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92 Adaptive managementârigorous application of management, research, and monitoring to gain information and experi- ence necessary to assess and modify management activities. A process that uses feedback from research, monitoring, and evaluation of management actions to support or modify objectives and strategies at all planning levels. Alien speciesâwith respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biolog- ical material, capable of propagating that species that is not native to that ecosystem. Biological controlâdirect and purposeful manipulation of natural enemies, pest competitors, or the resources required by these organisms for the reduction of negative economic, ecological, or aesthetic impact cause by weeds or other pests. BoiseâVale systemâIdaho/Oregon Bureau of Land Man- agement Weed Database. Clean Water Act Nonpoint Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)âpermit program that controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. Point sources are discrete con- veyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Controlâas appropriate, eradicating, suppressing, reducing, or managing invasive species including restoration of native species and habitats to reduce the effects of invasive species and to prevent further invasion. Cover typeâpresent vegetation of an area. Cultural controlâcultural weed management largely involv- ing manipulating practices to suppress weed growth and production, while promoting the development of desired plants. Common practices include preventing the spread of weeds between sites, encouraging the competitiveness of desired species, and using mulches and cover crops. Dedicated funding, dedicated personnelâfunding specifi- cally earmarked or directed to a specific purpose. Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR)âsystem to detect, report, identify, and immediate attempts to eradi- cate or control suspected new invasive plants with free liv- ing populations in the United States. Ecological integrityâecosystems have integrity when deemed characteristic for its natural region, including the composition and abundance of native species and biolog- ical communities, rates of change, and supporting proc- esses. In plain language, ecosystems have integrity when they retain their native components and complexity (plants, animals, and other organisms) and processes (such as growth, reproduction, energy flow, and nutrient cycling) to maintain the ecosystemâs capacity for self- organization through time. Ecosystemâdynamic and interrelating complex of plant and animal communities and their associated nonliving environment. Ecosystem managementâmanagement of natural resources using system-wide concepts to ensure that all plants and animals in ecosystems are maintained at viable levels in native habitats and basic ecosystem processes are perpet- uated indefinitely. Ecotypeâsmallest taxonomic subdivision of species, con- sisting of populations adapted to a particular set of envi- ronmental conditions. Endangered species (federal)âplant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Endangered species (state)âplant or animal species in dan- ger of becoming extinct or extirpated in an individual state within the near future if factors contributing to its decline continue. Populations of these species are at critically low levels or their habitats have been degraded or depleted to a significant degree. Environmental assessment (EA)âconcise public document, prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, that briefly discusses the purpose and need for an action, alternatives to such action, and provides suffi- cient evidence and analysis of impacts to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or Finding of No Significant Impact (40 CFR 1508.9). Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)âdetailed written state- ment required by section 102(2)(C) of the National Envi- ronmental Policy Act, analyzing the environmental impacts of a proposed action, adverse effects of the project that can- not be avoided, alternative courses of action, short-term uses of the environment versus the maintenance and enhance- ment of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irre- trievable commitment of resources (40 CFR 1508.1 I). Environmental Management System (EMS)âidentification of aspects of operations that may impact the environment; also a step in the development of a system to manage envi- ronmental impacts. Faunaâall vertebrate and invertebrate animals of an area. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW)âformal part- nership between 16 federal agencies with direct invasive plant management and regulatory responsibilities span- ning the United States and its territories. FICMNEW was established through a Memorandum of Understanding in August 1994. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)âdocument pre- pared in compliance with the National Environmental Pol- icy Act, supported by an Environmental Assessment, that briefly presents why a federal action will have no signifi- cant effect on the human environment and for which an Environmental Impact Statement, therefore, will not be prepared (40 CFR 1508.13). Floraâall the plant species of an area. GLOSSARY
93 Forbâbroad-leaved, herbaceous plant. Geographic information system (GIS)âcomputer system capable of storing and manipulating spatial data. Global Positioning System (GPS)âworldwide radio naviga- tion system, formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations, used to calculate positions accurately. Goalâdescriptive, open-ended, and often broad statements of desired future conditions that convey a purpose but do not define measurable units. Habitatâunique characteristics of abiotic and biotic envi- ronments; a place where an organism typically lives. Habitat typeâsee vegetation type. Incident Command System (ICS)âstandardized, on-scene, all- hazard incident management concept. ICS allows its users to adopt an integrated organizational structure to match the complexities and demands of single or multiple incidents without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. Indicator speciesâspecies of plant or animal that is assumed to be associated with certain habitat or environmental con- ditions (pristine or deteriorated). Integrated pest managementâmethods of managing unde- sirable species (such as weeds) including education, prevention, physical or mechanical methods of control, biological control, responsible chemical use, and cultural methods. Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management (IRVM)â Integrated Vegetation Management as applied to roadsides or the highway right-of-way. Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM)âIntegrated Pest Management as it applies to vegetation. Invasive speciesâalien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Issueâany unsettled matter that requires a management decision; for example, an initiative, opportunity, resource management problem, threat to the resources of the unit, conflict in uses, public concern, or the presence of an undesirable resource condition. Monitoringâprocess of collecting information to track changes of selected parameters over time. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)âadministered by TRB and sponsored by the member departments (i.e., individual state departments of transportation) of AASHTO, in cooperation with FHWA. NCHRP was created in 1962 as a means to conduct research in acute problem areas that affect highway plan- ning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance nationwide. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)â requires all agencies, including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to examine the environmental impacts of their actions, incorporate environmental information, and use public participation in the planning and implementation of all actions. Federal agencies must integrate NEPA with other planning requirements, and prepare appropriate NEPA documents to facilitate better environmental deci- sion making (from 40 CFR 1500). National Invasive Species Council (NISC)âinterdepart- mental council that helps to coordinate and ensure com- plementary, cost-efficient, and effective federal activities regarding invasive species. The Council was established February 3, 1999, by Executive Order 13112. National Wildlife Refuge Systemâvarious categories of areas including all lands, waters, and interests therein administered by the Secretary as wildlife refuges, areas for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, wildlife ranges, games ranges, wildlife management areas, or waterfowl production areas. Native speciesâa species that historically occurred in a par- ticular ecosystem. Naturalâpertains to the ecosystem components (biological, physical, and chemical) and processes (geological, hydro- logical, and biological) before the influence of western man. Notice of Availability (NOA)ânotice that documentation is available to the public on a federal action, published in the Federal Register. Notice of Intent (NOI)âin the case of a federal action, such as analyzed in this documentation, an NOI is a notice that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and considered (40 CFR 1508.22); published in the Federal Register. Noxious weedâplant species designated by federal or state law as generally possessing one or more of the following characteristics: aggressive or difficult to manage; parasitic; a carrier or host of serious insect or disease; or nonnative, new, or not common to the United States. According to the Federal Noxious Weed Act (PL 93-639), a noxious weed is one that causes disease or had adverse effects on man or his environment and, therefore, is detrimental to the agricul- ture and commerce of the United States and to the public health. Objectiveâconcise target statement of what will be achieved, how much will be achieved, when and where it will be achieved, and who is responsible for the work. Objectives are derived from goals and provide the basis for determining management strategies. Objectives should be attainable and time-specific and should be stated quantita- tively to the extent possible. If objectives cannot be stated quantitatively, they may be stated qualitatively (Draft Ser- vice Manual 602 FW 1.5). Plant Associationâclassification of plant communities based on the similarity in dominants of all layers of vas- cular species in a climax community. Plant Communityâassemblage of plant species; a reflection or integration of the environmental influences on the site such as soil, temperature, elevation, solar radiation, slope, aspect, and rainfall. Plant Protection Act (PPA)âlaw that consolidates all or part of 10 existing U.S. Department of Agriculture plant health laws into one comprehensive law, including the authority to regulate plants, plant products, certain biological con- trol organisms, noxious weeds, and plant pests. The Plant
Quarantine Act, the Federal Pest Act, and the Federal Noxious Weed Act are among the 10 statutes the act replaces. Prescribed fireâskillful application of fire to natural fuels under conditions of weather, fuel moisture, soil moisture, etc., that allow confinement of the fire to a predetermined area and produces the intensity of heat and rate of spread to accomplish planned benefits to one or more objectives of forest management, wildlife management, or hazard reduction. Rhizomeâunderground (usually), horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. Right-of-way (ROW)âauthorization to use a specific piece of public land for a certain project such as roads, pipelines, transmission lines, and communication sites, granted by Bureau of Land Management. Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)âAugust 10, 2005, legislation that authorizes the federal surface trans- portation programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the 5-year period, 2005â2009. Serpentine soilâdry, nutrient-poor soil containing the mineral serpentinite. Soil has a greenish color from fragments of the underlying bedrock containing magnesium silicate. Serpen- tine soils often have pockets of naturally occurring heavy metals toxic to plants such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel. 94 Successionâprocess of change and development in commu- nity components; soil, microorganisms, animal and plant life, and microenvironment. Threatened species (federal)âspecies listed under the Endangered Species Act that is likely to become endan- gered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a sig- nificant portion of their range. Threatened species (state)âplant or animal species likely to become endangered in an individual state within the near future if factors contributing to population decline or habi- tat degradation or loss continue. Vegetation type, habitat type, forest cover typeâland clas- sification system based on the concept of distinct plant associations. Weed Information Management System (WIMS)â Microsoft Access-based relational database application designed to assist natural resource managers in managing their weed data. WIMS keeps track of three types of data records: weed occurrences (GPS point locations), assess- ments (size and status of the weed infestation to facilitate monitoring over time), and management treatments applied to those weed infestations. Data can be easily exchanged between multiple users, exported in NAWMA (North American Weed Management Association) stan- dards, and written to shapefiles for mapping in any stan- dard GIS program.