Chair

PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM,

Stanford University,

Vice Chair

RICCARDO BETTI,

University of Rochester

PATRICK L. COLESTOCK,

Los Alamos National Laboratory (until June 30, 2010)

JAMES DRAKE,

University of Maryland

JAMES EISENSTEIN,

California Institute of Technology

DEBRA M. ELMEGREEN,

Vassar College

PAUL A. FLEURY,

Yale University

ANDREA M. GHEZ,

University of California, Los Angeles (until June 30, 2010)

PETER F. GREEN,

University of Michigan

LAURA H. GREENE,

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University

JOSEPH HEZIR,

EOP Group, Inc.

MARC A. KASTNER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Chair until June 30, 2010)

MARK B. KETCHEN,

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

JOSEPH LYKKEN,

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

PIERRE MEYSTRE,

University of Arizona

HOMER A. NEAL,

University of Michigan

MONICA OLVERA de la CRUZ,

Northwestern University

JOSE N. ONUCHIC,

University of California, San Diego

LISA RANDALL,

Harvard University

CHARLES V. SHANK,

Janelia Farm, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (until June 30, 2010)

MICHAEL S. TURNER,

University of Chicago

MICHAEL C.F. WIESCHER,

University of Notre Dame

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Associate Director (until March 30, 2010)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CHARLES F. KENNEL,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego,

Chair

A. THOMAS YOUNG,

Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired),

Vice Chair

DANIEL N. BAKER,

University of Colorado, Boulder (until June 30, 2010)

STEVEN J. BATTEL,

Battel Engineering

CHARLES L. BENNETT,

Johns Hopkins University (until June 30, 2010)

YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN,

Dixie State College; Aerospace Corporation

ALAN DRESSLER,

Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

JACK D. FELLOWS,

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

HEIDI B. HAMMEL,

Space Science Institute

FIONA A. HARRISON,

California Institute of Technology

ANTHONY C. JANETOS,

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE,

Naval War College

KLAUS KEIL,

University of Hawaii (until June 30, 2010)

MOLLY K. MACAULEY,

Resources for the Future

BERRIEN MOORE III,

Climate Central (until June 30, 2010)

JOHN F. MUSTARD,

Brown University

ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO,

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

JAMES PAWELCZYK,

Pennsylvania State University

SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN,

University of California, Irvine

DAVID N. SPERGEL,

Princeton University

JOAN VERNIKOS,

Thirdage LLC

JOSEPH F. VEVERKA,

Cornell University (until June 30, 2010)

WARREN M. WASHINGTON,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

CHARLES E. WOODWARD,

University of Minnesota

THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN,

University of Michigan

ELLEN G. ZWEIBEL,

University of Wisconsin (until June 30, 2010)

Staff

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 2010)

RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2009 through March 2010)

MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (through February 2009)

BRANT L. SPONBERG, Associate Director (until December 2009)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Preface

This volume contains the reports of the five Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panels (SFPs) and the four Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panels (PPPs). These panels were appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to assist the Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics in surveying the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics and identifying promising areas of research in the coming decade, taking into consideration both new and previously identified concepts. The tasks assigned to the SFPs and PPPs are outlined in Appendix A. This volume also reflects the work of six Infrastructure Study Groups (ISGs) whose members were appointed by the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences to gather and analyze data on issues related to several broad topics. The results of the work of the three groups—the SFPs, PPPs, and ISGs—were advisory to the survey committee, whose task was to recommend priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities in astronomy and astrophysics for the decade 2010-2020.1 The survey committee’s recommendations are presented in a separate volume, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010).

The survey was conducted in two overlapping phases. In the first phase, the five SFPs worked to identify science themes that define the research frontiers for the 2010-2020 decade in five areas: Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, the Galactic Neighborhood, Galaxies Across Cosmic Time, Planetary Systems and Star

1

In this context, “activities” include any project, telescope, facility, mission, or research program of sufficient scope to be identified separately in this report.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Formation, and Stars and Stellar Evolution. Drawing on the 324 white papers on science opportunities submitted to the NRC in response to an open call from the survey committee to the astronomy and astrophysics research community,2 as well as on briefings received from federal agencies that provide support for the field, the SFPs strove to identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. The SFPs were instructed to avoid advocacy for prioritization of specific new missions, telescopes, and other research activities. They also worked ahead of and therefore independent of the PPPs. As delineated in Chapters 1 through 5 of this volume, the input of each of the SFPs to the survey committee was organized by four science questions ripe for answering and general areas with unusual discovery potential.

In the second phase of the survey, the PPPs were charged to develop a ranked program of research activities in four programmatic areas: Electromagnetic Observations from Space; Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground; Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation; and Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground. In addition to the draft science questions and discovery areas received from the SFP chairs at a joint meeting held in May 2009, the PPPs also reviewed the more than 100 proposals for research activities presented by the astronomy and astrophysics community for consideration by the survey.3 In addition the PPPs received briefings from federal agencies, project proponents, and other stakeholders at public sessions held in June 2009 at the summer meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California. In their final assembly of priorities the PPPs also took into account assessments of cost and schedule risk, and of the technical readiness of the research activities under consideration for prioritization, that were provided by an NRC-hired contractor, the Aerospace Corporation. As presented in Chapters 6 through 9 of this volume, each PPP report contains a proposed program of prioritized, balanced, and integrated research activities, reflecting the results of its in-depth study of the technical and programmatic issues and its consideration of the results of the independent technical evaluation and cost and schedule risk estimate. The survey committee received draft reports of the PPPs’ input on proposed programs at its fourth committee meeting in October 2009.

The SFPs and the PPPs conducted their work independent of each other, although coordinating calls among the panel chairs were held frequently. No members of the panels served on the survey committee, but the panel chairs did attend

2

The set of white papers submitted is available at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/BPA/BPA_050603.

3

For more information see http://sites.nationalacademies.org/BPA/BPA_049855.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

all but the final committee meeting, and liaisons from the committee attended panel meetings.

The six Infrastructure Study Groups that also provided input for the survey committee’s consideration consisted of 71 volunteer consultants drawn for the most part from the astronomy and astrophysics community. These groups gathered and analyzed data on issues in six areas—Computation, Simulation, and Data Handling (including archiving of astronomical data); Demographics (encompassing astronomers and astrophysicists working in different environments and subfields); Facilities, Funding, and Programs (including infrastructure issues such as support for laboratory astrophysics and technology development and theory); International and Private Partnerships; Education and Public Outreach; and Astronomy and Public Policy (benefits to the nation that accrue from federal investment in astronomy and from the potential contributions that professional astronomers can make to research of societal importance, and mechanisms by which the astronomy community provides advice to the federal government)—to describe recent trends and past quantifiable impacts on research programs in astronomy and astrophysics. The ISGs provided preliminary reports to the survey committee and the PPPs at the May 2009 so-called jamboree meeting, and their final reports were completed by the fall of 2009.

It then became the task of the survey committee to integrate the inputs from the SFPs and the PPPs, along with that from the ISGs, into a recommended program for all of astronomy and astrophysics for the decade 2010-2020.

The five SFPs, four PPPs, and six ISGs were critical components of the survey, not only for the content and critical analysis they supplied but also because of the connections they provided to the astronomy and astrophysics community. Moreover the panels completed a Herculean set of tasks in an extraordinarily short time. As presented in this volume, the results of their efforts were essential to the deliberations of the survey committee, the success of whose work depended critically on the sequential and orderly flow of information from the SFPs to the PPPs, and then to the committee as provided for in the survey plan and structure.

In addition, the survey as a whole benefited immensely from the broader participation of the astronomy and astrophysics community, which, over the course of the study and in particular in the first half of 2009, undertook a massive effort to provide input to the survey process. Included were informal reports from 17 community town hall meetings, more than 20 unsolicited e-mails, and 90-plus notices of interest for project activities, in addition to more than 450 white papers on topics including science opportunities, the state of the profession and infrastructure, and opportunities in technology development, theory, computation, and laboratory astrophysics. Critical to the success of the nine panels’ and six study groups’ work, these inputs were also an early product of the survey in that the white papers and various reports were made available on the NRC Web pages. On behalf of the survey

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committee and the panels, sincere thanks are extended to the volunteers from the research community who gave so much of their time to formulate this backbone of information and data as input for the Astro2010 survey process.

The survey committee also acknowledges with heartfelt thanks the critical input represented by the material provided in this volume. The reports of the SFPs and the PPPs stand as a testament to the hard work done by the panels, and especially their chairs. The full value of this tremendous effort will be recognized through the decade to come. The survey committee and the entire field of astronomy and astrophysics owe a great deal of thanks to all those who dedicated their time and effort to the Astro2010 survey activities.


Roger D. Blandford, Chair

Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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Acknowledgment of Members of the Astro2010 Infrastructure Study Groups

The Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics acknowledges with gratitude the contributions of the members of the Astro2010 Infrastructure Study Groups, who gathered information on issues related to the broad topics listed below.


Computation, Simulation, and Data Handling: Robert Hanisch, Space Telescope Science Institute, Co-Chair; Lars Hernquist, Harvard University, Co-Chair; Thomas Abel, Stanford University; Keith Arnaud, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Tim Axelrod, LSST; Alyssa Goodman, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Kathryn Johnston, Columbia University; Andrey Kravtsov, University of Chicago; Kristen Larson, Western Washington University; Carol Lonsdale, National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Mordecai-Mark Mac Low, American Museum of Natural History; Michael Norman, University of California, San Diego; Richard Pogge, Ohio State University; and James Stone, Princeton University.


Demographics: James Ulvestad, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Chair; Jack Gallimore, Bucknell University; Evalyn Gates, University of Chicago; Rachel Ivie, American Institute of Physics; Christine Jones, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Patricia Knezek, WIYN Consortium, Inc.; Travis Metcalfe, National Center for Atmospheric Research; Naveen Reddy, National Optical Astronomy Observatory; Joan Schmelz, University of Memphis; and Louis-Gregory Strolger, Western Kentucky University.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Facilities, Funding, and Programs: J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas at Austin, Chair; Rebecca A. Bernstein, University of California, Santa Cruz; David Burrows, Pennsylvania State University; Webster Cash, University of Colorado; R. Paul Drake, University of Michigan; Jeremy Goodman, Princeton University; W. Miller Goss, National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Kate Kirby, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Anthony Mezzacappa, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Robert Millis, Lowell Observatory; Catherine Pilachowski, Indiana University; Farid Salama, NASA Ames Research Center; and Ellen Zweibel, University of Wisconsin.


International and Private Partnerships: Robert L. Dickman, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Chair; Michael Bolte, University of California, Santa Cruz; George Helou, California Institute of Technology; James Hesser, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics; Wesley T. Huntress, Carnegie Institution of Washington; Richard Kelley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Rolf-Peter Kudritzki, University of Hawaii; Eugene H. Levy, Rice University; Antonella Nota, Space Telescope Science Institute; and Brad Peterson, Ohio State University.


Education and Public Outreach: Lucy Fortson, Adler Planetarium, Co-Chair; Chris Impey, University of Arizona, Co-Chair; Carol Christian, Space Telescope Science Institute; Lynn Cominsky, Sonoma State University; Mary Dussault, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Richard Tresch Feinberg, Phillips Academy; Andrew Fraknoi, Foothill College; Pamela Gay, Southern Illinois University; Jeffrey Kirsch, Reuben H. Fleet Science Center; Robert Mathieu, University of Wisconsin; George Nelson, Western Washington University; Edward Prather, University of Arizona; Philip Sadler, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Keivan Stassun, Vanderbilt University; and Sidney Woolf, LSST.


Astronomy and Public Policy: Daniel F. Lester, University of Texas at Austin, Chair; Jack Burns, University of Colorado; Bruce Carney, University of North Carolina; Heidi Hammel, Space Science Institute; Noel W. Hinners, Lockheed (retired); John Leibacher, National Solar Observatory; J. Patrick Looney, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Melissa McGrath, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; and Annelia Sargent, California Institute of Technology.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

These panel reports have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published reports as sound as possible and to ensure that the reports meet institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscripts remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of these reports:


Science Frontiers Panel Reports

Jonathan Bagger, Johns Hopkins University

Sarbani Basu, Yale University

Timothy Beers, Michigan State University

John H. Black, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Joseph Burns, Cornell University

Len Cowie, University of Hawaii

Marc Davis, University of California, Berkeley

Henry Ferguson, Space Telescope Science Institute

Marla Geha, Yale University

Andrew Gould, Ohio State University

Craig Hogan, University of Chicago

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Michael Jura, University of California, Los Angeles

Vicky Kalogera, Northwestern University

Gillian Knapp, Princeton University

Richard McCray, University of Colorado, Boulder

Christopher McKee, University of California, Berkeley

Ramesh Narayan, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Roman Rafikov, Princeton University

Michael Strauss, Princeton University

Ann Wehrle, Space Science Institute

Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (professor emeritus)

Bruce Winstein, University of Chicago

Mark Wyatt, University of Cambridge

Program Prioritization Panel Reports

Jonathan Bagger, Johns Hopkins University

James Barrowman, NASA (retired)

John H. Black, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Darrel Emerson, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Reinhard Genzel, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

Ronald L. Gilliland, Space Telescope Science Institute

James E. Gunn, Princeton University Observatory

Craig Hogan, University of Chicago

Vicky Kalogera, Northwestern University

Richard McCray, University of Colorado, Boulder

Christopher McKee, University of California, Berkeley

Ramesh Narayan, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Anthony Readhead, California Institute of Technology

Anneila Sargent, California Institute of Technology

Michael Strauss, Princeton University

Edward L. Wright, University of California, Los Angeles

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the reports’ conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the reports before their release. The review of the Science Frontiers Panel reports was overseen by Kenneth H. Keller, Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The review of the Program Prioritization Panel reports was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an indepen-

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dent examination of the reports was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the reports rests entirely with the authoring panels and the institution.

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Next: Part I: Reports of the Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panels »
Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics Get This Book
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Every 10 years the National Research Council releases a survey of astronomy and astrophysics outlining priorities for the coming decade. The most recent survey, titled New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, provides overall priorities and recommendations for the field as a whole based on a broad and comprehensive examination of scientific opportunities, infrastructure, and organization in a national and international context.

Panel Reports--New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics is a collection of reports, each of which addresses a key sub-area of the field, prepared by specialists in that subarea, and each of which played an important role in setting overall priorities for the field. The collection, published in a single volume, includes the reports of the following panels:

  • Cosmology and Fundamental Physics
  • Galaxies Across Cosmic Time
  • The Galactic Neighborhood
  • Stars and Stellar Evolution
  • Planetary Systems and Star Formation
  • Electromagnetic Observations from Space
  • Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground
  • Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation
  • Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground

The Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics synthesized these reports in the preparation of its prioritized recommendations for the field as a whole. These reports provide additional depth and detail in each of their respective areas. Taken together, they form an essential companion volume to New Worlds, New Horizons: A Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The book of panel reports will be useful to managers of programs of research in the field of astronomy and astrophysics, the Congressional committees with jurisdiction over the agencies supporting this research, the scientific community, and the public.

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