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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
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INDEX

A

Achieve, Inc., 8, 18, 19, 331, 335, 344

Advanced Placement (AP) or honors courses, 10, 13, 16, 299, 334, 335

Alpha particles, 112

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 16, 17, 18, 23, 83, 98, 141, 301, 303, 331

American Association of Physics Teachers, 342, 344

American Astronomical Society Astronomy Education Board, 344

American Chemical Society, 342, 344

American Geological Institute, 344

American Geophysical Union, 344

American Indians, 281, 289-290

American Institute of Physics, 342, 344

American Physical Society, 342, 344

American Society of Plant Biologists, 344

America’s Lab Report, 23, 242

Anaerobic life, 148, 154, 222, 223

Anthropology, 13, 14, 287

Argumentation and analysis, 3, 16, 42

allowing time for, 11

asking questions and, 55, 56, 74

assessment of ability in, 262

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 89

communicating information and, 74-75, 77, 278

and constructing explanations, 68, 73, 251

culturally based storytelling and, 29, 285-286, 287

in engineering, 48, 52, 72

goals, 48, 55, 72-73, 278

and learning, 250, 251, 255

learning progressions, 34, 56, 73-74, 89, 220, 222, 223, 228, 229, 238, 239

norms, 252

pattern recognition and, 71

peer review, 78

purpose and importance, 27, 44, 46, 49, 52, 71-72, 79, 89, 248, 300

in science, 27, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 71, 78, 89

Asking questions and defining problems

and arguing from evidence, 55, 56, 74

about cause-and-effect mechanisms, 50, 89

and communicating information, 54, 75, 76

goals, 55

grade band endpoints, 205

pattern recognition and, 55, 84, 85, 86, 236

science vs. engineering, 50, 54-55, 205

Assessment, 260-265

and accountability, 323-324

in argumentation and analysis, 262

in communicating information, 262

computer-based, 262-263

contexts for, 262-264

defined, 260

designing, 263-264

equity and diversity issues, 289-290

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

formative, 261

framework impact on, 323-324

implementation challenges, 260-265

individual student’s understanding, 315

paper-and-pencil format, 262

for program evaluation, 261

purposes, 261-262

research and development agenda, 314-315, 317-319, 323-324

standards and accountability and, 323-324

student engagement, 314

summative, 261

Association for Computing Machinery, 344

Association for Science Teacher Education, 344

Atlas of Science Literacy, 13, 303

Atoms and atomic theory of matter, 34, 57, 64, 79, 86, 87-88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 97-98, 100, 101, 103, 106-107, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 134, 135-136, 140, 143, 153-154, 173, 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303

B

Behavioral and social sciences, 13-14, 334, 335-336

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 89, 103, 141, 301

Beta particles, 112

Big Bang, 67, 112, 173, 174

Binding energy in molecules, 109, 110, 111, 112, 239-240

Biodiversity, 139, 141, 155, 161, 165, 166-167, 195, 196

Biogeology, 189-190

Biological evolution

adaptation, 141, 164-166

biodiversity and humans, 139, 161, 166-167

biogeology and, 189-190

common ancestry and diversity, 162-163

grade band endpoints, 162-163, 164, 165-167

natural selection, 141, 143, 161, 162, 163-164, 165, 166

reproductive isolation, 165

scale of, 100

scientific evidence of, 161, 162-163

speciation, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167

Biological systems, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148

Biotechnology Institute, 344

C

Carbon cycle, 110, 153, 154, 180, 189-190, 198, 223

Carbon dioxide, 57, 64, 92, 95, 100, 110, 129, 130, 147, 148, 186, 187, 188, 223

Carnegie Corporation, 19

Carrying capacities, 151, 152, 154

Cause-and-effect mechanisms (see also Forces and motion)

argumentation from evidence, 89

asking questions about, 50, 89

constructing explanations, 67, 69-70, 86

definition of concept, 84-85

in earth science, 167, 169-170, 179-180, 181, 184, 185, 187, 190, 192

in ecosystems, 86, 89, 93, 167

energy-related, 125-126, 237

and engineering design, 88, 98-99, 169-170

feedback loops, 98-99, 169-170, 181, 190

goals of instruction, 69, 88

human impacts on Earth, 167, 187, 192

learning progression, 88-89, 223

in life sciences, 140, 145, 157-158, 160, 161, 167

modeling, 79, 86, 88, 93, 221, 229

pattern recognition, 86, 88-89

physical laws and, 87-88

in physical sciences, 100, 103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 115-116, 125-126, 127, 132, 223, 229, 237

scale, proportion, or quantity and, 88, 111, 113

in space science, 175, 176

stability and change, 98, 100

in systems, 87, 88, 89, 93, 103, 169-170, 180, 181, 182-183, 188, 192, 195, 223, 229

Cells, biological, 89, 94, 130, 134, 136, 140, 143-147, 148, 149, 158, 159, 221, 223, 303

Charge to committee, 1, 15, 16

Chemical energy, 111, 122, 123, 148, 223

Chemical reactions, 110

Chemosynthesis, 147

Chromosomes, 144, 146-147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161

Classification skills, 43, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, 108, 167, 220, 222, 224, 231

Climate (see Weather and climate)

Climate Literacy Network, 344

College Board, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 96, 141, 218, 230, 303

Common Core State Standards, 19, 75, 297, 306, 339

Communicating information, 42, 49, 278

arguments from evidence, 74-75, 77, 278

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

asking questions and, 54, 75, 76

assessment of skills in, 262

data analysis and interpretation and, 63

in engineering, 53, 54, 57, 75, 77, 206, 207, 208

goals, 75-76

graphical and pictorial representations, 51, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 74, 76, 77, 93, 206

importance of skills in, 43, 208, 250

learning progressions, 76-77

mathematics and, 64, 74, 206

with models and computer simulations, 34, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 77, 90, 92, 198, 206, 207, 208, 210, 252

oral, 75, 76, 77, 93

and pattern recognition, 65, 66, 86, 133, 183

in science, 53, 54, 57, 74-75, 77

statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, 66

tables, 61, 62, 63, 76, 77

teacher proficiency, 256-259

technology and, 75

venues for, 75

written, 74-75, 76, 77

Communication systems and devices, 136, 137, 202, 210, 214, 263, 342

Computer-Based Assessment of Science (CBAS), 263

Computer science, 10, 14-15, 299, 334, 336

Computer Science Teachers Association, 344

Computer simulations, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 66, 92, 198, 210

Concepts of evidence (see Procedural knowledge)

Conservation of matter and energy, 84, 86, 94-96, 106, 108, 109, 110-111, 112, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128, 148, 153, 154, 175, 222, 223, 226, 228, 230, 233-234, 236, 238

Constructing explanations

and argument from evidence, 68, 73, 251

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 67, 69-70, 86

data analysis and interpretation, 68

goals, 69

hypothesis formulation and testing, 43, 44, 45, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 76, 78, 79, 84, 87, 139

learning progressions, 69-70

modeling theories, 67, 68, 70, 79

Content knowledge, practices integrated with, 11, 78

Context for improving science education, 1, 7

Convection, 123, 124, 126, 179, 181, 182, 237

Core ideas (see Disciplinary core ideas)

Council of Chief State School Officers, 19

Council of Elementary Science International, 344

Council of State Science Supervisors, 18, 331, 344

Course structure, 12

Crosscutting concepts, 3 (see also Cause-and-effect mechanisms; Energy; Matter and energy; Patterns and pattern recognition; Scale, proportion, or quantity; Stability and change; Structure and function; Systems and system models)

importance, 83

interconnections with core disciplinary ideas, 30, 101

public feedback on, 341

research base, 30, 84

Cultural issues, 28 (see also Equity in education)

ecosystem knowledge, 307

storytelling and arguments from evidence, 29, 285-286, 287

Curriculum and instructional materials

framework impact on, 2, 321

implementation of framework, 246-249

important aspects, 247-249

integrating dimensions into, 2, 219, 230-240, 247, 338-339

research and development agenda, 316-317

standards and, 2, 321

D

Data analysis and interpretation

communicating findings, 63

constructing explanations, 68

engineering design, 51, 53, 62

goals, 62-63

learning progressions, 63

mathematical representation, 65-66, 91

organizing data, 61, 62

pattern recognition and, 51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 94, 131, 197

science, 61

tools, 62

Databases and data sets, 62, 66

Designing solutions, 49 (see also Engineering design)

Development of framework (see also Public feedback on report; Vision for K-12 science and engineering education)

approach, 15-18

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

Atlas of Science Literacy and, 13, 303

Benchmarks for Science Literacy and, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 89, 103, 141, 301

charge to committee, 15, 16

design teams, 17

NRC reports and, 23

NSES and, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 91-92, 103, 141, 242, 301, 332, 340

rationale for, 1, 8-10

research base, 2

Science College Board Standards for College Success and, 13, 17, 23, 30, 141, 218, 230, 303

Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP and, 13, 16, 17, 23, 303

Disciplinary core ideas (see also Earth and space sciences; Engineering and technology; Life sciences; Physical sciences

criteria for, 31

crosscutting concepts, 31

development, 17, 31

domains, 31

grade band endpoints, 33-34

information resources, 348-354

learning progressions, 26, 33-34

public feedback on, 341-343

rationale for delimiting, 11, 25, 30-31, 32-33

structure, 31-32

and understanding of science, 25

Disease transmission, prevention, and treatment, 9, 43, 47, 67, 87, 151, 152, 202

DNA, 85, 87, 144, 145, 148, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 223

Dynamic equilibrium, 98, 99-100

E

Earth and human activity

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 167, 187, 192

global climate change, 187, 196-198

grade band endpoints, 192, 193-194, 195-196, 198

human impacts on earth systems, 156-157, 167, 194-196

natural hazards, 170, 172, 191, 192-194

natural resource use, 161, 170, 191-192, 195, 196, 197, 212, 213

patterns in, 191-192, 193, 195

Earth and space sciences (see also Earth and human activity; Earth systems; Space sciences)

chemical reactions, 110

Earth-centric approach, 170

information resources, 170, 172, 352-353

and life sciences, 169

patterns in, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 182-183, 186, 187, 188, 191-192, 193, 195, 197 188, 189,

and physical sciences, 169

public feedback on, 342-343

relevance to human society, 172-173

scale in, 100, 169, 170, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 186, 190, 238

Earth systems (see also Weather and climate)

atmosphere, 54, 57, 64, 95, 100, 103, 110, 148, 153, 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 191, 192, 194, 197-198, 223

biogeology, 189-190

biosphere, 139, 150, 153, 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, 191, 190, 191, 192, 194, 196, 197-198

carbon cycle, 110, 153, 154, 180, 189-190, 198, 223

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 179-180, 181, 185, 187, 190

geosphere, 139, 153, 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, 189

grade band endpoints, 180-182, 183, 184-186, 188-189, 190

hydrosphere, 169, 179, 181, 189, 190

interconnections and feedbacks, 169-170, 181

materials and systems, 179-182

matter and energy flows, 169, 179-180, 182

patterns in, 182-183, 185

plate tectonics and large-scale interactions, 97, 177, 178-179, 180, 181, 182-183

scale of interactions, 181

stability and change in, 180

water and surface processes, 179, 180, 181, 184-186

Earthquakes, 132, 172, 178, 182-183, 192, 193, 194

Economic sciences, 10, 13-14, 62, 128, 130, 191, 192, 193, 197, 202, 205, 212, 213, 299, 306

Ecosystems

carrying capacities, 151, 152, 154

cause-and effect mechanisms, 86, 89, 93, 167

cultural knowledge of, 307

data representation, 86

defined, 150

dynamics, functioning, and resilience, 100, 140, 141, 154-156

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

grade band endpoints, 151-152, 153-154, 155-157

human (anthropogenic) impacts on, 141, 155, 156-157, 166, 167, 184, 195

interdependent relationships in, 86, 140, 143, 150-152

introduced species, 152, 155, 167

matter and energy flows, 140, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, 189, 223

modeling/models, 93, 101, 153-154

patterns in, 86, 101, 152, 155

services, 166, 167

social interactions and group behavior, 140, 156-157

stability, 100, 152

structure and function, 150

Einstein, Albert, 64

Einstein Fellows, 344

Electric power generation, 128, 130

Electrical energy, 123, 125, 128

Electromagnetic force, 88, 109, 111, 113, 116, 117-118, 121, 123, 126, 127, 239

Electromagnetic radiation, 64, 112, 121, 122, 130, 133-136, 149, 188

Energy (see also Forces and motion)

binding energy in molecules, 109, 110, 111, 112, 239-240

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 125-126, 237

chemical energy, 111, 122, 123, 148, 223

in chemical processes and everyday life, 128-130

conservation of, 110, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128, 148, 153, 154, 175, 223, 238

crosscutting concepts, 84

definitions of, 120-124

electric and magnetic fields, 64, 109, 121, 122, 133, 135, 239

electrical energy, 123, 125, 128

and forces, 126-127

grade band endpoints, 122-124, 125-126, 127, 129-130

kinetic (motion) energy, 110, 111, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126

mechanical energy, 122-123

modeling and mathematical expressions, 123-124, 126

patterns, 121

photosynthesis, 104, 128, 129, 130, 146, 147, 148, 153, 154, 158, 180, 187, 189, 223

“producing” or “using” in everyday life, 128-130

scale of manifestations and, 121, 122, 123-124, 127, 238

in systems, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128

terminology, 96, 122

thermal energy, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 136, 180, 181 (see also Heat)

transfer between objects or systems, 93, 110, 120, 121-122, 124-126

stored (potential) energy, 96, 121-122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 221

Energy efficiency, 128-129, 130

Engineering and technology

defined, in K-12 context, 11-12, 202

distinguishing science from, 50-53, 62

goals, 55, 68-69

public feedback on, 336-338, 343

rationale for inclusion, 2

standards, 204

Engineering in K-12 Education, 23

Engineering design

argumentation and analysis, 48, 52, 72

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 87, 88, 98-99, 169-170

communicating information, 53, 54, 57, 75, 77, 206, 207, 208

creative process, 46-47, 49, 52, 68-69, 70-71, 206-208

data analysis and interpretation, 51, 53, 62, 207

defining and delimiting problems, 50, 54-56, 204-206

grade band endpoints, 205-206, 207-208, 209-210

investigations, 50, 59-61

learning progressions, 56, 70-71, 93

mathematics and computational thinking, 51, 65

matter and energy flows and, 95

models and simulations, 45-46, 50, 51, 57-58, 62, 65, 77, 93, 94, 206-207, 208, 210, 212

optimizing solutions, 208-210

and pattern recognition, 51, 70, 86

practices, 45-47, 49, 52, 58, 65, 68-69, 70-71

scale in, 89, 90-91, 206

systems and system models, 12, 30, 46, 50, 57, 86, 88, 94, 98-99, 128-129, 130, 133, 202, 204, 205, 206, 208, 214

Engineering-technology-science links, 32, 203

grade band endpoints, 211-212, 213-214

influences on society and natural world, 212-214

interdependence, 210-212

Epistemic knowledge and practices, 78, 79, 250

Equity in education, 28-29 (see also Cultural issues)

in assessments, 289-290

capacity to learn, 279-280

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

cultural context for learning, 283-284

culturally valued knowledge and practices, 287

definition of equity, 278

discourse practices of youth and, 285-286

equalizing opportunities, 280-282

inclusive instruction, 283-287

prior interest and identity and, 286-287

public feedback on, 340

in standards representing diversity, 288

sources of inequity, 279

Estimation, 91, 206

Evaporation and condensation, 98, 104, 108, 184, 185, 233, 234, 235, 236

Evolution (see Biological evolution)

Extinction of species, 154, 155, 161, 162, 165, 166, 167, 177, 178, 189, 190, 191, 194, 196

F

Feedback mechanisms in systems, 98-99, 101, 119, 120, 145, 169-170, 181, 190

Food webs, 147, 151-152, 153, 154

Forces and motion

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 113, 114, 115-116, 127

Coulomb’s law, 117, 118

electromagnetism, 88, 109, 111, 113, 116, 117-118, 121, 123, 126, 127, 239

energy transfers, 116, 120, 127

friction, 115, 116, 117, 122, 125, 128-129, 130

grade band endpoints, 115-116, 127

gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185

measurement, 114, 115

models, 93, 116, 117, 118, 127

momentum, 115, 116

Newton’s laws, 114, 115, 116, 118, 175

patterns in, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 173, 174, 175, 178, 181, 185

scale and, 114, 116-117, 118, 175

strong nuclear force, 88, 111, 113, 116, 117, 118, 240

and structure and function, 117

in systems and system models, 88, 94, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 127, 176

weak nuclear force, 88, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 118

Fossil fuels, 50, 110, 128, 180, 183, 189, 190, 191, 197, 198

Fossils and fossil record, 161, 162-163, 169, 177, 178, 183

Friction, 115, 116, 117, 122, 125, 128-129, 130

G

Gamma radiation, 112, 134, 136

Genes, 88, 139, 140, 143, 145, 144, 147, 157, 158-159, 160, 161, 164, 166

Geography, 14, 186, 188

Global climate change, 155, 171, 187, 196-198

Grade band endpoints, 17 (see specific crosscutting issues and disciplines)

Graphical and pictorial representations, 51, 58, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 74, 76, 77, 91, 93, 206

Gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185

H

Hands-On Science Partnership, 344

Heat, 123, 125

Heat transfer, 128

conduction, 119, 123, 124, 126, 206, 235, 237

convection, 123, 124, 126, 179, 181, 182, 237

models, 124

radiation, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 174, 180, 186, 188

Helium, 55, 112, 113, 173

Heredity

artificial selection, 164

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 145, 157-158, 160, 161

chromosomes, 144, 146-147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161

DNA, 85, 87, 144, 145, 148, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 223

genes, 88, 139, 140, 143, 144, 145, 147, 157, 158-159, 160, 161, 164, 166

grade band endpoints, 158-159, 160-161

inheritance of traits, 158-159

mutations, 140, 143, 157-158, 159, 160, 161, 165

variation of traits, 160-161

Human (anthropogenic) impacts, 141, 155, 156-157, 166, 167, 184, 195

Hydrogen, 110, 111, 112, 113, 128, 148, 173, 223

Hypothesis formulation and testing (science), 43, 44, 45, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 76, 78, 79, 84, 87, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

I

deal gas law, 57

Implementation of framework

assessing individual student’s understanding, 315

assessing student engagement, 314

assessment, 260-265

coherence in the system and, 2, 244-245

complexity of science education system and, 243-245

core questions about, 312-315

curriculum and instructional materials, 246-249

key components of science education, 242-245

learning and instruction, 250-255

norms and practices, 314

organizational barriers, 324

preconceptions of students and, 313

progression of student understanding, 313

public feedback on, 340

research and development agenda, 312-320

teacher development, 255-260

Information acquisition and evaluation (see Reading science texts)

Instruction (see also Curriculum and instructional materials)

building on prior interest and knowledge, 25, 26, 28, 59, 60-61, 83-84, 286-287, 302, 338

inclusive, 283-287

strands of proficiency and, 253-255

on systems and system models, 94

Integrating dimensions

in curriculum and instruction, 2, 219, 230-240, 247, 338-339

grades K-2 endpoint and progression, 231-233

grades 3-5 endpoint and progression, 233-236

grades 6-8 endpoint and progression, 236-238

grades 9-12 endpoint and progression, 239-240

life sciences example, 220-223

performance expectations, 218-230

physical sciences example, 224-229, 230-240

public feedback on, 338-339

in standards development, 2, 218

International Technology and Engineering Education Association, 344

Investigations

controls, 59, 61

correlations, 61

engineering design projects, 50, 59-61

goals, 59-60

hypothesis or model testing, 59, 61

kinds of, 61

learning progressions, 60-61

measurements and instrumentation, 59-60, 61

planning and implementation, 59-61

K

Kinetic (motion) energy, 110, 111, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126

L

Language (see Terminology and language of science)

Learning

argumentation and, 250, 251, 255

instruction approaches and, 250-255

strands of proficiency, 251-255

Learning progressions

argumentation and analysis, 34, 56, 73-74, 89, 220, 222, 223, 228, 229, 238, 239

asking questions and defining problems, 56

boundary statements, 34

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 88-89, 223

constructing explanations, 69-70

data analysis and interpretation, 63

designing solutions, 70-71

for disciplinary core ideas, 33-34

engineering design, 56, 70-71, 93

evaluation and communication of information, 76-77

framework vision, 10-11

grade band endpoints, 33-34

investigation planning and implementation, 60-61

mathematics and computational thinking, 66-67

model development and use, 58-59

pattern recognition, 60, 66, 70, 86-87, 88, 101, 233

for practices, 34, 56, 58-59

prior conceptions and, 25, 26

public feedback on, 343-344

research and development agenda, 315-316

scale, proportion, or quantity, 36, 90-91, 233, 238, 239

systems and system models, 93-94, 230, 233, 235

and understanding of science, 26

Learning Science in Informal Environments, 23, 252, 298

Life sciences

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 140, 145, 157-158, 160, 161, 167

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

chemical reactions, 110, 111, 148

core ideas, 140-141 (see also Biological evolution; Ecosystems; Heredity; Organisms, living)

information resources for framework, 141, 349-351

patterns in, 139, 152, 155

public feedback on, 342

scale, proportion, or quantity in, 100, 139, 140, 143, 144

Light, 70, 89-90, 104, 106, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 136, 137, 147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 174, 189, 222, 223 (see also Electromagnetic radiation; Photons; Waves)

Literacy, science (see Communicating information; Reading science texts; Terminology and language of science)

M

Magnets and magnetic fields, 116, 117-118, 121, 123, 127, 181, 182 (see also Electromagnetic radiation)

Mass, 64, 90, 96, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115, 116, 118, 121, 123, 126, 174, 180, 227, 233, 234, 236

Massachusetts Department of Education, 344

Mathematical representations, 56, 57, 65-66, 86, 91

Mathematics and computational thinking, 49

applications, 64-65

communicating information through, 64, 74, 206

data analysis and evaluation, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66

engineering, 51, 65

goals, 65-66

learning progression, 66-67

modeling, 51, 65, 66-67, 90, 94, 114, 116, 118

and pattern recognition, 51, 64, 65, 66, 86, 94

scale and, 91

scientific investigation, 51, 64-65

statistics and statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, 66, 91

systems and system models, 51, 57, 64-65, 67, 94, 126

tools, 64-65

Mathematization, 16

Matter and energy (see also Energy)

atoms and atomic theory, 34, 57, 64, 79, 86, 87-88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 97-98, 100, 101, 103, 106-107, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 134, 135-136, 140, 143, 153-154, 173, 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303

chemical reactions, 106, 109-111, 148

collision theory, 110

conservation of, 84, 86, 94-96, 106, 108, 109, 110-111, 112, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128, 148, 153, 154, 175, 222, 223, 226, 228, 230, 233-234, 236, 238

crosscutting concepts, 84, 93, 94-96

cyclic, 96, 110

ecosystem transfers of, 140, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, 189, 223

electrical attractions and repulsions, 107

engineering design and, 95

grade band endpoints, 108-109, 110-111, 113, 147-148, 230-240

incorrect beliefs and misconceptions, 96

learning progression, 95-96, 230-240

models, 58, 95, 97-98, 106, 108, 109, 110, 153

molecules, 58, 86, 92, 94, 96-98, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 148, 153, 154, 158, 161, 223, 225, 227, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303

nuclear processes, 88, 96, 106, 111-113, 116, 117, 118, 128, 130, 134, 136, 173, 240

pattern recognition, 86-87, 106, 109, 223, 227, 228, 230

performance expectations example, 224-229

periodic table of elements, 106, 109, 227, 239

stability and change, 109

state changes, 70, 107, 108, 109, 110, 226, 227, 231, 232, 235-236, 237, 238

structure and properties, 106-109, 224-240

in systems and system models, 84, 92, 93, 94-95, 96, 106, 110, 119, 120-122, 123, 124-126, 128-129, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, 169, 179, 223, 239

terminology, 96

water cycle, 95

Maxwell’s equations, 64

Measurement and units, 90-91, 205, 231

Measurement error, 63

Mechanical energy, 122-123

Milky Way galaxy, 174

Minnesota Department of Education, 344

Mitosis, 145, 146

Model-It, 59

Modeling/models (see also Systems and system models) assumptions and approximations in, 93, 94

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 79, 86, 88, 93, 221, 229

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

communicating information, 34, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 77, 90, 92, 94, 198, 206, 207, 208, 210, 252

computer simulations, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 66, 92, 198, 210

conceptual, 56-57

constructing explanations, 67, 68, 70, 79

ecosystems, 93, 101, 153-154

energy, 123-124, 126

engineering applications, 45-46, 50, 51, 57-58, 62, 65, 77, 93, 94, 206-207

evaluation and refinement, 57, 59, 62

forces and motion, 93, 116, 117, 118, 127

goals, 58

heat transfer, 124

learning progressions, 58-59, 93-94

limitations, 56, 58

mathematics and, 51, 65, 66-67, 90, 94, 114, 118

matter and energy flows, 58, 95, 97-98, 106, 108, 109, 110, 153

mental, 56, 100

organisms, 93

purposes of, 94

reflecting on applications of, 78

reliability and precision, 93

scale and, 90, 100, 101, 122, 123-124, 127, 206

science applications, 57, 67

space science, 176

specifications, 93

theories, 67, 68, 70, 79

tools, 59

Molecules, 58, 86, 92, 94, 96-98, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 117, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 118, 119, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 148, 153, 154, 158, 161, 120, 121, 223, 225, 227, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303

Momentum, 115, 116

Motion and stability (see also Forces and motion) grade band endpoints, 115-116, 117-118, 119-120

interaction types, 116-118

stability/instability in physical systems, 118-120

Mutations, 140, 143, 157-158, 159, 160, 161, 165

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Science Education and Public Outreach, 344

Science Mission Directorate Education Community, 345

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 141, 262, 263 (see also Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress)

Technological Literacy Assessment, 263

National Association of Biology Teachers, 345

National Association of Geoscience Teachers, 345

National Association of Research in Science Teaching, 345

National Council for the Social Studies, 13-14

National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, 13

National Earth Science Teachers Association, 345

National Governors Association, 19

National Middle Level Science Teachers Association, 345

National Research Council (NRC), 14, 23, 96, 242, 298, 312

National Science Education Leaders Association, 345

National Science Education Standards, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 91-92, 103, 141, 242, 301, 332, 340

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 18, 23, 30, 331, 345

Natural hazards, 170, 172, 191, 192-194

Natural resources, 161, 170, 171, 191-192, 195, 196, 197, 212, 213

consumption, 195, 196

Natural selection, 141, 143, 161, 162, 163-164, 165, 166

NetLogo, 59

Neurobiology, 13, 143

New Hampshire Department of Education, 345

Newton’s laws, 114, 115, 116, 118, 175

Nitrogen cycle, 180

North American Association for Environmental Education, 345

Nuclear processes, 87-88, 96, 106, 111-113, 116, 117, 118, 128, 130, 134, 136, 173, 240

fission, 111, 112, 113, 128

fusion, 111, 112, 113, 130, 173

radioactive decay, 87-88, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 125, 178, 182, 183, 186

O

Ocean science, 334, 336

Orders of magnitude, 90

Organisms, living

grade band endpoints, 144-145, 146-148, 149-150

growth and development, 140, 145-147

information processing, 149-150

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

matter and energy flows in, 130, 147-148, 220-223

models and representations, 93

performance expectations example, 220-223

structure and function, 96, 139, 140, 143-145, 147

system pespective, 92, 99, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148

P

Parsimony, 48

Patterns and pattern recognition, 3

analyzing and interpreting data, 51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 94, 131, 197

argumentation from evidence of, 71

and asking questions, 55, 84, 85, 86, 236

and cause-and-effect relationships, 86, 88-89

in classification, 85, 86-87, 222

cyclical, 98, 119, 176

definition of concept, 84

in earth and space sciences, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 182-183, 186, 187, 188, 191-192, 193, 195, 197

energy, 121

in engineering design, 51, 70, 86

in forces and motion, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 173, 174, 175, 178, 181, 185

of interactions, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 152

learning progressions, 60, 66, 70, 86-87, 88, 101, 233

in life sciences, 139, 152, 155

mathematics and computational thinking and, 51, 64, 65, 66, 86, 94

matter structure and properties, 106, 109, 223, 227, 228, 230

natural resource use, 191-192

in physical sciences, 106, 109, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 131, 132-133, 223, 227, 228, 230, 239

representation of data and, 65, 66, 86, 133, 183

scale and, 86-87

in science, 47-48, 51, 78, 84-85, 86

and stability/instability, 98, 99, 101, 118, 120

systems and system models, 182-183, 188, 195, 229

Peer review, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78

Periodic table, 106, 109, 227, 239

Photoelectric effect, 122

Photons, 112, 122, 135

Photosynthesis, 104, 128, 129, 130, 146, 147, 148, 153, 154, 180, 187, 189, 223

Photovoltaic materials, 133, 136

Physical scale models and prototypes, 34, 46, 58, 63, 77, 90, 206, 207, 208, 252

Physical sciences (see also Energy; Forces and motion; Matter and energy; Motion and stability; Waves)

cause-and-effect mechanisms in, 100, 103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 115-116, 125-126, 127, 132, 223, 229, 237

core ideas, 103-105

information resources for framework, 103, 349

mathematics and computational thinking, 64

patterns in, 106, 109, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 131, 132-133, 223, 227, 228, 230, 239

public feedback on, 342

scale, proportion, or quantity in, 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 238

systems and system models, 103, 107, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118-120

Plate tectonics, 97, 177, 178-179, 180, 181, 182-183

Political science, 13, 14

Practices of science and engineering (see also Modeling/models)

argumentation and analysis, 27, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 71-74

asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering), 49, 50, 54-56

for classrooms, 49-77

collaboration, 27, 53

communicating findings, 53, 56, 57, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 74-77

constructing scientific explanations, 49, 51, 67-68, 69-70

content integrated with, 11, 25, 26-28, 43, 78-79

crosscutting concepts and, 42

data organization, analysis, and interpretation, 49, 51, 61-63, 65, 66, 68

defined, 30

design development (engineering), 45-47, 49, 52, 58, 65, 68-69, 70-71

distinguishing science from engineering, 50-53, 62

evaluation-based approach, 46, 53, 74-77

goals, 55, 58, 60, 62-63, 65-66, 69, 72-73, 75-76

inquiry-based approach, 30, 41, 44-45, 63

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

investigation planning and implementation, 45, 49, 50, 55, 59-61

learning progressions, 26, 34, 56, 58-59, 60-61, 63, 66-67, 69-71, 73-74, 76-77

mathematics and computational thinking, 49, 51, 61, 62, 63, 64-67

public feedback on, 340-341

rationale for, 41, 42-46

references consulted for, 347-348

reflecting on, 78-79

research and development agenda, 316

“scientific method” myth, 44, 78

spheres of activity, 44-46

standards and, 10

understanding how scientists work, 43-44

Pressure

and rock formation, 180

temperature and, 96-97, 107, 109, 112, 113, 180, 227, 237

waves, 131

Principles of the framework

building on prior interests and experience, 28

capacity of children to learn, 24-25

core ideas and practices, 25-26

equity in education, 28-29

knowledge and practice, 26-28

learning progressions, 26

Prior conceptions, 25

Prisms, 135

Procedural knowledge, 78-79

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 141, 262-263

Proportionality, 90, 91, 110, 121, 123, 166

Psychology, 10, 13-14, 143, 212, 301, 334, 335, 336, 342

Public feedback on report, 18

audience, 333

connections to math and literacy, 339-340

content suggestions, 334-336

crosscutting concepts, 341

disciplinary core ideas, 341-343

diversity and equity issues, 340

earth and space sciences, 342-343

engineering and technology, 336-338, 343

implementation, 340

integration of three dimensions, 338-339

learning progressions, 343-344

life sciences, 342

organizations involved in, 344-345

overarching issues, 332-340

physical sciences, 342

purpose of document, 333

quality of writing, 333

quantity of material, 338

scientific and engineering practices, 340-341

Q

Quantities and quantitative relationships, 51, 65, 88, 89, 90, 91, 98, 106, 107, 115, 124, 126

Quantum physics, 64, 116, 122, 133, 135, 137

R

Radioactive decay, 87-88, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 125, 178, 182, 183, 186

Radiometric dating, 112, 113

Reading science texts, 53, 74, 75, 76-77, 258-259

Reasoning ability of young children, 24-25

Relativity, 64, 116

Reproduction, 140, 144, 145-146, 147, 151, 152, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163-164, 165-166

Research and development agenda

accountability, 323-324

assessment, 314-315, 317-319, 323-324

core questions behind, 312-315

curricular and instructional materials, 316-317, 321

educational experiences, 313-314

implementation of framework, 212-220

key areas, 315-320

learning progressions, 315-316

norms and practices, 314

organizational issues, 324

practices, scientific and engineering, 316

preconceptions of student, 313

progression of student understanding, 313

standards influence, 320-324

teacher and administrator development, 319-320, 322-323

Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 345

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

S

Scale, proportion, or quantity

and cause-and-effect mechanisms, 88, 111, 113

definition of concept, 84, 85

in earth and space sciences, 169, 170, 173, 175, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 186, 188, 238

in engineering, 89, 90-91, 206

and force and motion, 114, 116-117, 118, 175

learning progression, 36, 90-91, 233, 238, 239

in life sciences, 100, 139, 140, 143, 144

and mathematics and computational thinking, 91

measurement and units, 90-91, 205, 231

and modeling, 90, 100, 101, 122, 123-124, 127, 206

orders of magnitude, 90

and pattern recognition, 85, 86-87, 186

in physical sciences, 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 238

proportionality, 90, 91, 110, 121, 123, 166

quantities and quantitative relationships, 51, 65, 88, 89, 90, 91, 98, 106, 107, 115, 124, 126

in scientific studies, 89

spatial, 170, 179, 180

and stability changes, 99, 100, 101, 114, 119

and structure and properties, 86, 96-97, 103, 107, 109, 110, 117, 143, 238, 239

in systems and system models, 92, 182-183, 186, 188, 230, 303

temporal, 89-90, 99, 100, 112, 139, 169, 178, 180, 182, 186, 188

Science (see also specific disciplines and practices)

defined, in K-12 context, 11

goals, 55, 69

nature of, 334, 336

Science Anchors project, 23, 30

Science College Board Standards for College Success, 13, 17, 23, 30, 141

Science education system

coherence, 244-245

complexity, 243-245

Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 13, 16, 17, 23, 303

Skills (see Practices)

Social interactions and group behavior, 140, 156-157

Sociology, 13, 14, 212

Solar cells/energy, 50, 130, 134, 143, 211

Solar system, 117, 118, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175-176, 177, 179, 180, 263

Sound, 104, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136-137, 231

Space sciences (see also Earth and space sciences)

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 175, 176

Earth’s place in universe, 170, 173-174

grade band endpoints, 174, 176, 177-179

gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185

Kepler’s laws, 175

models/modeling, 176

nuclear processes, 112, 113, 173

planetary history of Earth, 100, 170, 176-178, 181-182

rotation and tilt of Earth, 175-176

scale in, 100, 173, 175, 178

seasonal variations, 175-176

solar system, 117, 118, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175-176, 177, 179, 180, 263

systems and system models, 118

universe and stars, 67, 112, 113, 173-174

Speciation, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167

Speed of light, 114, 115, 116, 134, 135, 136, 137

Spreadsheets, 59, 62, 63, 66

Stability and change

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 98, 100

dynamic equilibrium, 99-100

in ecosystems, 100, 152

feedback loops, 98-99, 101

homeostasis, 119, 143

patterns in, 98, 99, 101, 118, 120

progression, 100-101

scale and, 99, 100, 101, 114, 119

in systems, 84, 98-99, 100, 101, 113, 114, 118-120, 125, 126, 150, 152, 154-155, 169, 180, 239

Standards (see also National Science Education Standards)

alignment with other K-12 subjects, 306-307

and assessment and accountability, 2, 218, 323-324

boundary statements, 301-302

and curriculum and instructional materials, 2, 218, 321

development, 2, 8, 19-20

equity and diversity in, 280, 307-308

and fragmentation of education, 10

grade band progressions, 304-305

grade-by-grade progressions, 305

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

learning goals, 298-299

learning progressions, 302-304

performance expectations, 218, 301

recommendations, 298-308

research and development agenda, 320-324

research basis, 303-304

resources, time, and teacher expertise, 305-306

scientific and engineering practices, 300-301

scientific rigor and accuracy, 299-300

and teacher and administrator development, 2, 322-323

Statistics and statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, 66

Strands of proficiency, 250

dimensions in framework and, 254-255

and instruction approaches, 253-255

and learning, 251-253

Strong nuclear force, 88, 111, 113, 116, 117, 118, 240

Structure and function

definition of concept, 84, 85

in ecosystems, 150

forces and motion and, 117

learning progression, 97-98

and matter and energy flows, 106-109, 147, 224-240

organisms, 96, 139, 140, 143-145

scale and, 86, 96-97, 103, 107, 109, 110, 117, 143, 238, 239

in systems, 96, 97, 98

Structure of the framework (see also Disciplinary core ideas; Crosscutting concepts; Practices of science and engineering)

dimensions, 29-33

progressions across K-12, 33-34

Supernovas, 112, 113, 173, 174

Systems and system models (see also Earth systems; Ecosystems)

biological, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 87, 88, 89, 93, 103, 169-170, 180, 181, 182-183, 188, 192, 195, 223, 229

conservation of energy in, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128

cycles, 96, 98

definition of concept, 84, 91-92

dynamic equilibrium, 98, 99-100

engineering design, 12, 30, 46, 50, 57, 86, 88, 94, 98-99, 128-129, 130, 133, 202, 204, 205, 206, 208, 214

feedback mechanisms, 98-99, 101, 119, 120, 145, 169-170, 181, 190

forces and interactions within, 88, 94, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 127, 176

instruction, 94

isolated systems, 92, 115, 235

large-scale, 99, 118, 182-183

learning progression, 93-94, 230, 233, 235

mathematics and computational thinking and, 51, 57, 64-65, 67, 94, 126

matter and energy transfers, 84, 92, 93, 94-95, 96, 106, 110, 119, 120-122, 123, 124-126, 128-129, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, 169, 179, 223, 239

models/modeling, 43, 46, 52, 57, 58, 59, 64-65, 67, 75, 89, 92-96, 100, 101, 170, 197, 206, 207, 208, 211, 212, 229, 230, 236

patterns, 98, 99, 152, 173, 175-176, 182-183, 188, 195, 229

in physical sciences, 103, 107, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118-120

potential energy, 121-122

scale effects, 84, 90, 91, 92, 100, 103, 181, 182-183, 186, 188, 230, 239, 303

in space, 118

stability and change in, 84, 98-99, 100, 101, 113, 114, 118-120, 125, 126, 150, 152, 154-155, 169, 180, 239

structure and functioning of, 96, 97, 98

subsystem interactions, 92, 93, 97, 103, 120-121, 144, 179, 195

Systems for State Science Assessment, 23, 242, 264, 298

T

Tables and tabulating data, 61, 62, 63, 76, 77

Taking Science to School, 23, 24, 242, 250, 251, 253, 254, 298

Teachers/teaching

framework impact on, 322-323

inservice development, 259-260

literacy in science and engineering, 256-259

preservice experiences, 257-259

professional development, 2, 255-260, 319-320, 322-323

research and development agenda, 319-320

research base, 257

state licensure requirements, 257

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

Technology (see Communications systems and devices; Engineering and technology)

Temperature

body, 145, 148, 149, 220, 223

and chemical reactions, 110-111

data sets, 62

ecosystem impacts, 99, 151, 155

and electromagnetic radiation, 134

energy transfer and, 112, 113, 121, 123, 124, 126

feedback loops, 99

mean surface, of Earth, 68, 100, 188, 189, 198

misunderstandings about, 313

and motion of particles, 120, 121, 123, 124, 229, 238

ocean, 185

and pressure, 96-97, 107, 109, 112, 113, 180, 227, 237

and stability in systems, 119

and state changes in matter, 70, 107, 108, 109, 110, 226, 227, 231, 232, 235-236, 237, 238

units and measurement, 91, 231, 313

and weather and climate, 185, 186, 188

Terminology and language of science, 67, 74, 76-77, 95-96, 100, 101, 115, 122, 123, 128, 247, 258, 285, 286

Theory

application of, 52, 79

defined, 67

modeling, 67

Thermal energy, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 136, 180, 181

Torricelli, Evangelista, 54

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 141

Triangle Coalition, 345

U

University of Colorado at Boulder Biology Educators Group, 345

University of Washington, Seattle, 345

V

Vermont Department of Education, 345

Vision for K-12 science and engineering education

core ideas, 2, 11

goals, 8-10

learning progressions, 10-11

limitations of framework, 11-15

practices integrated with knowledge, 11

Volume, 90, 97, 107, 108, 231, 233, 235

W

Water

abundance, 185-186

evaporation and condensation, 98, 104, 108, 184, 185, 233, 234, 235, 236

cycle, 180, 184, 185

grade band endpoints, 184-186

matter and energy transfers, 96

pattern recognition in, 185

and surface processes, 179, 184-186

Waves

amplitude, 132, 133

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 132

color reflection and absorption, 135

electromagnetic radiation, 64, 112, 121, 122, 130, 133-136, 149, 188

energy transfer/conversion, 131, 133, 136

frequency, 132

grade band endpoints, 132-133, 134-136, 137

information technologies and instrumentation, 104, 130, 131, 132-133, 136-137, 342

light, 70, 89-90, 104, 106, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 136, 137, 147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 174, 189, 222, 223

modeling, 122, 132, 133, 135

patterns, 130, 131, 132, 132-133

photons, 112, 122, 135 (see also Light)

properties, 131-133

refraction, 132

resonance, 131, 133

seismic, 132, 181

sound, 104, 121, 122, 131

and structure and function, 131, 133

in water, 132, 184

wavelength, 125, 131-132, 134

Weak nuclear force, 88, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 118

Weather and climate

Earth systems interactions and, 179, 180, 186-189

El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions, 197

feedback loops, 187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
×

forecasting, 193

global climate change, 43, 155, 156, 166, 175, 176, 184, 187, 188, 189, 191, 196-198, 306

grade band endpoints, 188-189, 193, 198

greenhouse gases and, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 197, 198

models/modeling, 189, 197, 198

patterns in, 186, 187, 188, 197

planetary motion and, 175, 176

volcanic eruptions and meteoric impacts and, 187

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 345

X

X-rays, 133, 136

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13165.
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Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity's most pressing current and future challenges. The United States' position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in these fields. To address the critical issues of U.S. competitiveness and to better prepare the workforce, A Framework for K-12 Science Education proposes a new approach to K-12 science education that will capture students' interest and provide them with the necessary foundational knowledge in the field.

A Framework for K-12 Science Education outlines a broad set of expectations for students in science and engineering in grades K-12. These expectations will inform the development of new standards for K-12 science education and, subsequently, revisions to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for educators. This book identifies three dimensions that convey the core ideas and practices around which science and engineering education in these grades should be built. These three dimensions are: crosscutting concepts that unify the study of science through their common application across science and engineering; scientific and engineering practices; and disciplinary core ideas in the physical sciences, life sciences, and earth and space sciences and for engineering, technology, and the applications of science. The overarching goal is for all high school graduates to have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on science-related issues, be careful consumers of scientific and technical information, and enter the careers of their choice.

A Framework for K-12 Science Education is the first step in a process that can inform state-level decisions and achieve a research-grounded basis for improving science instruction and learning across the country. The book will guide standards developers, teachers, curriculum designers, assessment developers, state and district science administrators, and educators who teach science in informal environments.

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