National Academies Press: OpenBook

Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine (2013)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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WORKFORCE NEEDS IN

Veterinary
Medicine

Committee to Assess the Current and
Future Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Division on Earth and Life Studies
Policy and Global Affairs Division

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was funded by Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the American Animal Hospital Association, Bayer Animal Health, and the Burroughs Welcome Fund under Award No. 1006607. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25744-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25744-1
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013949213

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation: National Research Council. 2011. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine.

Printed in the United States of America.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO ASSESS THE CURRENT AND FUTURE WORKFORCE NEEDS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE

ALAN M. KELLY, Chair, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia (Emeritus)

SHEILA W. ALLEN, University of Georgia, Athens

VAL R. BEASLEY, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Emeritus)

BONNIE BUNTAIN, University of Calgary Veterinary Medicine, Alberta, Canada

HENRY E. CHILDERS, Cranston Animal Hospital, Rhode Island

GARY COCKERELL, Cockerell Alliances, Grand Junction, Colorado

HAROLD DAVIS, Amgen, Covington, Georgia (retired)

JAMES G. FOX, (through February 2008), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

MALCOLM GETZ, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

TRACEY S. MCNAMARA, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California

GAY Y. MILLER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

BENNIE I. OSBURN, University of California, Davis (Emeritus)

MARK V. PAULY, Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

FRED W. QUIMBY, The Rockefeller University, New York (retired)

WILLIE M. REED, (through February 2008), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

JOHN A. SHADDUCK, (through October 2007), Shadduck Consulting LLC, Denton, Texas

MICHAEL A. STOTO, (through March 2008), Georgetown University, Washington, DC

STEPHEN F. SUTHERLAND, Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, Michigan

Staff

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

PETER HENDERSON, Director Board on Higher Education and Workforce

JIM VOYTUK, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

KARA MURPHY, Program Assistant, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

NORMAN R. SCOTT, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (Emeritus)

PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie

RICHARD A. DIXON, University of North Texas, Denton

GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

GENE HUGOSON, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin-Madison

ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota

A.G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Washington, DC

JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan

ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs

MERCEDES VAZQUEZ-AÑON, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri

Staff

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer

KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator

KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer

JANET M. MULLIGAN, Senior Program Associate for Research

KATHLEEN REIMER, Senior Program Assistant

EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer

PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE

WILLIAM E. KIRWAN, Chair, University System of Maryland, Adelphi

F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach

SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe

RITA COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park and the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore

PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado

SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles

WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Atlanta

Staff

PETER HENDERSON, Director

GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer

SABRINA HALL, Program Associate

JIM VOYTUK, Senior Program Officer

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Preface

In 2007, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, the American Animal Hospital Association, Bayer Animal Health, and the Burroughs Welcome Fund asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a comprehensive study of the current and future workforce needs in veterinary medicine. The request was motivated by concerns about how well the veterinary profession was presently meeting its public responsibilities and, in terms of human resources and facilities, how well it could adjust to the complex challenges facing society in the 21st century.

Many of the concerns about the profession came into focus following the outbreak of West Nile fever in 1999: despite the spread of a zoonotic disease, human and veterinary public health agencies acted independently and did not communicate with one another. Subsequent outbreaks of SARS, monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, highly pathogenic avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, and a variety of food safety and environmental issues heightened public concerns. They also raised further questions about the directions of veterinary medicine and the capacity of public health services the profession provides both in the United States and abroad. After September 11, 2001, concern about the vulnerability of the food supply, including the American livestock and poultry industries, drew attention to the declining presence of veterinarians serving the animal industries across the nation.

These and other demographic, economic, political, and environmental developments of the 21st century will profoundly change society and the services the veterinary profession must provide in order to remain relevant to the public. Responsibilities will increasingly involve global issues with greater emphasis focused on the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health. To meet these needs, there are doubts that the present supply of veterinarians are adequate in biomedical research, industry, academia, companion animal practice, food animal medicine, public health, and wildlife health. This report attempts to anticipate some of the needs and measures that are essential for the profession to fulfill given its changing roles in the 21st century.

The study was undertaken at a time when the nation experienced a major economic downturn, which made deciphering the long-term trends in demand

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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for veterinary services very challenging. Some estimates (the number of livestock being raised, for example) will always be in flux due to economic or industry cycles, but in the long term, the number of animals is less important for the profession than the evolution in the care and services needed for those animals.

Under the direction of the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and Board on Higher Education and Workforce, a committee was impaneled to address the issues provided in the Statement of Task. The committee was representative of the breadth of interest of the veterinary profession, and first met in April 2007 to consider the large undertaking the study commissioned. Over the next three years, the committee met on six occasions and participated in numerous conference calls to discuss ways of obtaining the needed information, review manuscripts, and revise the report. As would be expected from a committee with such diverse backgrounds, there were distinct and at times conflicting points of view. Nevertheless, committee members were always willing to learn from each other and in the end came to a consensus on the issues posed by the charge.

Throughout the study the committee was very ably supported by the staff of the National Academies and is indebted to Jim Voytuk, Janet Mulligan, and Kara Murphy for their expert assistance. The committee is especially grateful to Robin Schoen, Director of the Board of Agriculture and Natural Resources, for her encouragement, advice, and for keeping the committee focused on their charge.

Alan M. Kelly, Chair Committee to Assess the Current and Future Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of the report:

L. Garry Adams, Texas A&M University

Burt S. Barnow, George Washington University

Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Davis

Alicia L. Carriquiry, Iowa State University

Norman F. Cheville, Iowa State University (Emeritus)

Linda C. Cork, Stanford University (Emeritus)

Arthur L. Lage, Harvard Medical School

Joan M. Lakoski, University of Pittsburgh

Thomas R. Lenz, Pfizer Animal Health

Timothy C. McCarthy, Surgical Specialty Clinical for Animals

James D. McKean, Iowa State University

David E. Swayne, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

Margaret A. Wild, U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Frederick A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and George E. Seidel, Jr., Colorado State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests with the authoring committee and the institution.

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5-1 Number of Companies that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire, by Industry Sector

5-2 Qualifications of Veterinarians in Six Contract Research Organizations that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire

5-3 Qualifications of Veterinarians in Nine Animal Health Companies that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire

5-4 Distribution and Expertise of Veterinarians in an Animal Health Products Division of a Pharmaceutical Company (Company A)

5-5 Veterinarians in the Human Health Division of Company A

5-6 Open, Full-Time Positions for Veterinarians Advertised in 2007 by Companies that Responded to the Questionnaire

5-7 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Diplomates by Employment Sector, 2007

5-8 American College of Veterinary Pathology Diplomates by Employment Sector, 2007

5-9 Number of Active American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Members, Retirees, and New Diplomates

5-10 Number of Active American College of Veterinary Pathology Members, Retirees, and New Diplomates

6-1 Veterinarians in the U.S. Government in 2008 and 2010

6-2 2009 Average Annual Salaries of Federal Employees

6-3 Reported Mean Salary Levels for Federal Veterinarians

7-1 States with Wildlife Agencies that Employ Veterinarians, and Numbers of Veterinarians Employed in 2009

7-2 Examples of University-based Wildlife Programs

8-1 Past and Projected Trends of Consumption of Livestock Products

9-1 Current and Anticipated Demand for Faculty in Veterinary Colleges, Departments of Veterinary Science, and Departments of Comparative Medicine that Responded to the Committee Survey

9-2 Specialty Boards Recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association

9-3 Funding for Veterinary Research

9-4 National Institute of Health Funding to Veterinary Colleges, 2011

10-1 Estimated Average Return for Obtaining a DVM

C-1 Food-Animal Workforce, 2001-2007, by State

C-2a Food-Animal-Exclusive Veterinarians: Mean Ages and Percentage Over Age 50, by State

C-2b Food-Animal-Exclusive Veterinarians: Mean Ages and Percentage Over Age 60, by State

C-3a Food-Animal-Predominant Veterinarians Over Age 50, by State

C-3b Food-Animal-Predominant Veterinarians Over Age 60, by State

C-4a Mixed-Food-Animal Veterinarians Over Age 50, by State

C-4b Mixed-Food-Animal Veterinarians Over Age 60, by State

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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FIGURES

S-1 Student debt and mean starting salary for new DVM graduates

2-1 1997-2009 Associate mean income by practice sector

2-2 Numbers of pets in American households

2-3 Average annual expenditure per pet-owning household

2-4 Impact of veterinary technicians and assistants on DVM practice revenue

3-1 American Quarter Horse Association registrations, 1995-2008

3-2 Number of Thoroughbred races in the United States and Canada/Puerto Rico, 1998-2009

3-3 Registered Thoroughbred stallions, 2000-2008

3-4 Thoroughbred mares bred, 2000-2008

3-5 Years in which current American Association of Equine Practitioners members joined the Association

4-1 The value of livestock products relative to corn from 2000-2012

4-2 Number of hog operations, 1984-2008, in thousands

4-3 New members of American Association of Swine Veterinarians, 1966-2006

4-4 Number and average size of dairy farms in the United States in thousands, 1970-2006

4-5 Dashboard analysis tool: How many dairy vets?

4-6 Recruitment to the American Association of Bovine Practitioners 1975-2005

4-7 Number of all U.S. cattle and beef-cow operations, 1998-2008

4-8 United States sheep and lamb population, 1998-2009

4-9 U.S. sheep and goat operations in 2007 and 2008

4-10 Changes in the composition of the food animal workforce

4-11 Age Groups within food-animal-exclusive practice and 2007

4-12 Age Groups within food-animal-predominant practice and 2007

4-13 Age Groups within mixed-food-animal practice and 2007

4-14 Career selection of veterinary graduates entering food-animal practice

4-15 2009 median incomes of practice owners and associates by category

5-1 Average number of veterinarians employed per company responding to committee questionnaire by sector

7-1 Locations and sponsorship of North American programs devoted to disease investigations involving free-ranging fauna (state, federal, and university cooperative programs)

8-1 Urban and rural fresh dairy product consumption

9-1 Survey respondents need for faculty in the basic sciences: Number of vacant positions in 2007 and anticipated vacancies in 2010 and 2016 due to retirements, by discipline

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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9-2 Survey respondents need for faculty in the clinical sciences: Number of vacancies and openings due to retirements in large and food-animal clinical positions, by discipline

9-3 Survey respondents need for faculty: Number of vacancies and openings due to retirements in small-animal clinical positions, by discipline

9-4 Residency and internship position notifications submitted to the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians, 1988-2009

9-5 Total numbers of DVM/VMD and post-graduate students in 2007 and projected for 2010 and 2016, as reported by institutions responding to committee survey

9-6 Total numbers of DVM/VMD and post-graduate students in 2007 and projected for 2010 and 2016, as reported by institutions responding to committee survey

10-1 Mean incomes in small-animal practice

10-2 Mean DVM income (in 2006 dollars) in private practice, 1965-2007

10-3 Mean starting DVM salaries (in 2006 dollars)

10-4 Positions taken immediately after earning DVM, by percentage of DVM respondents

10-5 Median career earnings in the health profession

10-6 New DVM graduates by year in the United States

11-1 Student debt and mean starting salary for new DVM graduates

C-1 Food-animal concentrations in counties that have no veterinarians

C-2 Changes in population growth between 1990 and 2000 for the 3,141 counties and equivalent areas in the United States

C-3 Distribution of the 1,011 food-animal-exclusive veterinarians in the United States, 2007

C-4 Distribution of the 4,200 mixed-food-animal veterinarians in the United States, 2007

C-5 Distribution of the 3,861 food-animal-predominant veterinarians in the United States, 2007

C-6a Distribution of egg-laying industry in the United States, 2007

C-6b Distribution of broiler industry in the United States, 2007

C-7 Changes in the U.S. hog and pig inventory, 1992-1997

C-8 The changing pork industry in Iowa and 2002

C-9 Milk-cow population, change in inventory, 2002-2007

C-10 Beef-cows inventory, 2007

C-11a Meat-goat and other goat inventory

C-11b Dairy-goat inventory, 2007

C-12a Distribution of food-animal-exclusive veterinarians over age 50

C-12b Distribution of food-animal-exclusive veterinarians over age 60

C-13a Distribution of food-animal-predominant veterinarians over age 50

C-13b Distribution of food-animal-predominant veterinarians over age 60

C-14a Distribution of mixed-food-animal veterinarians over age 50

C-14b Distribution of mixed-food-animal veterinarians over age 60

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Acronyms

AABP American Association of Bovine Practitioners
AAEP American Association of Equine Practitioners
AASV American Association of Swine Veterinarians
AAVC American Association of Veterinary Clinicians
AAVMC Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges
AAWV American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians
AAZV American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
ACLAM American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine
ACPV American College of Poultry Veterinarians
ACVP American College of Veterinary Pathologists
AHC American Horse Council
AHI Animal Health Institute
ASLAP American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners
APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
AVMA American Veterinary Medical Association
BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy
CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CPDF Central Personnel Data File (Office of Personnel Management)
CRO Contract Research Organization
DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DOI U.S. Department of the Interior
DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
ECFVG Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FAD foreign-animal disease
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FMD foot-and-mouth disease
FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
FSVMC Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Coalition
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FTE full-time equivalent
FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. Department of the Interior)
GAO Government Accountability Office
GCP good clinical practice
GLP good laboratory practice
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HPAI highly pathogenic avian influenza
H1N1 influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (“swine flu”)
IAAAM International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine
LA large-animal
LAE large-animal exclusive
LAP large-animal predominant
MPH Master of Public Health
NCRR National Center for Research Resources (National Institutes of Health)
NGO non-governmental organization
NIFA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
NIH National Institutes of Health
NPS National Park Service
NRC National Research Council
NWHC National Wildlife Health Center (U.S. Geological Survey)
NWRA National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. Department of Labor)
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
SETAC Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
STP Society of Toxicologic Pathology
T-MAC Talent Management Advisory Council
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
VMCAS Veterinary Medical College Application Service
VMD Veterinariae Medicinae Doctoris
VMO Veterinarian Medical Officer
WCS FVP Wildlife Conservation Society’s Field Veterinary Program
WDA Wildlife Disease Association
WHO World Health Organization
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13413.
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The U.S. veterinary medical profession contributes to society in diverse ways, from developing drugs and protecting the food supply to treating companion animals and investigating animal diseases in the wild. In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future demands, a National Research Council committee found that the profession faces important challenges in maintaining the economic sustainability of veterinary practice and education, building its scholarly foundations, and evolving veterinary service to meet changing societal needs.

Many concerns about the profession came into focus following the outbreak of West Nile fever in 1999, and the subsequent outbreaks of SARS, monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, highly pathogenic avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, and a variety of food safety and environmental issues heightened public concerns. They also raised further questions about the directions of veterinary medicine and the capacity of public health service the profession provides both in the United States and abroad.

To address some of the problems facing the veterinary profession, greater public and private support for education and research in veterinary medicine is needed. The public, policymakers, and even medical professionals are frequently unaware of how veterinary medicine fundamentally supports both animal and human health and well-being. This report seeks to broaden the public's understanding and attempts to anticipate some of the needs and measures that are essential for the profession to fulfill given its changing roles in the 21st century.

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