Prepared by Wei Jing, Victoria Gunderson, and Mahlet Mesfin
Adya, Monica P. 2008. Women at work: Differences in IT career experiences and perceptions between South Asian and American women. Human Resource Management 47(3): 601-635.
The number of youth from developing Asian nations in the US IT workforce is increasing, and an examination of the career experiences and perceptions of South Asian women compared to American women shows that social cultural and individual factors impact their career experiences. Most women from South Asia did not identify career “genderization” in the workplace and felt less stereotyping and discrimination than American women. South Asian women felt the same work-life balance concerns as American women, but responded to them differently. There were also differences between the two groups in their perceptions of IT work, mentoring relationships, and coping mechanisms. The authors proposed recommendations for improving diversity integration into the workforce for the future.
Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology. 2009. The recruitment, retention, and advancement of technical women: Breaking barriers to cultural change in corporations.
This summary of the Anita Borg Institute’s 2009 Technical Executive Forum reports discussions of cultural elements that prevent the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women and solutions that can contribute to cultural change.
Aerospace Industries Association. 2008. Launching the 21st century American aerospace workforce. Online (www.aia-aerospace.org/assets/report_workforce_1208.pdf).1
The report underscores the aerospace industry’s need for technical talent, reviews the actions that individual aerospace companies were already taking, and provides recommendations for the government to partner with the industry.
National Center for Women and Information Technology. 2007. Who invents IT? An analysis of women’s participation in IT patenting. Online (www.ncwit.org/sites/default/files/legacy/pdf/PatentReport_wAppendix.pdf).
This report examines women’s IT patenting rates and trends over the past 20 years. It shows that the rates were similar across IT industry subcategories, with an exception in the computer software subcategory; however, women’s patenting rates differed widely from one organization to another.
1 All online resources were accessed March 31, 2014.
Auletta, K. 2011. A woman’s place: Can Sheryl Sandberg upend Silicon Valley’s male-dominated culture? The New Yorker 87(20): 54.
This magazine article presents Sheryl Sandberg’s career path to becoming chief operating officer of Facebook, with additional comments regarding the role of women in leadership roles at technology companies.
Babe, G. 2010. A national imperative: The nation needs women and minorities to succeed as scientists and engineers. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 30, p. B1.
A brief news article that highlights recent Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education results from a Bayer Science study. The survey results suggest that the low number of women and minorities in STEM-related fields results from the poor identification and nurturing of women and minorities at a young age to pursue STEM careers in the future.
Baron, R.A., G.D. Markman, and A. Hirsa. 2001. Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: Evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting. Journal of Applied Psychology 86(5): 923-929.
In this study, women and men shown in standard-format photos were described to different groups of raters as being either entrepreneurs or managers. The raters assigned higher scores to women when they were described as entrepreneurs. The results support the authors’ hypothesis that perceptions of women entrepreneurs are enhanced by attributional augmenting.
Barsh, J., and L. Yee. 2011. Changing companies’ minds about women. McKinsey Quarterly.
This article is based on interviews with senior executives in companies and discussions with 30 diversity experts. The findings suggest that real progress to achieve diversity requires systemwide change driven by a hard-edged approach. The article details the factors that strengthen the approach, including senior leadership commitment, sponsorship, and the rigorous application of data in performance evaluation.
Bayer Corporation. 2006. The Bayer facts of science education XII: CEOs on STEM diversity: The need, the seed, the feed.
Based on the data from a survey of CEOs at STEM companies, this Bayer report describes the current STEM workforce challenges identified by the survey respondents. The survey respondents agreed that a company plays a critical role in ensuring women and minorities’ participation and success in science and engineering (S&E) fields. A majority of the respondents agree that more needs to be done to nurture women and minority employees in the workforce.
Bayer Corporation. 2010. Bayer facts of science education XIV: Female and minority chemists and chemical engineers speak about diversity and underrepresentation in STEM survey findings. Online (http://bayerfactsofscience.online-pressroom.com/#a).
This report is the most recent Bayer Facts survey that examines the dual issues of diversity and underrepresentation by women and minorities in STEM. The report highlights as one of its findings that African Americans have the strongest opinions on a variety of social and economic issues, including bias, stereotyping, and the financial burdens of education. The survey focuses on the following aspects: (a) issues of diversity and underrepresentation in the US STEM workforce; b) causes of/contributions to underrepresentation; (c) developing an interest in
science; (d) bias in the classroom; (e) discouragement along the STEM pipeline; (f) respondents’ significant precollege barriers and opportunities; (g) respondents’ significant college/graduate school barriers and opportunities; (h) important resources, opportunities, and individuals along the way; (i) respondents’ workplace challenges and road to success; and (j) recommendations.
Beede, D., T. Julian, B. Khan, R. Lehrman, G. McKittrick, D. Langdon, and M. Doms. 2011. Education supports racial and ethnic equality in STEM. US Department of Commerce.
The authors examined demographic disparities in STEM education and found that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality jobs of the future.
Beede, D., T. Julian, D. Langdon, G. McKittrick, E. Khan, and M. Doms. 2011. Women in STEM: A gender gap to innovation. US Department of Commerce. Online (www.esa.doc.gov/Reports/women-stem-gender-gap-innovation). This report finds that women are underrepresented in both STEM jobs and STEM undergraduate degrees and have been consistently over the last decade. The relatively few women who receive STEM degrees are concentrated in physical and life sciences, in contrast to men, who are concentrated primarily in engineering. Women who do receive STEM degrees are less likely to work in STEM jobs than their male counterparts. While women working in STEM jobs earn less than their male counterparts, they experience a smaller gender wage gap compared to others in non-STEM occupations.
Blake-Beard, S., A. Murrell, and D. Thomas. 2006. Unfinished business: The impact of race on understanding mentoring relationships. Harvard Business School/Working Knowledge for Business Leaders. Available at www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/06-060.pdf.
While the overall population is becoming increasingly diverse, the change in diversity among the top levels of the workforce has been stagnant. The nature of interracial dynamics indicates the state of racial affairs within a firm and issues that may be predictive of future problems among majority members of the workforce. This review examines existing literature in the attempt to answer three key questions: (1) How race influences access to mentoring relationships; (2) How race impacts the interactions between mentors and protégés; and, (3) How race influences the outcomes of mentoring relationships. The authors reexamined and revised previous models on cross-race relationships to examine the strategies for managing racial differences and the resultant types of relationships.
Broyles, P., and W. Fenner. 2010. Race, human capital, and wage discrimination in STEM professions in the United States. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 30(5/6): 251-266.
Data for this study were obtained from the American Chemical Society’s 2005 census of its membership, which consisted of 13,855 male chemists working full-time in industry; there were too few minority women to make comparisons. The racial wage gap was decomposed by modeling earnings as an exponential function of race, education, marital status, children, experience, employment disruption, work specialty, work function, industry, size of employer, and region of work. This research shows that there was racial discrimination in STEM professions. The study found that overall minority chemists received lower wages than White chemists. For Asian and black chemists, the wage differential was largely due to discrimination.
The study explains that most of the difference in wages between Hispanics and whites was led by the lower educational attainment and experience of Hispanic chemists. The report states that achieving racial pay equity is one important step toward eliminating racial discrimination in the STEM workforce.
Bunker Whittington, K.C., and L. Smith-Doerr. 2004. Patenting productivity puzzles: Is there a gender gap and what are the effects of academic and commercial science contexts? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. The authors investigated whether the durable gender inequality in science careers is affected by the changing boundaries between university and firm. Using data on patenting activity and examining career characteristics of a sample of life scientists, they were able to quantify and compare gender differences in productivity across small biotechnology firms, large pharmaceutical companies, and life science departments in academia.
Burke, S., and K.M. Collins. 2001. Gender differences in leadership styles and management skills. Women in Management Review 16(5): 244-257.
The study suggests that female and male accountants have different leadership styles. Female accountants are more likely to indicate that they use transformational leadership, which is found to be correlated with several management skills associated with success. The study also finds that female accountants may receive more developmental opportunities than their male colleagues.
Burrelli, J., and J. Falkenheim. 2011. Diversity in the federal science and engineering workforce. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf11303/nsf11303.pdf.
The federal government employed 235,000 scientists and engineers in the US in 2009. This report breaks down the gender, racial/ethnic, and disability characteristics of federal scientists and engineers by agency, occupation, and level. From 2000 to 2009, women’s share of the federal S&E workforce rose from 21 percent to 27 percent and minorities’ (Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians) share rose from 18 percent to 22 percent, with Asians at 9 percent; blacks, 8 percent; Hispanics, 4 percent; and American Indians, 1 percent.
Catalyst. 1999. Women scientists in industry: A winning formula for companies. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/73/women-scientists-in-industry-a-winning-formula-for-companies).
This study identifies factors in the corporate culture that contribute to or impede the retention, development, and advancement of women scientists in corporations. Based on interviews with 30 women scientists in corporations, the study summarizes organizational barriers that women scientists face. These barriers include lack of female role models, style differences, risk-averse supervisors, and the lack of work-life balance.
Catalyst. 2001. Leadership careers in high tech: Wired for success. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/79/leadership-careers-in-high-tech-wired-for-success).
This study is intended to provide young women in high tech with a roadmap they can use to shape their own careers. The report finds that mentors and networking are vital to career advancement and mobility for women in the industry. It shows that although many believe the
high-tech world is a strict meritocracy, women say that the higher you go in the industry, the more important it is to get to know the key power players. It indicates that work-life balance is important to both men and women in high tech.
Catalyst. 2003. Bit by bit: Catalyst’s guide to advancing women in high tech companies. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/17/bit-by-bit-catalysts-guide-to-advancing-women-in-high-tech-companies).
This study is based on discussions from five roundtable meetings, a focus group study, and interviews with representatives from companies. It includes barriers to women’s advancement identified by the meeting participants. These barriers include: 1) exclusionary corporate culture; 2) difficulty in achieving work-life balance; 3) lack of role models, network, and mentors; and 4) lack of commitment and support from companies.
Catalyst. 2004. Advancing African-American women in the workplace: What managers need to know. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/20/advancing-african-american-women-in-the-workplace-what-managers-need-to-know).
This report details the reasons companies need to advance the female African-American segment of the workforce. It finds that African-American women felt exclusion from informal networks and conflicted relationships with white women. Many study respondents reported that their diversity programs were ineffective. It shows that 37 percent of African-American women saw their opportunities for advancement to senior management positions in their companies declining over time.
Catalyst. 2004. The bottom line: Connecting corporate performance and gender diversity. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/82/the-bottom-line-connecting-corporate-performance-and-gender-diversity).
This study was undertaken to explore the linkage between gender diversity and corporate financial performance. The study found that companies with the highest representation of women on their top management teams experienced better financial performance. This finding was true for both financial measures analyzed in this study: Return on Equity (ROE) and Total Return to Shareholders (TRS).
Catalyst. 2008. Women in technology: Maximizing talent, minimizing barriers. Online (www.catalyst.org/publication/36/women-in-technology-maximizing-talent-minimizing-barriers).
Building on previous research by Catalyst on women in the high-tech industry, this report examines issues faced by companies and the overall satisfaction of women in their jobs and companies. It provides data related to women’s perception of supervisory relationships, fairness, development and training opportunities, career planning, barriers to career advancement, generational differences among women, equal opportunity, and opportunities within their companies.
Ceci, S.J., and W.M. Williams. 2011. Understanding current causes of women’s underrepresentation in science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(8): 3157-3162. Available at www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/02/02/1014871108.
To better understand the causes of women’s underrepresentation in math-intensive fields, the authors reviewed the past 20 years of data and suggested that some of the claims of discrimination are no longer valid and that widespread acceptance of these claims may delay or prevent understanding of contemporary determinants of women’s underrepresentation. The authors found that the differences in career outcomes between males and females result from a difference in resources due to choices, which could be influenced and better informed through education. They believed that society needs to engage in solving the current problems to address meaningful limitations deterring women’s participation in STEM careers, which requires focusing on education and policy changes.
Cohoon, J. McGrath, V. Wadhwa, and L. Mitchell. 2010. Are successful women entrepreneurs different from men? Kauffman Foundation.
This study is based on data collected in 2008-2009 from 549 respondents from randomly selected high-tech companies. The survey looks into the backgrounds, experiences, and motivations of men and women entrepreneurs. The findings show that successful women and men entrepreneurs are similar in almost every respect, such as levels of education, interest in entrepreneurial business, desire to build wealth or to capitalize a business idea, and access to funding. It also finds that men and women entrepreneurs agreed on many top issues and challenges that they faced in starting and managing their businesses. The survey data reveal small gender differences among successful entrepreneurs.
Cohoon, J. McGrath. 2011. Summary of recent research on gender & high-tech startups. National Center for Women and Informational Technology. Online (www.ncwit.org/sites/default/files/legacy/pdf/startupsandgender.pdf).
This summary lists and details the five employment models that are frequently used by high-tech startups. It analyzes the characteristics of each model regarding employee attachment, selection, and control.
Coons, R. 2010. Survey: women and minorities discouraged from science careers. Chemical Week 172(7): 14.
This article discussed the results from the Bayer Corporation Survey. It shows that about 40 percent of women and underrepresented minority chemists and chemical engineers say that they were discouraged from pursuing a STEM career at some point in their lives. Leading workplace barriers for the female and minority chemists and chemical engineers identified in this study include managerial bias, institutional bias, lack of professional development, limited access to networking opportunities, and a lack of advancement opportunities. Nearly three-quarters of the chemists and chemical engineers say that it is harder for women to succeed in their field than it is for men, while more than two-thirds think it is more difficult for minorities to succeed than it is for nonminorities.
Davidson, J. 2011. Latinos in Senior Executive Service (SES) will be “vastly underrepresented” by 2030. Washington Post, September 22, p. B4. Online (www.washingtonpost.com/politics/column/feddiary/report-latinos-in-ses-will-be-vastly-underrepresented-by-2030/2011/09/21/gIQA9Fx7lK_story.html).
This newspaper article highlights the diversity problem faced by the government’s senior leadership. Besides President Obama’s executive order “to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in
the Federal Workforce,” it also mentions recent results from the Center for American Progress indicating that Latinos will remain vastly underrepresented in senior executive service roles.
Desvaux, G., S. Devillard-Hoellinger, and M.C. Meaney. September 2008. A business case for women. McKinsey Quarterly.
The article indicates that companies with women in management tend to perform better financially and have a deeper pool of talent. Similarly, companies with three or more women on their governing boards are shown to be more effective in multiple organizational dimensions, including accountability, motivation, innovation, and capability.
Eagly, A.H., M.C. Johannesen-Schmidt, and M.L. van Engen. 2003. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin 129(4): 569-591.
This study finds that female leaders are more transformational than male leaders and engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. It also reveals that male leaders are more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership and laissez-faire leadership.
Eddleston, K.A., J.F. Veiga, and G.N. Powell. 2006. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: The role of gender self-schema. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(2): 437-445.
The authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. The study finds that male managers regard status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers do.
European Commission. 2009. Guidelines for gender equality programmes in science.
The guidelines are the result of the project “Practicing Gender Equality in Science,” which aimed to address women’s underrepresentation in leadership positions in scientific and technological research. The guidelines review issues at stake and explore the linkage between diversity and excellence. The report then discusses three main strategies developed under the project (1) to illustrate and create a friendly environment for women; (2) to insert gender dimension in the process of research and innovation design; and (3) to promote and support women’s leadership of science in a changing society. Examples of effective programs are included in the guidelines.
Fabio, N.D., C. Brandi, and L.M. Frehill. 2008. Professional women and minorities: A total human resources data compendium. Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology.
This report presents data about women and minorities at various points of the pipeline and career outcome. It is broken down into the following chapters: (1) general population and precollege education; (2) enrollment in higher education; (3) degrees earned in higher education; (4) degrees by discipline; (5) science and engineering employment; and (6) international education and employment.
Fouad, N.A., and R. Singh. 2011. Stemming the tide: Why women leave engineering. University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
The report, based on survey results from over 3,700 engineers, shows that workplace climate is a strong factor in women’s decisions to leave engineering after college or as mid-career professionals. It shows that people who stay in engineering are usually influenced by key supportive people in the organization as well as a perception of value of their work.
Frehill, L.M., N.M. Fabio, and S.T. Hill. 2008. Confronting the “new” American dilemma: Underrepresented minorities in engineering: A data-based look at diversity. National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering.
Throughout the report the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering sends a message that “the solution to America’s competitiveness problem is to activate the hidden workforce of young men and women who have traditionally been underrepresented in STEM careers—African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos.” This report examines the data and data trends of male and female African-Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in engineering at all levels of higher education and in the workforce. It also identifies barriers that prevent these underrepresented minorities from succeeding and calls various stakeholders to action.
Furlong, Lisa. 2007. Industry and government seek Native Americans for tech jobs. Diversity/Careers in Engineering & Information Technology, Winter 2003/Spring 2004.
The American Indian College Fund has stated that more Native Americans seek degrees in education or nursing than in technology fields at tribal colleges. These colleges educate a wide demographic of Native Americans, from older, nontraditional students to students who are fresh out of high school and very tech savvy.
Gandz, J. 2005. A business case for diversity. Ottawa: Canadian Department of Labor.
The report indicates that the business case for diversity is different for enterprises in public sector and private sector organizations, but it is generally agreed that diversity is beneficial to organizations. The report discusses various benefits of diversity and indicates that commitment from leadership and an effective assessment of diversity programs are critical for an organization to fully achieve diversity.
George, Y.S., D.S. Neale, V.V. Horne, and S.M. Malcom. 2001. In pursuit of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and mathematics workforce. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
This report uses a population projection to highlight the need to diversify the STEM workforce in the future. It identifies and reviews over 150 research studies related to STEM students and faculty diversity, paying special attention to the transition points in academic achievement. It also identifies gaps in existing research on this topic and provides recommendations for improving methodology for research, building community, and exploring new research areas.
Giscombe, K., and M.C. Mattis. 2002. Leveling the playing field for women of color in corporate management: Is the business case enough? Journal of Business Ethics 37: 103-119.
The study focuses on examining the experiences of African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American women in business careers. Based on a survey of professional women of color in 30
companies, the study finds that retention of women of color was positively correlated with supervisors’ supportive behaviors.
Gupta, V.K., D.B. Turban, and N.M. Bhawe. 2008. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(5): 1053-1061.
The study examines the impact of implicit and explicit gender stereotypes on men’s and women’s intentions to pursue entrepreneurial careers. By randomly assigning 469 business students to 6 experimental conditions, the authors measured the students’ entrepreneurial intentions and test their study hypothesis—“men and women would confirm gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm when it was presented explicitly.” The results show that men had higher entrepreneurial intention scores when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented; however, similar intentions were reported when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral.
Hambrick, D.C., T.S. Cho, and M.J. Chen. 1996. The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms’ competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly 41: 659-684. The paper explores the executive origins of firms’ competitive moves by focusing on top management team characteristics, specifically on team heterogeneity. The findings suggest that heterogeneous teams are slower in their actions and responses and less likely than homogeneous teams to respond to competitors’ initiatives.
Halford, Bethany. 2007. Chemists of color: It takes more than good intentions to achieve diversity in the chemical workforce. C&EN 85(13): 46-49.
African-Americans earn only around 3.5 percent of doctoral degrees in chemistry, while they account for approximately 13 percent of the overall US population. David A. Thomas of Harvard University found that most successful African-Americans in the corporate world had a strong network of mentors to look to for support and guidance, and most of these mentors were Caucasian. Interviews with employees in chemical firms and faculty in academia are included in the article.
Hamilton, B.H., J.A. Nickerson, and H. Owan. 2003. Team incentives and worker heterogeneity: An empirical analysis of the impact of teams on productivity and participation. Journal of Political Economy 111: 465-497.
This paper identifies the productivity and participation implications of five potential behavioral responses (free-riding being one) to the adoption of team incentives with heterogeneous workers. The study finds that the more heterogeneous teams are more productive and that high-ability workers appear to have a stronger influence on team productivity than do low-ability workers.
Handelsman, J., N. Cantor, M. Carnes, D. Denton, E. Fine, B. Grosz, V. Hinshaw, C. Marrett, S. Rosser, D. Shalala, and J. Sheridan. 2005. More women in science. Science 309(5738): 1190-1191.
In this article, the authors explored reasons for gender disparity: (1) There is a lack of senior women faculty to act as role models; (2) women felt hostility and exclusion in academia; (3) unconscious biases exist, and (4) women bear more responsibilities than men when it comes to caring for a family. The article also discusses exemplary programs and policies in research universities.
Herring, Cedric. 2009. Does diversity pay? Race, gender, and the business case for diversity. American Sociological Review 74(2): 208-224.
This article reviews literature that is pertinent to diversity and value in diversity. The author examined the implications of diversity for workplace dynamics and business outcomes by testing eight hypotheses derived from the value-in-diversity thesis using data from the 1996-1997 National Organizations Survey. The results support hypotheses that racial and gender diversity is associated with increased sales revenue, more customers, and greater relative profits. The results also show that racial diversity may lead to greater market share.
Hewlett, S.A., and C.B. Luce. 2005. Off-ramps and on-ramps: Keeping talented women on the road to success. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Early in 2004 the Center for Work-Life Policy formed a private sector, multiyear task force entitled “The Hidden Brain Drain: Women and Minorities as Unrealized Assets” to determine various aspects of the “off-ramps” of women’s careers, as much evidence shows that women leave their professional careers at a high rate. The results of the task force’s survey of over 2,700 women at three companies (Ernst & Young, Goldman Sachs, and Lehman Brothers) show many factors leading to women’s professional off-ramps. They are pulled away from careers to care for their children and parents. In the business sector they are generally pushed away from their careers by factors such as low satisfaction, as they are in other fields such as medicine. Men often take off-ramps in their careers in order to strategically reposition their careers, unlike women’s reasons for leaving their professions. Many women (93 percent) who have left their careers would like to reenter for financial or overall life satisfaction reasons, though many women experience significant penalties for leaving their careers and none in the business sector want to return to their prior companies. Work-life balance initiatives such as flexible hours and part-time options are important to women, as 64 percent of the women surveyed cite flexible work arrangements as being either extremely or very important to them. The report cites examples of successful work-life balance programs at Johnson and Johnson, Pfizer, Booz Allen Hamilton, and Ernst & Young.
Hewlett, S.A., C.B. Luce, L.J. Servon, L. Sherbin, P. Shiller, E. Sosnovich, and K. Sumberg. 2008. The Athena factor: Reversing the brain drain in science, engineering, and technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
The Athena Factor research project studied the career trajectories of women with science, engineering, and technology (SET) credentials in the private sector and found five powerful “antigens” in corporate cultures. The study features 13 company initiatives that address female brain drain that are likely to be “game changers.” These initiatives were expected to be scaled up to allow many more women to overcome the barriers and to stay on track in SET careers.
Holmes, Anna. 2011. Technically, science will be less lonely for women when girls are spurred early. Washington Post, September 23, p. C1. Online (www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/technically-science-will-be-less-lonely-for-women-when-girls-are-spurred-early/2011/09/21/gIQARGztoK_story.html).
This newspaper article indicates that the gender disparities in the US STEM workforce have not changed in the last 6 years. The author notes that although girls have achieved parity with boys
in test scores and college degrees in math and science, they are also being sent the wrong message that embracing these subjects is anathema to what it means to be female.
Hudis, P.M. 2009. Crafting a solution: Beyond the Dream National Roundtable. National Action Council of Minorities in Engineering.
This report underscores the critical role that community colleges play in building the engineering workforce and maintaining the nation’s economic competitiveness. It presents engineering-focused, project-based applications for developmental mathematics were created by the National Action Council of Minorities National Roundtable participants. It also outlines the next steps for the National Roundtable to move this effort forward.
Information Technology Association of America. 2005. Untapped talent: Diversity, competition, and America’s high tech future.
The Information Technology Association of America compiled data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Current Population Surveys to document the percentages of women and minorities in BLS occupational classifications that comprise the IT workforce in 2004, and compares them to previous years to determine the progression and regression of diversity. The report shows that the percentage of women in the IT workforce declined from a high of 41 percent in 1996 to 32.4 percent in 2004. Women who leave the IT workforce are also far less likely to return to it, at least not as quickly as men. Women are often hired into administrative jobs, yet represent only 25 percent of the people in professional or management ranks. African-Americans and Hispanic workers are underrepresented in the workforce, while Asian-Americans are overrepresented by about 200 percent. The rate of underrepresentation of African-Americans is increasing over time, while the rate for Hispanics is decreasing.
Jackson, S.A. 2001. The quiet crisis: Falling short in producing American scientific and technical talent. Building Engineering and Science Talent. Online (www.rpi.edu/homepage/quietcrisis/Quiet_Crisis.pdf).
The author identifies challenges to the US STEM workforce and lists priority actions for the federal government, education, industry, and nonprofit organizations.
Jeste, D.V., E.W. Twamley, V. Cardenas, B. Lebowitz, and C.F. Reynolds III. 2010. A call for training the trainers: Focus on mentoring to enhance diversity in mental health research. American Journal of Public Health 99(S1): S31-S37.
This study finds a widening disparity between the proportion of minority Americans in the population and the number of researchers from these minority groups, largely because of a lack of mentoring. The authors examined the current academic setting and noted that it is not optimal for developing and sustaining mentoring. The authors also noted that mentoring skills should be evaluated and enhanced.
Kohli, J., J. Gans, and J. Hairston. 2011. A better, more diverse senior executive service in 2050. Center for American Progress. Online (www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2011/09/pdf/ses_paper.pdf).
By 2050, the US Census Bureau predicts a nation with no clear racial or ethnic majority with 54 percent of the population being people of color. This study looks at the racial, ethnic, and gender diversity of the federal government’s most senior officials. The study finds that projected ethnic,
racial, and gender makeup of the Senior Executive Service will not reflect that of the American workforce in 2030 and beyond.
Kray, Laura J., L. Thompson, and A. Galinsky. 2001. Battle of the sexes: Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80(6): 942-958.
This study on how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performancefound that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly. In addition, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table.
Langdon, D., G. McKittrick, D. Beede, B. Khan, and M. Doms. 2011. STEM: Good jobs now and for the future. US Department of Commerce.
The report emphasizes that the STEM workforce has an outsized impact on the country’s competitiveness, economic growth, and overall standard of living. An analysis of data from the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey and Current Population Survey shows that (1) STEM occupations are projected to grow by 17 percent from 2008 to 2018, compared to 9.8 percent growth for non-STEM occupations; (2) STEM workers are earning 26 percent more than their non-STEM counterparts; (3) STEM workers have higher education attainment than non-STEM workers; and (4) STEM degree holders enjoy higher earnings, regardless of whether they work in STEM or non-STEM occupations.
Level Playing Field Institute. 2011. The tilted playing field: Hidden bias in information technology workplaces.
This study examined anonymous survey data from engineers and managers at large IT companies and small start-ups. It found that: (1) IT workplace experiences vary by race, gender, and company size; (2) negative workplace experiences lead to increased turnover in IT roles; and (3) diversity is not a priority for gatekeepers. Based on these findings, the study also proposed recommendations to address the issue of underrepresentation.
Lewis, Ricki. 1995. Industry becomes more hospitable to the scientist as new mother. The Scientist 9(1): 21.
This article suggests that the challenge of successfully combining the demands of family and career may be easing for women scientists in industry, as many firms have revamped maternity leave policies to better accommodate new parenthood and the transition back to work.
London Business School. 2007. Innovative potential: Men and women in teams.
This study explores individuals’ impact on a team’s decision making and the interaction among team members. The research collects and analyzes the individual experiences of both men and women in teams. It then looks into how to unlock men’s and women’s innovative potential at an individual level and at a team level,
Lyness, K.S., and M.K. Judiesch. 2008. Can a manager have a life and a career? International and multisource perspectives on work-life balance and career advancement potential. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(4): 789-805.
The authors examine the relationship between work-life balance and career advancement potential using self, peer, and supervisor ratings of 9,627 managers in 33 countries. The study finds that managers with a higher rating in work-life balance are rated higher in career advancement potential; in addition, work-life balance ratings are positively related to advancement potential ratings for women in highly egalitarian cultures and men in low-gender-egalitarian cultures.
Malcom, S., A.H. Teich, J.K. Jesse, L.A. Campbell, E.L. Babco, and N.E. Bell. 2005. Preparing women and minorities for the IT workforce: The role of nontraditional educational pathways. American Association for the Advancement of Science and Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology.
This study examines the role of nontraditional educational pathways in preparing women and underrepresented minorities for the IT workforce. It reviews the traditional and nontraditional pathways into the IT workforce and concludes that the current system of preparation of “line” information technology/computer science (IT/CS) professionals (line managers) appears to be structured to accommodate 18-year-olds who come to colleges or universities directly out of high school. The presumption that their attendance is supported by parents or/and student loans is narrow and outmoded, especially for women and minorities who pursue IT/CS degrees.
Martin, L., and G. Ferraro. 2000. Reaping the bottom line benefits of diversity. ASAE Center.
In this article, two women politicians share their views about the value of diversity. discuss how to deal with diversity and how to use training and leadership to ensure organizational success in a changing labor environment.
Mattis, M., and J. Allyn. 1999. Women scientists in industry. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 869: 143-174.
This report reviews the barriers for women scientists from previous research and focuses on women scientists who are employed in industry. The findings show that barriers for women scientists in industry persist, though they have experienced progress. Differences were observed across companies in industries employing women scientists. Some companies were viewed as more informed and proactive in improving the work environment and career opportunities for women scientists. Examples of effective corporate initiatives to enhance the retention, recruitment, and advancement of women scientists were gathered in this study.
McKinsey & Company. 2010. Women at the top of corporations: Making it happen.
This report indicates that the majority of leaders agreed on women leaders’ contribution to a company’s performance. However, promoting diversity was not one of the top priorities on the company’s strategic agenda. The report then reviews corporate programs that aim to promote diversity, and indicates that leadership commitment and women’s individual development programs are the most effective among various measures.
McKinsey & Company. 2011. Unlocking the full potential of women in the US economy. McKinsey Quarterly. Online (www.mckinsey.com/client_service/organization/latest_thinking/unlocking_the_full_potential).
In this report, McKinsey & Company examines the following: (1) how women contribute to the US economy; (2) how women’s work benefits individual corporations; (3) what prevents women from making greater contributions to their companies; and (4) what approaches can help companies unlock the full potential of women. Their findings underscore the need for systemic and organizational change.
McKinsey & Company. 2012. Women matter 2012: Making the breakthrough. McKinsey Quarterly. Online (www.mckinsey.com/features/women_matter).
This report presents the results from research into the gender diversity practices of 235 European companies, of which the vast majority were devoting significant resources to redressing the gender imbalance. Many made progress with training programs established to open the organizations’ eyes to the value of diversity. But despite the progress, many companies expressed their frustration at the absence of more concrete results. Some companies admitted that their initiatives were not always gaining traction, particularly with managers lower down in the organization.
McQuaid, J., L. Smith-Doerr, and D.J. Monti, Jr. 2008. Expanding entrepreneurship: Female and foreign-born founders of New England biotechnology firms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, July 31.
This article examines the role of women and immigrants in founding science-based biotechnology firms, using the data from a survey of 261 biotechnology firms in New England in 2006. The results show that 42 percent of the firms have at least one foreign-born founder, and 21 percent of the firms have at least one female founder. Interviews are included in the study to supplement the data and to show some barriers and opportunities for foreign-born entrepreneurs.
Mitchell, L. 2011. Overcoming the gender gap: Women entrepreneurs as economic drivers. Kauffman Foundation. Online (www.kauffman.org/~/media/kauffman_org/research%20reports%20and%20covers/2011/09/growing_the_economy_women_entrepreneurs.pdf).
This report examines the intersection between the need for US economic recovery and the status of women’s entrepreneurship. It shows that women were behind men in measures of start-up activity and growth of their firms, which represented an untapped economic resource. This report documents the current gender gap, debunks common myths and misconceptions about women entrepreneurs, and explores ways to cultivate high-growth start-ups among women.
Moris, F. 2004. Industrial R&D employment in the United States and in US multinational corporations. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf05302/nsf05302.pdf.
This InfoBrief examines employment data for industrial scientists and engineers in research and development (R&D) during 1994-2001. The data show that industrial R&D employment has grown at a faster rate than overall industrial employment in the United States. The US manufacturing sector employed the most R&D workers in 2001, followed by the computer and electronic product industry, information industry, and professional, scientific, and technical services. Germany, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, and Japan accounted for about 70 percent of R&D expenditures and R&D employment in 2001 by US affiliates of foreign
companies, and most of the R&D employment and expenditures by foreign affiliates of US multinational corporations was concentrated in three manufacturing industries: chemicals (including pharmaceuticals and medicines), computer and electronic products, and transportation equipment.
Murray, F., and L. Graham. 2007. Buying science and selling science: Gender differences in the market for commercial science. Industrial and Corporate Change 16(4): 657-689.
Using interviews with life science faculty, the authors examined mechanisms that instituted, reinforced, and reduced the gender gap in commercial science between 1975 and 2005. Gender differences were found on both the demand and supply sides, and the differences remained significant among junior faculty. However, the authors found that advisor mentoring and the presence of institutional support contribute to the decline of the gender differences.
National Research Council. 1991. Women in science and engineering: Increasing their numbers in the 1990s: A statement on policy and strategy. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report explores the underparticipation of women in these fields and presents a strategic plan of action: (1) strengthen the S&E infrastructure; (2) examine the effectiveness of intervention programs; (3) explore career patterns for women in S&E employment; and (4) examine the adequacy of high-quality data.
National Research Council. 1994. Balancing the scales of opportunity: Ensuring racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report looks at the historical significance of racial and ethnic underrepresentation in the health professions, presents data on the problem, and identifies underlying factors that contribute to the failure to achieve fairness in opportunity. The report also examines effective efforts that have decreased underrepresentation and recommends actions and a research agenda to increase numbers of minorities in the health professions.
National Research Council. 1994. Women scientists and engineers employed in industry: Why so few? Washington: National Academies Press.
This report, based on a conference, examines quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding the low employment of women scientists and engineers in the US industrial workforce. It includes corporate responses to this underparticipation and assesses issues related to the working environment and attrition of women professionals in industry.
National Research Council. 1997. Building a diverse workforce: Scientists and engineers in the Office of Naval Research. Washington: National Academies Press.
In late 1994 the Office of Naval Research asked the National Research Council to provide advice on how to ensure diversity in its future science and engineering workforce in order to meet the needs of anticipated naval science and engineering specialties. Responding to this request, the study examined the characteristics of the Office of Naval Research science and engineering workforce and its recruitment practices. The second part of the study reviewed the Office of Naval Research’s educational programs and provided recommendations to improve their effectiveness.
National Research Council. 2000. Women in the chemical workforce: A workshop report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report compiled individually authored papers from participants at the Chemical Sciences Roundtable to examine issues pertinent to the chemical and chemical engineering workforce, with an emphasis on the advancement of women in chemistry.
National Research Council. 2001. From scarcity to visibility: Gender differences in the careers of doctoral scientists and engineers. Washington: National Academies Press.
This study looked into factors that lead to gender gaps in the careers of doctoral scientists and engineers. It examined the employment of doctoral scientists and engineers by gender as well as disparities between men and women in those fields. It then explored factors that contribute to the disparities. The report indicates that the gender gap is most closely related to conditions that slow or interrupt careers, especially in academia.
National Research Council. 2001. The right thing to do, the smart thing to do: Enhancing diversity in health professions. Summary of the symposium on diversity in health professions in honor of Herbert W. Nickens, M.D. Washington: National Academies Press.
The report captures the presentations and discussions at the Symposium on Diversity in the Health Professions, which was convened in 2001 to address challenges to the health professions workforce. The report is composed of 13 individually authored papers.
National Research Council. 2002. Diversity in engineering: Managing the workforce of the future. Washington: National Academies Press.
This is a summary report for the National Academy of Engineering’s 2001 workshop on “Best Practices in Managing Diversity.” The report contains 15 presentations from the workshop on successful corporate programs that have effectively recruited, retained, and advanced women and underrepresented minorities in engineering careers. It also captures the discussion on developing metrics to better evaluate diversity programs.
National Research Council. 2003. Minorities in the chemical workforce: Diversity models that work—A workshop report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report is a collection of contributed papers on success stories for increasing diversity. Along with background information on the value of diversity in the undergraduate environment, the stories address both undergraduate and graduate chemistry programs as well as chemical industry.
National Research Council. 2003. Envisioning a 21st century science and engineering workforce for the United States: Tasks for university, industry, and government. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report responds to a request from the National Academies’ Government-University-Industry Roundtable regarding views of 21st century challenges for the science and engineering workforce. The report identifies factors that lead to a declining S&E workforce, describes the risks and consequences of this decline, and suggests tasks for government, university, and industry to strengthen the workforce.
National Research Council. 2004. In the nation’s compelling interest: Ensuring diversity in the health care workforce. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report assesses the potential benefit of having greater racial and ethnic diversity in the health profession. It examines institutional and policy-level strategies that health professions schools, their associations and accreditation bodies, health care systems/organizations, and state and federal governments can pursue to increase diversity among health professionals.
National Research Council. 2005. Engineering research and America’s future: Meeting the challenges of a global economy. Washington: National Academies Press.
This book highlights the trends that adversely affect US competitiveness and the nation’s capacity for innovation. It provides nine recommendations to various stakeholders to help strengthen US engineering research, underscoring its critical role in maintaining US technological leadership.
National Research Council. 2005. Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report is based on a congressionally mandated consensus study that identified two key challenges tightly coupled to scientific and engineering prowess: (1) creating high-quality job; and (2) responding to the nation’s need for clean, affordable, and reliable energy. The committee then came up with four recommendations that focus on actions in K-12 education, research, higher education, and economic policy, along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation’s needs.
National Research Council. 2006. Opportunities to address clinical research workforce diversity needs for 2010. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report summarizes a 2003 workshop that explored opportunities to address clinical research workforce diversity needs for 2010. The report reviews programs and policies in public and private sectors and highlights exemplary programs that help recruit and retain women and underrepresented minorities in clinical research.
National Research Council. 2006. Beyond bias and barriers: Fulfilling the potential of women in academic science and engineering. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report reviews challenges and barriers faced by women in academic science and engineering. It explains that eliminating gender bias in academia requires immediate overarching reform, including decisive action by university administrators, professional societies, federal funding agencies and foundations, government agencies, and Congress. It recommends actions that would help improve workplace environments for all employees while strengthening the foundations of America’s competitiveness, and says that these actions need to be implemented and coordinated across public, private, and government sectors.
National Research Council. 2007. Understanding interventions that encourage minorities to pursue research careers: Summary of a workshop. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report summarizes a workshop that was convened in 2007 to understand the factors that contribute to the success of intervention programs that encourage minorities to pursue careers in research. Three major topics were discussed at the workshop: (1) examples of previous research,
such as social cognitive career theory and research into existing interventions at different levels of the pipeline; (2) elements of effective research; and (3) developing a research agenda.
National Research Council. 2011. Rising above the gathering storm, revisited: Rapidly approaching category 5. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report, which evaluates changes in America’s competitiveness since the original Gathering Storm report was published in 2005, finds that “our nation’s outlook has worsened.” It finds that the overall public school system has shown little sign of improvement, particularly in mathematics and science. In the meantime, many other nations have been markedly progressing, thereby affecting America’s relative ability to compete effectively for new factories, research laboratories, administrative centers, and jobs. The report concludes that in spite of efforts by government and the private sector, the outlook for America to compete for quality jobs deteriorated over the past five years.
National Research Council. 2011. Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America’s science and technology talent at the crossroads. Washington: National Academies Press.
This report examines the role of diversity in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and its value in keeping American competitive. It analyzes the rate of change and the challenges the nation faces in developing a strong and diverse workforce. Although minorities are the fastest growing segment of the population, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science and engineering. The study suggests that the federal government, industry, and postsecondary institutions work collaboratively with K-12 schools and school systems to increase minority access to and demand for postsecondary STEM education and technical training.
National Science Board. 2012. Science and engineering labor workforce. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
From 1993 to 2008, the percentage of women workers in S&E fields and occupations gradually increased, though women are concentrated in different fields (social sciences, biological and medical sciences) than men (engineering, computer science). It shows that only 9 percent of the S&E workforce in 2008 was Hispanic, black, or Native American, although their percentage in the population is roughly 26 percent, in contrast to Asian Americans, who make up 5 percent of the US population but 17 percent of the workers in S&E occupations.
Nosek, B.A., F.L. Smyth, N. Sriram, N.M. Lindner, T. Devos, A. Ayala, Y. Bar-Anan, R. Bergh, H. Cai, K. Gonsalkorale, S. Kesebir, N. Maliszewski, F. Neto, E. Olli, J. Park, K. Schnabel, K. Shiomura, B.T. Tulbure, R.W. Wiers, M. Somogyi, N. Akrami, B. Ekehammar, M. Vianello, M.R. Banaji, and A.G. Greewald. 2009. National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. PNAS 106(26): 10593–10597.
Using results from more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries, this study reveals that about 70 percent of people held implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. Nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th grade science and mathematics achievement, while self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap.
The authors suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.
Obiomon, P.H., V.C. Tickles, A.H. Wowo, and S. Holland-Hunt. 2007. Advancement of women of color in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. Faculty Resource Network.
This paper identifies unique barriers faced by women of color in STEM in faculty positions as well as positions of leadership in the STEM industry. Stereotyping, bicultural stress, and tokenism are barriers that ultimately affect the extent to which women of color advance to tenure, receive research funding, obtain leadership positions, and remain in long-term faculty and leadership positions. Solutions to overcoming these barriers lie primarily in awareness, understanding, and training of women of color and the administrators, faculty, and STEM management involved in advancing their status.
Ong, M.M. 2011. The status of women of color in computer science. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 54(7): 32-34.
Using findings from the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project “Inside the Double Bind: A Synthesis of Empirical Literature on Women of Color,” the paper shows that the underrepresentation of women of color in STEM can be linked to the digital divide, unique social challenges for women of color in school, family, and social balance, and the increased number of women of color obtaining their degrees in nontraditional manners.
Page, Scott. 2009. The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This book discusses how people think in groups, how collective wisdom exceeds the sum of its parts, and why teams of people find better solutions. The author notes that progress and innovation may depend less on lone thinkers with high IQs than on diverse people working together. It shows that groups that display a range of perspectives outperform groups of like-minded experts. The author moves beyond the politics that influence standard debates about diversity and explains why difference beats homogeneity.
Pelled, L.H., K.M. Eisenhardt, and K.R. Xin. 1999. Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 44(1): 1-28. This paper presents and tests an integrative model of the relationships among diversity, conflict, and performance. The results show that diversity shapes conflict and that conflict, in turn, shapes performance, although the linkages have subtleties. It also shows that functional background diversity drives task conflict, but multiple types of diversity drive emotional conflict. Race and tenure diversity are positively associated with such conflict, and task routineness and group longevity moderate these relationships.
Simard, C. 2007. Barriers to the advancement of technical women. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.
This report reviews research and literature on technical women, the barriers they encounter in their careers, and effective recruitment and retention practices.
Simard, C. 2009. Obstacles and solutions for underrepresented minorities in technology. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology. Online (www.cssia.org/pdf/20000280-ObstaclesandSolutionsforUnderrepresentedMinoritiesinTechnology.pdf).
This report is based on analysis a survey with a sample of 1,795 respondents from seven high-technology companies working in technical positions. It describes the representation of men and women of color in high-technology companies, as well as their work values and self-perceptions. Another part of the study focused on exploring practices that are considered most important to underrepresented groups’ retention and advancement.
Simard, C. 2009. Retaining a diverse technical pipeline during and after a recession. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology. Online (http://anitaborginstitute.org/files/diverse-technical-pipeline.pdf).
An unprecedented economic downturn has hurt employee engagement and further jeopardized the focus on practices important to technical women. As a recovery occurs, companies are at risk of further losing female technical talent. The report shows that an ongoing focus on practices that impact retention and advancement, such as a culture of employee development and flexibility, will give companies a competitive advantage in the recovery by enhancing the retention of a diverse technical workforce as well as position them for renewed recruitment.
Simard, C., A.D. Henderson, S.K. Gilmartin, L. Schiebinger, and T. Whitney. 2009. Climbing the technical ladder: Obstacles and solutions for mid-level women in technology. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.
This study pursues answers to three key questions: (1) Who are mid-level technical women? (2) What are the barriers to retain and advance mid-level women? and (3) How can companies secure their investments by ensuring that female technical talent advance to leadership positions? Based on the analysis of the survey results, five recommendations are discussed in the report: (1) invest in professional development, (2) foster a positive work culture, (3) offer flexible working schedules, (4) train and reward managers and executives, and (5) diversify leadership.
Simard, C., and S. K. Gilmartin. 2010. Senior technical women: A profile for success. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.
This report offers a snapshot of a rarity in technology: senior technical women working at prominent Silicon Valley technology companies. By examining senior women’s profiles, the authors wish to provide companies and individuals with insights on the paths to success in existing organizational structures and hope the experiences can be used to leverage a greater number of senior technical women.
Simard, C., and D.L. Gammal. 2012. Solutions to recruit technical women. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.
This report presents data-driven results in both academic research and corporate practice that have improved the representation of technical women. It includes examples that show how high-profile companies such as IBM have implemented solutions that ultimately allow for greater returns on their search for and investment in top technical talent. The strategies are broken down
into four areas: recruitment avenues, recruitment practices, the hiring process, and overarching considerations.
Sztein, A.E. 2005. Women in science: Assessing progress, promoting action. Conference Report. Washington: Association of Women in Science.
This report is a conference summary of the National Conference for Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Disciplines in 2005. It mainly reviews the progress that has been made to date on the status of women in science and engineering.
Thacker, P.D. 2007. Progress over the long term. Online (www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/01/09/science).
This article reviews a 2007 report from the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, Professional Women and Minorities, which describes the increased representation of women in professional STEM fields that outpaced the increase in representation of minorities in the same fields.
Thom, M. 2001. Balancing the equation: Where are women and girls in science, engineering and technology? New York: National Council for Research on Women.
This report presents strategies for ensuring full participation and achievement in the sciences by women and girls, calling upon all adults to support the interest and persistence of females in science, engineering, and technology.
Thomas, D.A. 2004. IBM finds profit in diversity. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. Online (http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4389.html).
The article highlights four factors that are considered critical by IBM’s diversity task forces: (1) demonstrate leadership support, (2) engage employees as partners, (3) integrate diversity with management practices, and (4) link diversity goals to business goals.
Touchton, Judy. 2009. Beyond the degree: Where are women scientists, and how are they doing? On Campus with Women 37(2). Online (www.aacu.org/ocww/volume37_2/data.cfm).
The article examines women’s employment in government, academia, and industry using National Science Foundation data. It explores where women scientists are employed, how successfully they are able to advance, and how well they are compensated. Specifically, the author looks into the differential impact of marriage and family for women scientists’.
Tullo, Alexander H. 2001. Still few women at the top. C&EN 79(27): 18-19.
The article highlights the low representation of women in chemical industry. It indicates that women are poorly represented in managerial positions.
Tullo, Alexander H. 2005. Women in industry. C&EN 83(24): 14-15.
The article gives an overview of women’s representation on chemical company boards. The lack of female representation shows that the chemical industry is still largely a man’s world. Change has been slow regarding the advancement of women into the upper corporate ranks of chemical companies. As evidenced by C&EN’s annual survey of women serving as company executives and directors, male dominance of the industry continues.
Tullo, Alexander H. 2008. Women in industry: In the boardroom and executive suite, women’s participation is still minuscule. C&EN 85(31): 38-39.
C&EN’s recent annual survey of women in publicly traded chemical companies finds that of 416 individuals on boards of directors for 42 chemical companies, only 12 percent were women. It indicates an increase from the 2006 data; however, the progress is still slow.
Tullo, Alexander H. 2010. Women in industry. C&EN 85(32): 16-17.
This article discusses women’s slow but steady progress in the US chemical industry. Ellen J. Kullman became the first female CEO of a publicly traded firm dedicated to chemicals when she took over the top job at DuPont at the beginning of 2009. C&EN’s 2010 survey shows that women have made advances by all measures. The survey finds that 13.4 percent of the 396 directors at chemical companies are women. Women made sharper gains in the executive suite as some 9.6 percent of the 418 executive officers at the chemical firms in the survey are women. An emerging barrier to women attaining the kinds of positions that would put them on the surveys compiled by C&EN and Catalyst is the level of satisfaction they feel with their employers.
Tuna, C. 2008. Initiative moves women up corporate ladder. Wall Street Journal. Online (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122446435886248933.html).
This article follows LeasePlan USA’s efforts to transform its corporate culture and help move women up the corporate ladder. The company believes that those efforts appear to have led to increasing job satisfaction and engagement among LeasePlan’s women employees over time.
Urquhart, Kirstie. 2000. Women in science: Academia or industry? Science Careers.
This article conveys that women are not well represented or advanced in science by presenting the scissors diagram. Interviews with women scientists who are employed in academia and industry highlight a few of the barriers. Women scientists working in industry tend to find better work-life balance than those in academia, the article says.
US Commission on Civil Rights. 2010. Encouraging minority students to pursue science, technology, engineering and math careers. A briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights in Washington, DC.
The commission examined why minority college students entered college with the intention to major in STEM fields, yet left those disciplines before graduation at greater rates from those students. The Commission focused on the idea of the “mismatch hypothesis,” where students with academic credentials that are different (either positive or negative) than the other students in the class may learn less than if they were matched with students with the same credentials. The experts on the panel, who represented various institutions of secondary or higher education, did not agree on whether affirmative action decisions can lead to negative mismatches for underrepresented minorities. This report includes other findings and recommendations from this panel of experts.
Vedantam, S. 2008. Most diversity training ineffective, study finds. The Washington Post, January 20.
The author raised the concern that many diversity training efforts at American companies are ineffective. A review of 830 mid-to-large size companies over more than 30 years found that the number of women in management actually decreased by 7.5 percent, with African American
women decreasing 10 percent and African American men decreasing 12 percent. Statistics for Hispanics and Asian Americans were not given, but the article states that they saw similar decreases.
White House Project. 2009. Benchmarking women’s leadership.
This report seeks to address gender equality and offer recommendations that involve specific accountability measures to track progress as well as creative suggestions for solutions. The recommendations cover ten employment sectors (academia, business, film and television, journalism, law, military, nonprofit, politics, religion, and sports) with the hope of achieving transformation and propelling a critical mass of diverse women into leadership alongside men.
Whittington, K.B., and L. Smith-Doerr. 2008. Women inventors in context: Disparities in patenting across academia and industry. Gender & Society 22(2): 194-218.
The authors examined the effects that different work settings (academy and industry) have on sex disparities in scientists’ careers and commercial productivity (measured by patenting in this study). Using data from academic and industrial scientists working in the US, the authors conducted multivariate regression analysis and found that women are less likely to patent than men. However, in flatter, more flexible network-based organizational structures, female scientists are more likely to patent than in more hierarchically arranged organizations.
Wu, L.S., and W. Jing. 2011. Asian women in STEM careers: An invisible minority in a double bind. Issues in Science and Technology 28: 82-87.
This study examines Asian women’s representation and advancement in three employment sectors: academia, industry, and the federal government. Based on National Science Foundation data, the authors found that overall, Asian women were well represented in terms of educational attainment. However, the percentage of Asian women decreases as they move up within their institution. The study also found that Asian women rank among the lowest percentage of managers in S&E positions. The authors suggest that Asian women face a double bind caused by their gender and ethnicity.
Zhao, H., S.E. Seibert, and G.E. Hills. 2005. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology 90(6): 1265-1272. Based on structural equation modeling with a sample of 265 MBA students, the authors found that entrepreneurial self-efficacy can mediate the effects of perceived learning from entrepreneurship-related courses, previous entrepreneurial experience, and risk propensity on entrepreneurial intentions. However, gender was not mediated by self-efficacy.