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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Index

A

Adolescents, see Teenagers

Aflatoxin, 3, 130

Age

and body mass index, 72

and caloric intake, 80

and gallstones, 83

and heart disease, 99

and weight for height, 73

Alcohol consumption

blood alcohol levels, 124

calories from, 36, 37, 121

and cancer, 14, 114, 115, 125-126

and cigarette smoking, 125

classification of drinkers, 123-124

deaths from, 58

dietary guidelines, 6, 13-14, 19, 21, 23

and heart disease, 14, 126

and high blood pressure, 14, 65, 126

and liver disease, 14, 77, 114, 124-125

and nervous system diseases, 14, 126-127

and nutritional deficiencies, 14

and obesity, 126

physiological effects of, 124

during pregnancy, 14, 127

and stroke, 126

Alcoholism, 14, 77, 114, 125

Alginates, 40

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 116

American Academy of Pediatrics, 116

American Cancer Society, 20-21

American Dental Association, 16, 116

American Diabetes Association, 17, 20-21

American Dietetic Association, 15, 22, 161

American Heart Association, 17, 20-21

American Institute of Nutrition, 15

American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 15

Amino acids

B vitamins and, 49

essential, 29, 47

sources, 12-13, 47

supplements, 15

Anemia (iron deficiency), 58, 116-117

Aneurysms, 63

Angina pectoris, 62

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Antioxidants, 48, 52

Artificial sweeteners, 21, 122, 129

Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C

Aspartame, 129

Atherosclerosis

cholesterol and, 61, 89

deaths, 58, 59

diabetes and, 69

fat intake and, 11, 60

mechanisms, 60-61

and peripheral artery disease, 63

prevention, 12, 61

reversal, 61

saturated fatty acids and, 92-93

and stroke, 60, 61, 64

vitamin C and, 111-112

in young adults, 99

Avocado, 41, 135, 136

B

B vitamins, see specific vitamins

Bacon, 142

Baking soda, 52, 119

Bananas, 137

Beans

caloric intake trends, 55

carbohydrates in, 40

fiber in, 41

minerals in, 51-52

protein in, 29, 47

recommendations, 138

vitamins in, 48-49

Beef fat, 45

Beer, 6, 13, 122

Beta-carotene, 110, 111

BHA and BHT, 130

Bile, 76

Bile duct cancer, 84

Biotin, 30, 50, 159

Blacks

coronary heart disease, 63

high blood pressure, 66, 67

stroke, 12, 64

Bladder cancer, 68, 111, 127-128, 129

Blindness, 69

Blood

clotting, 47, 48

pressure, 65-66

see also High blood pressure

Body fat distribution

and blood pressure, 83

and diabetes, 70, 73

genetic factor in, 82

and heart disease, 73

and stroke, 71-72

waist-to-hip ratio, 73-74, 83

Body mass index, 71-72

Bone

composition, 75

formation and growth, 48, 51, 52

mass, 15, 51, 115

Bran, 30, 40, 41, 106, 107

Bread, 91

carbohydrates in, 137

fiber in, 30, 41

minerals in, 51

protein in, 29

recommendations, 6, 7, 12, 101, 133, 137

vitamins in, 49, 50

Breakfast, 54-55, 153

Breakfast cereals, 48, 49

Breast cancer, 2, 11, 24, 68, 84, 96, 97, 113, 125

Breast milk, 98-99

Breastfeeding, 15

Brewer's yeast, 51

Broccoli, 48

Butter

cholesterol in, 55

fats in, 27, 28, 41, 42, 45, 134, 143

margarine substituted for, 132-133

and serum cholesterol, 92

vitamins in, 48, 110

C

Cabbage, 48

Cafeteria food, 154

Caffeine, 112, 127, 128

Cakes and cookies, 28, 41, 149

Calcium

and chronic disease, 115-116

dietary guidelines, 6, 15, 21, 23

and osteoporosis, 15, 23, 115

plaque formation in blood stream, 60

protein intake and, 11, 103

recommended intake, 115, 159

role in the body, 30, 50, 51, 115

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

sources, 15, 23, 51, 115, 138

supplements, 15, 21, 115

vitamin D and, 21, 47, 48

Caloric intake

activity level and, 35-36, 54

age and, 80

from carbohydrates, 54-55

and dietary supplement use, 15

and expenditures, 35-36, 79-81

from fat, 10, 54-55

from meat and poultry, by cut, 141

and obesity, 2

from saturated fatty acids, 10, 25-26

and weight, 22, 37, 80-81

Cancer

alcohol consumption and, 113, 125-126

caloric intake and, 97

coffee and tea and, 127-128

deaths, 58, 59, 67

diagnosis, 68

diet-related types, 68

fats and, 2, 4, 11, 87, 96-97, 128

fiber and, 106

mechanisms in, 67-68, 125-126

preventive foods and nutrients, 12, 97, 110-111

protein and, 102

rates, 67

recommendations for risk reduction, 17, 20-21, 25

risk of, 27, 69

saturated fatty acids and, 4, 97

vitamin A and, 110-111

vitamin E and, 113

weight and, 84, 97

see also specific kinds of cancer

Canola oil, 43, 94, 133, 142, 143

Carbohydrates

caloric content, 36, 37

consumption trends, 54-55

defined, 29-30

dental caries and, 77, 103-104

fattening foods, 101, 133

and heart disease, 101

metabolism, 38, 48, 49, 51

and noninsulin-dependent diabetes, 104

role in the body, 34

sources, 38

structure, 39

types,

see Complex carbohydrates;

Fiber;

Sugars

Carotenoids, 48, 110, 137

Carrageenan, 40

Carrots, 12

Cavities, see Dental Caries

Cellulose, 30, 40-41

Cereals

carbohydrates in, 29, 40, 137

fiber in, 30, 41

food additives in, 129, 130

malted, 40

minerals in, 51-52

protein in, 47

recommended intakes, 6, 11, 12, 132, 133

vitamins in, 48-49

whole-grain, 30, 133

see also Grains and grain products

Cerebral hemorrhage, 64;

see also Stroke

Cerebral thrombosis, 64;

see also Stroke

Cervical cancer, 84, 111

Cheeses, 52, 92, 104, 132, 135, 138

Chest pain, 62

Chewing tobacco, 113-114

Children

calcium intake, 115

eating habits, 99

fat intake, 11, 81, 98-99

fluoride supplements, 16, 117

iron intake, 19

Chloride, 31, 51

Chocolate, 28, 41

Cholesterol (dietary)

children's intake, 99

consumption trends, 55

guidelines, 6, 10, 11, 18, 20, 22

responsiveness to, 93

and serum cholesterol, 10, 93

sources, 10, 28, 45, 46, 55, 141, 142, 149

Cholesterol (serum)

cholesterol intake and, 10, 93

coffee drinking and, 128

defined, 28

desirable levels, 46

diagnosis, 24

fiber intake and, 105-106

and heart disease, 25-27, 60, 87-91

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

high, prevalence of, 60

protein intake and, 102

role in the body, 28, 45, 76, 84

saturated fatty acids and, 10, 25-26, 95, 102

structure, 46

studies monitoring health effects, 89

total, 28, 46

types, 46

vitamin C and, 112

weight and production of, 84

see also HDL cholesterol;

LDL cholesterol

Chromium, 30, 51

Cigarette smoking, 63, 81-82, 96, 125, 128

Cirrhosis of the liver, 58, 59, 76-77, 124-125

Citrus fruits, 12, 48, 57, 137

Cobalamin, see Vitamin B12

Cobalt, 30

Cocktails, 6, 13

Cocoa butter, 92, 143

Coconut, 41, 44, 136

Coconut oil, 10, 142, 143, 146

Coffee and tea, 127-128

Colon cancer, 2, 11, 12, 68, 84, 96, 106, 128

Colorectal cancer, 68, 97

Complex carbohydrates

defined, 29-30

and dental caries, 103-104

dietary guidelines, 12, 19, 21, 22

food supply, 55

high-fat, 137

protective effects of, 103-104

role in the body, 41

serving recommendations, 6, 11, 12, 22, 134

sources, 22, 132, 135, 138

structure, 39

types, 39

see also Fiber;

Starches

Congestive heart failure, 77

Connective tissue growth, 48

Cookbooks, 162

Cooking, 21

broiling, 148

frying, 133, 147

microwaving, 148

salt addition during, 14

sauteing, 148

sodium equivalent, 14

steaming, 147

stir-frying, 147-148

substitutions, 149-152

vitamin destruction during, 48

Copper, 30, 48, 50, 51, 159

Corn oil, 143

Corn syrups, 40, 144

Coronary heard disease, 2, 13, 24-25, 27, 62, 73, 85

Cottage cheese, 138-139

Cottonseed oil, 143

Couch potatoes, energy needs, 36

Council on Scientific Affairs, dietary recommendation to U.S. public , 18-19

Crackers, 135, 145-146

Cream cheese, 150

D

Dairy products

cholesterol in, 10, 28, 46

fats in, 10, 28, 41, 102, 135, 138

low-fat/nonfat, 11, 132, 138-139

minerals in, 51-52, 115, 138

protein in, 47, 102

shopping for, 138-139

substitutes for, 150

see also specific products

Dark-green vegetables, 15, 48, 49, 51, 110

Deficiency diseases, 1-2, 55, 57-58

Dementia, 126

Dental caries, 2, 16, 58, 59, 77, 116

Desserts, 130, 135, 136

Dextrose, 144

Diabetes mellitus

body fat distribution and, 70, 73

complications of, 69, 104

deaths, 58, 59

insulin-dependent, 69-70

mechanisms in, 69

recommendations for risk reduction, 20-21

treatment, 69-70

types, 69-70

weight and, 83

see also Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Diet, changes over time, 53-56

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Dietary guidelines

alcoholic beverages, 6, 13-14, 19, 21

calcium, 6, 15

cholesterol, 6, 10, 11, 18, 20, 22

complex carbohydrates, 6, 12, 19, 21, 22

conflicts in, 23

development of, 3-5

exercise, 6, 13, 18, 20

fat, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22

fiber, 19, 21, 22-23

fluoride, 6, 16

of other expert groups, 16-23

see also specific groups

polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18, 20

protein, 6, 12-13, 23

risk-reducing, for specific diseases, 20-21, 24-27

salt (sodium chloride), 6, 14, 19, 21

saturated fatty acids, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22

sugars (simple), 18, 20

vitamin/mineral supplements, 6, 15-16

see also specific foods

Dietary terms/definitions

carbohydrates, 29-30

cholesterol, 28

fats, 27-28

fatty acids, 28

minerals, 30-31

protein, 28-29

vitamins, 30

Dieting, 5-7, 84-85

Dietitians, 161

Disaccharides, 39;

see also Sugars

Drinking water, fluoride in, 16, 19, 51, 116

E

Eating out, 4-5, 55, 152-154

Eating patterns

changes in, 55, 154-155

dieting, 5-7

guidelines, see Dietary guidelines

Education/information

materials, 161-162

programs, 3, 4

Eggs

cholesterol in, 10, 28, 46, 55, 149

consumption trends, 55

limiting intakes, 11

minerals in, 51, 52

role in cooking, 149

substitutes for, 132, 149-150

vitamins in, 48, 49, 110

Eicosapentaenoic acid, 44, 45

Electrolytes, 31, 50

Endometrial cancer, 13, 68, 84, 97

Energy,

see Caloric intake;

Food energy

Enzymes, 46, 47

Esophageal cancer, 2, 68, 111, 113-114, 125

Ethanol,

see Alcohol consumption;

Alcoholism

Ethnic cuisine, 5, 91-92, 153

Exercise

bicycle riding, 36

and blood pressure, 96

caloric intake and, 35, 54

guidelines, 6, 13, 17, 18, 20, 22

and weight, 13, 37, 81

F

Familial hypercholesterolemia, 90-91

Family history of disease, and prevention, 24

Fast-food, 4-5, 154

Fat-soluble vitamins, 30, 47-50, 159;

see also specific vitamins

Fats (dietary)

caloric intake from, 10, 36, 37, 54-55

and cancer, 2, 4, 11, 87, 96-97, 128

and children's health, 98-99

consumption trends, 53, 54-55

defined, 27-28

dietary guidelines, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22

energy conversion from, 37

and gallstones, 98

and heart disease, 2, 4, 11, 87, 88

hidden, in foods, 134-135

and high blood pressure, 95-96

metabolism of, 51

role in the body, 34, 37, 41

solubility, 41-42

sources, 27-28, 41, 141

substitution of leaner foods for, 11

structure, 41

see also Fatty acids;

Triglycerides

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Fatty acids

defined, 28

essential, 11, 43-44

and heart disease, 60, 91-94

niacin and, 49

structure, 42-43

see also Monounsaturated fatty acids;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids;

Saturated fatty acids;

and specific fatty acids

Fetal alcohol syndrome, 127

Fiber (dietary)

and cancer, 106

guidelines, 19, 21, 22-23

and heart disease, 105-106

and mineral deficiency, 107

protective effects of, 30, 103, 105, 106, 107

role in the body, 41

and serum cholesterol, 105-106

sources, 12, 22, 40-41, 105, 107, 138

supplements, 21, 107

types of, 105

Fish

cholesterol in, 10

consumption trends, 55

cooking, 148

minerals in, 51, 52

protein in, 140, 142

recommended intake, 19

substitution for meats, 11, 19, 140, 142

vitamins in, 48, 49

Fish oils, 44

Fluoride, 30

and dental caries, 116

dietary guidelines, 6, 16, 19

role in the body, 51

sources, 51, 116

supplements, 16, 117

Folacin, 30, 49, 114, 159

Food additives, 19, 40, 128-130

Food energy

availability of, 54

best sources, 29, 40

from carbohydrates, 49

dieting and efficiency of conversion, 85

from fats, 41, 49

measure of, 35;

see also Caloric intake

nutrients aiding conversion of, 48, 49, 51, 52

from protein, 49

requirements, 35, 36

role in the body, 35

storage as fat, 81

Food industry, recommended changes for, 4-5

Food labels

fat types, 146

on frozen foods, 146-147

health claims, 136, 139, 144

ingredient lists, 144, 146

nutrition information, 144-145, 146

serving size, 145-146

vitamin/mineral information, 110, 146

Food processing, 4, 40;

see also Cooking

Food shopping

dairy products, 138-139

frozen food, 146-147

fruits and vegetables, 136-137

grain products, 137

legumes, 138

meats and poultry, 139-140, 141

packaged foods, 144-146

packaged meats, 142-144

seafood, 140, 142

vegetable oils, 142

Food supply, changes in, 53-55

Foods

contaminants in, 122, 130

guidelines for choosing, 132-133, 162

menu planning, 33-34, 133-136

preparation, see Cooking

see also Food processing;

Food shopping;

and specific foods

Fried foods, 11, 133

Frozen foods, shopping for, 142-146

Fructose, 29, 39, 40, 103, 144

Fruits and vegetables

energy conversion from, 39

nutrients in, 28, 30, 31, 40, 41, 48, 49, 51, 52, 105, 118, 133

preparation, 130, 147-148

serving recommendations, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 22, 134, 135

shopping for, 136-137

G

Galactose, 40

Gallbladder cancer, 84

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Gallbladder disease, 13

Gallstones

age and, 83

fat intake and, 98

fiber intake and, 106

obesity and, 76, 83, 98

prevalence, 58, 59

weight and, 83-84

Gangrene, 63, 69

Genetic factors in chronic disease, 25, 65, 82

Genetic material, production aids, 49

Glucose, 29, 39, 69, 83

Goiter, 1, 58

Grains and grain products

aflatoxin contamination, 3

consumption trends, 55

nutrients in, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52, 105

recommendations, 22

shopping for, 137-138

see also Cereals

Green peppers, 48

Green vegetables, 12, 48, 49, 51

Growth, 48

Guidelines, see Dietary guidelines

Guar gum, 40, 106, 107

Gums, 40

H

Hardening of the arteries, see Atherosclerosis

HDL cholesterol, 28, 46, 61, 90, 91, 94

Heart attack, 4

alcoholic beverages and, 126

cause, 10, 62

cholesterol and, 88, 90, 93

deaths from, 63

diabetes and, 69

fiber and, 106

protein and, 102

risk reduction, 93, 106, 126

saturated fatty acids and, 88, 95

Heart disease

alcohol consumption and, 14, 126

carbohydrates and, 101

coffee and tea and, 128

deaths, 58, 59

fats and, 2, 4, 60, 87, 88

fatty acids and, 60, 91-94

fiber and, 105-106

geographic differences in incidence, 88-89

potassium and, 118

protective foods and nutrients, 13, 23, 126

protein and, 102

recommendations for risk reduction, 17, 20-21

salt intake and, 25

saturated fatty acids and, 4, 25-26, 94-95

serum cholesterol and, 25-27, 87-91

and stroke, 60

weight and, 82

see also Atherosclerosis

Height/weight tables, 17, 71, 73, 74

Hemachromatosis, 76

Hemicellulose, 40, 41

High blood pressure

alcohol consumption and, 14, 65, 126

body fat distribution and, 83

diagnosis/detection, 24, 66-67

effects on body systems, 65

fats and, 95-96

fiber intake and, 106

kidney disease and, 65

obesity and, 65

potassium and, 118

prevalence, 14, 58-59, 66-67

salt and, 2, 25, 65, 118

and stroke, 64

symptoms, 65-66

weight and, 13, 65, 82-83

High blood sugar, 40

High-density lipoproteins, 28;

see also HDL cholesterol

High-fructose corn syrups, 40, 144

Honey, 39, 144

Hot dogs, 142, 144

Hypertension, see High blood pressure

I

Ice cream, 36, 37, 38, 132

Ice milk, 36, 37, 38

Infants and toddlers

dietary recommendations, 15, 25, 98

Insulin, 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Inter-Society Commission for Heart Disease Resources, 20-21

Iodine, 1, 30, 51, 58, 159

Ions, 50, 52

Iron, 30, 50, 51

absorption, 50, 51

deficiency, 58, 116-117

dietary recommendations, 11, 19

U.S. RDAs, 159

role in the body, 51, 116-117

sources, 51, 116

Italian food, 91-92, 153

K

Kidney disease, 65, 69

L

Labels, see Food labels

Lactose, 29, 39, 40

Lard, 27, 28, 41, 132-133, 143, 146

Laryngeal cancer, 111, 125

Lauric acid, 42, 92

LDL cholesterol

coffee drinking and, 128

defined, 28, 46

dietary cholesterol and, 93

in familial hypercholesterolemia, 90-91

fiber intake and, 106

and heart attack, 90

role in the body, 61, 90

saturated fatty acid intake and, 92, 94

typical values, 90

vegetable oils and, 94, 133, 146

Lecithin, 15

Legumes, 6, 11, 12, 19, 22, 105, 132, 137-138;

see also specific legumes

Lentils, 138

Lettuce, 136

Lignin, 40, 41

Linoleic acid, 42, 43-44

Linolenic acid, 42, 43, 96

Lipids,

see Cholesterol;

Fats;

Fatty acids

Lipoproteins, 46, 90;

see also High-density lipoproteins;

Low-density

lipoproteins

Liver (food), 46, 48, 49, 51, 68, 110

Liver cancer, 125, 130

Liver disease

alcohol consumption and, 14, 114, 125-126

deaths, 58, 59

see also Cirrhosis of the liver

Locust bean gum, 40

Low-density lipoproteins, 28;

see also LDL cholesterol

Lunch meats, 142

Lung cancer, 12, 68, 110-111, 113

M

Macrominerals, 50;

see also Calcium;

Phosphorus

Magnesium, 51, 159

Maltose, 39-40, 144

Manganese, 30, 51

Maple syrup, 39, 144

Margarine, 27, 41, 44, 132-133, 139, 143

Meats and poultry

caloric content, 37, 141

cholesterol, 28, 46, 140, 141

consumption trends, 53-55, 92

cured, 129

fats in, 10, 28, 41, 102, 141

grades, 140

lean, 4, 11, 53, 132, 139-140, 150-151

minerals in, 31, 51, 52

packaged, 142-144

portion sizes, 11, 13, 135, 140

preservatives, 129

protein in, 47, 102

recommended intakes, 19, 134, 135

saturated fatty acids, 141

shopping for, 139-140, 142-144

substitutes for, 132, 151-152

vitamins in, 48, 49

Melons, 48

Men

caloric intake and expenditure, 35-36, 80

coronary heart disease, 63

Menu planning, 33-34, 133-136

Milk and milk products

aflatoxin in, 3

calories, 36, 37, 38

carbohydrates, 38, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

fat in, 37, 38, 45, 132, 135

fortification, 58

ice milk, 36, 37, 38

infant formula, 98-99

low-fat/nonfat, 15, 139, 147

minerals in, 15, 23, 51, 52, 132

protein in, 132

vitamins in, 48, 49, 110

see also Breast milk;

Dairy products

Minerals

deficiencies, 107, 109

defined, 30-31

role in the body, 30-31, 34, 50-52

sources, 51, 52

toxicity, 114

U.S. RDAs, 159

see also Trace elements;

and specific minerals

Molasses, 39, 144

Molybdenum, 30, 52

Monosaccharides, 39;

see also Sugars

Monosodium glutamate, 119

Monounsaturated fatty acids

caloric intake from, 54-55

and heart disease, 95

and serum cholesterol, 94, 133

sources, 28, 43, 44, 133, 142, 143

structure, 43

Mucilage, 40

Muscle function, 51, 52, 63

Mustard greens, 137

Myocardial infarction, see Heart attack

Myristic acid, 42, 92

N

National Cancer Institute, 17, 20-21

National Center for Nutrition and Dietetics, 161

National Council Against Health Fraud, 15

National Institutes of Health, 20-21

National Research Council, dietary recommendations, 18-21

Native Americans, 76

Nerve function, 51, 52

Nervous system diseases, alcohol consumption and, 14, 126-127

Niacin, 1, 30, 49, 58, 114, 159

Nitrites, 129

Nitrosamines, 129

Nondairy coffee whiteners, 150

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

body fat distribution and, 70, 83

caloric intake and, 2

carbohydrates and, 104

dietary recommendations for preventing, 17

fiber intake and, 106

obesity and, 70

risk factors, 70, 104

weight and, 13, 83

Nutrients

caloric content of, 35-37

deficiencies, 1, 14

see also specific nutrients

Nutrition counseling, 154, 161

Nuts

consumption trends, 55

fats in, 28

fiber in, 41

minerals in, 51, 52

protein in, 47

vitamins in, 48, 49

O

Oat bran, 40, 106

Oatmeal, 137

Obesity

alcohol consumption and, 126

caloric intake and, 2

and cancer, 97

and chronic disease, 17

defined, 70, 82

and gallstones, 76, 83

genetic factor, 82

and high blood pressure, 65

prevalence, 58-59, 75

Oils and fats, 11;

see also Vegetable oils

Oleic acid, 42, 43, 45

Olive oil, 43, 45, 92, 94, 142, 143

Oral cancer, 111, 125

Orange vegetables, 48, 110

Oriental food, 153

Osteoarthritis, 13

Osteomalacia, 112-113

Osteoporosis

and bone fracture, 75, 115

calcium and, 15, 23, 115-116

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

and estrogen therapy, 115

prevalence, 58, 59

protein and, 102

recommendations for risk reduction, 20-21

vitamin D and, 112, 113

Ovarian cancer, 68, 84

Overweight, 70, 71, 74-75, 82, 83, 85

P

Packaged foods, shopping for, 142-146

Palm-kernel oil, 10, 143

Palm oil, 10, 44, 143

Palmitic acid, 42, 43, 92

Pancreatic cancer, 68

Pantothenic acid, 30, 49, 159

Pasta, 7, 91, 137

Peanut butter, 29

Peanut oil, 43, 142, 143

Peanuts, 3, 31

Peas, 29, 41, 138

Pectin, 30, 40, 106

Pellagra, 1, 58, 109

Peripheral artery disease, 61, 63

Phenylketonuria, 129

Phosphorus, 48, 50, 52, 102, 159

Pickled foods, 129

Pinto beans, 40

Pizza, 135

Plaque, 10

Polysaccharides, see Complex carbohydrates

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

and blood pressure, 96

caloric intake from, 54-55, 96

dietary guidelines, 18, 20

and heart disease, 95

omega-3, 44, 45, 142

omega-6, 44

and serum cholesterol, 95

sources, 28, 44, 142, 143

structure, 43-44

Polyvinyl chloride, 128

Popcorn, 135

Potassium, 12, 31, 52, 118, 137

Potatoes, 7, 29, 31, 40, 101, 130, 133, 137

Poultry, see Meats and poultry

Pregnancy

and alcohol consumption, 13, 14, 127

and coffee and tea consumption, 128

dietary supplements during, 15

Preservatives, 119, 129, 130

Processed foods, 19, 135

Prostate cancer, 2, 11, 68, 84, 97

Protein

and calcium loss, 103

caloric intake from, 36, 37, 53, 54, 55

and cancer, 102

complementary proteins, 29

complete proteins, 29

defined, 28-29

dietary guidelines, 6, 12-13, 21, 23

energy conversion from, 37

and heart disease, 102

and osteoporosis, 103

role in the body, 34, 46

and saturated fatty acids intakes, 101

and serum cholesterol, 102

sources, 29, 47, 102, 132, 138, 140, 142

structure, 47

supplements, 15, 21

U.S. RDA, 159

Pyridoxine, see Vitamin B6

R

Reproduction, 48

Restaurants, 152-153

Retinoids, 110, 111

Retinol, see Vitamin A

Riboflavin, 30, 49, 113, 159

Rice, 29, 137

Rice bran, 40

Rickets, 58, 109, 112-113

Roughage, see Fiber

S

Saccharine, 129

Safflower oil, 143

Salad bars, 153-154

Salad dressings, 133, 134, 144, 150

Salt (sodium chloride)

added at the table, 133

and cancer, 14

components, 50, 52

dietary guidelines, 6, 14, 19, 21

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

and hypertension, 2, 25, 65, 118-119

iodized, 58

in processed foods, 4

sensitivity, 119

substitutes for, 151

Salts, 50, 52

Saturated fatty acids

and blood pressure, 96

caloric intake from, 10, 25-26, 54-55

and cancer, 4, 97

children's intake, 99

dietary guidelines, 5, 10-11, 18, 20, 22

and heart disease, 4, 11, 94-95

and serum cholesterol, 10, 25-26, 92, 94, 102

sources, 10, 23, 28, 101, 130, 132, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 146

structure, 42

types, 42

see also specific saturated fatty acids

Sausage, 142

Scurvy, 57-58

Seafood, 44, 51, 52, 53, 135, 140, 142

Seeds, 48, 52, 55

Selenium, 30, 52, 113

Sesame oil, 143

Shellfish, 28, 46, 51, 52, 142

Shopping, see Food shopping

Shortening, 27-28, 41, 42, 44, 130, 146

Skin, 48, 51

Smoked foods, 129

Snacks/snacking, 55, 135

Sodium

and high blood pressure, 118-119

role in the body, 52

salt equivalent, 14

sources, 31, 52, 119

and stroke, 12

Sodium chloride, see Salt

Soft drinks, 40, 104, 129

Soups, 144, 150-151

Soy sauce, 135

Soybean oil, 143, 146

Soybeans, 102

Spaghetti sauce, 144

Spicy foods, 150

Spinach, 136-137

Squash, 137

Starches, 6, 29, 40, 55;

see also Complex carbohydrates

Steak sauce, 135

Stearic acid, 42, 92

Stomach cancer, 12, 14, 68, 111, 119, 129-130

Strawberries, 48

Streptococcus mutans, 77

Stroke, 64

alcohol consumption and, 126

atherosclerosis and, 60, 61, 64

body fat distribution and, 72

cholesterol and, 10

deaths, 58, 59

diabetes and, 69

potassium and, 118

risk factors and populations, 12, 27

salt intake and, 25

signs and symptoms, 64

types, 64

Sucrose, 29, 39, 40, 103

Sugars (simple)

defined, 29

and dental caries, 103

dietary guidelines, 18, 20

energy conversion from, 39

food supply, 55

replacements listed on food labels, 144

sources, 39-40

structure, 39, 40

Sulfur, 30

Sunflower oil, 143

Supplements, see Vitamin/mineral supplements

Sweet potatoes, 12, 137

T

Tea, 51, 127-128

Teenagers

calcium intake, 15, 19, 115

iron intake, 19

Teeth, 51;

see also Dental Caries

Thiamin, 30, 48, 114, 127, 159

Throat cancer, 125

Tofu, 146

Tomatoes, 48

Tortillas, 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

Trace elements

role in the body, 34

toxicity, 30

see also specific elements

Triglycerides, 41, 42, 90

U

U.S. Department of Agriculture, dietary recommendations, 18-19, 161 -162

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, dietary recommendations , 18-19

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, dietary recommendations , 18-19

U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances (U.S. RDAs), 146, 159

U.S. Senate, dietary recommendations to U.S. public, 18-19

Unsaturated fatty acids

cis and trans configurations, 44-45

see also Monounsaturated fatty acids;

Polyunsaturated acids

V

Vegetable oils

cholesterol-reducing effects, 93-94

fat content of, 143, 146

hydrogenation, 44, 45

nutrients in, 28, 41, 42, 48, 135, 142

Vegetables, see Fruits and vegetables

Vegetarians, 15, 95, 105

Very-low-density lipoproteins, 46, 90

Viral hepatitis, 76

Vision, 48

Vitamin A, 30

activity, 110

and cancer, 110-111

protective effects of, 110-111

role in the body, 48

sources, 48, 110, 137

toxicity, 50

U.S. RDA, 159

Vitamin B1, see Thiamin

Vitamin B2, see Riboflavin

Vitamin B6, 30, 49, 114, 159

Vitamin B12, 30, 49, 50, 114, 159

Vitamin C, 30

and cancer, 111-112

deficiency, 57-58

protective effects of, 111-112

role in the body, 49

and serum cholesterol, 112

sources, 48, 57, 137

supplements, 112

U.S. RDA, 159

Vitamin D

and calcium absorption, 21, 47, 48, 50, 116

and cholesterol, 45

deficiency, 58, 112-113

manufacture in the body, 50

and osteomalacia, 112-113

and osteoporosis, 112, 113

role in the body, 47, 48, 112

sources, 48, 58

storage in the body, 30

supplements, 116

toxicity, 50

U.S. RDA, 159

Vitamin E, 30, 48, 113, 159

Vitamin K, 30, 47, 48, 50

Vitamin/mineral supplements

calcium, 15, 21

dietary guidelines, 6, 15-16, 21, 23

fluoride, 16

need for, 15, 16, 119-120

Vitamins

and alcoholism, 114, 127

deficiencies, 1, 109, 114, 127

food sources, 49-50

role in the body, 34, 47-50

storage in the body, 49-50

toxicity, 50, 120

types defined, 30

U.S. RDAs, 159

see also specific vitamins

W

Walnut oil, 143

Water-soluble vitamins, 30, 47-50, 159;

see also specific vitamins

Watermelon, 137

Weight

appropriate, determining, 70-71

caloric intake and, 22, 37, 80-81

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×

cancer and, 13, 84

and death rates, 70

diabetes and, 13, 83, 104

dieting cycle and, 84-85

exercise and, 13, 37, 81

fat intake and, 81

fiber consumption and, 105

gallstones and, 13, 83-84, 98

heart disease and, 13, 82

high blood pressure and, 13, 82-83

recommendations, 17

see also Body mass index;

Height/weight tables;

Obesity;

Overweight

Wheat, 52

bran, 41, 106, 107

germ, 48

Wine, 6, 13, 122

Women

bone loss, 75, 113

calcium intake, 15, 19

caloric intake and expenditure, 35-36, 80

coronary heart disease, 63

gallstones in, 76

high blood pressure, 66

iron intake, 19, 117

vitamin/mineral supplements, 15

Y

Yeast, 130

Yellow vegetables, 12, 48, 110

Yogurt, 36, 37, 38, 52, 132, 139, 146-147, 150

Z

Zinc, 30, 52, 159

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1365.
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Page 179
Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Get This Book
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Results from the National Research Council's (NRC) landmark study Diet and health are readily accessible to nonscientists in this friendly, easy-to-read guide.

Readers will find the heart of the book in the first chapter: the Food and Nutrition Board's nine-point dietary plan to reduce the risk of diet-related chronic illness. The nine points are presented as sensible guidelines that are easy to follow on a daily basis, without complicated measuring or calculating--and without sacrificing favorite foods.

Eat for Life gives practical recommendations on foods to eat and in a "how-to" section provides tips on shopping (how to read food labels), cooking (how to turn a high-fat dish into a low-fat one), and eating out (how to read a menu with nutrition in mind).

The volume explains what protein, fiber, cholesterol, and fats are and what foods contain them, and tells readers how to reduce their risk of chronic disease by modifying the types of food they eat. Each chronic disease is clearly defined, with information provided on its prevalence in the United States.

Written for everyone concerned about how they can influence their health by what they eat, Eat for Life offers potentially lifesaving information in an understandable and persuasive way.

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