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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 128 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Planning and Administration â¢ Public Transit â¢ Rail Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel G. B. Arrington PB PLACEMAKING Portland, OR Robert Cervero UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY Berkeley, CA
TCRP REPORT 128 Project H-27A ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN: 978-0-309-11748-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2008907872 Â© 2008 Transportation Research Board COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 128 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-27A PANEL Field of Service Policy and Planning Richard G. Bickel, AICP, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA (Chair) Edward A. Beimborn, University of WisconsinâMilwaukee, Milwaukee, WI Todd Hemingson, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX Jack Kanarek, New Jersey Transit Corporation, Newark, NJ Jack Limber, San Diego, CA Anastasia Loukaitous-Sideris, University of CaliforniaâLos Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Jeff Ordway, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Jeffrey L. Spencer, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Effie Stallsmith, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported was performed under TCRP Project H-27A, lead by G.B. Arrington and Robert Cervero. Other authors of this report are Todd Borkowitz, Kimi Iboshi Sloop, Emily Hull, Jennifer Rosales, PB PlaceMaking, Portland, Oregon; Shelley Poticha and Jeff Wood, Center for Transit Oriented Develop- ment, Oakland, California; and Robert Dunphy and Carl Koelbel, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C. Cover art: Illustration by Dan deAngeli. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
TCRP Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel provides original data on TOD residential trip generation and parking, the behavior and motivation of TOD residents, employees, and employers in their mode choice. The report also identifies best practices to pro- mote, maintain, and improve TOD-related transit ridership. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit- oriented development. This research builds on prior work done under TCRP Project H-27, which is published as TCRP Research Results Digest 52: Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review and as TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Develop- ment in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. A related publication to this report, TCRP Research Results Digest 52: Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review, reviews perti- nent literature and research findings related to TOD and joint development. It contains a bibliography annotated by subject area. TCRP Report 102 is a national assessment of TOD issues, barriers, and successes. TCRP 102 included 10 case studies from a variety of geographic and development settings. Report 102 indicated that increased ridership is the principal goal of transit agencies in supporting TODs. However, increased ridership as a result of TOD is a complex outcome involving behavioral, locational, and situational factors. The ties between livable communities and transit ridership remained largely unaddressed. TCRP Report 128 addresses the following fundamental questions: (1) What are the demo- graphic profiles of TOD residents and employers; (2) What motivates residents or employ- ers to locate in TODs; (3) What are the travel characteristics (e.g., frequency of travel by dif- ferent modes) of people who live or work in a TOD; (4) What was the travel pattern of the TOD resident prior to moving to the TOD; (5) What levels of transit connectivity to desired origins and destinations are required to promote transit ridership at TODs; (6)What moti- vates or impedes transit ridership in a TOD; (7)Which strategies have been effective in increasing transit ridership at TODs; (8) What steps should transit agencies take in support- ing TODs to maximize transit ridership; and (9) What TOD land-use and design features (e.g., mixed land-use, traffic calming, bus bulbs, short blocks, street furniture) have had an effect on travel patterns, transit ridership, or the decision to locate in a TOD? F O R E W O R D By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 1 Literature Review 4 TOD Housing Transportation Performance 6 Section 1 Literature Review 6 TOD Travel Characteristics 12 Transit System and Land Use Influences 19 TOD Ridership Strategies 22 TOD Resident/Tenant Characteristics 29 Section 2 Does TOD Housing Reduce Automobile Trips? 29 Study Projects 31 Study Methods 32 Data Compilation 36 Comparison of Vehicle Trip Generation Rates 40 How Do Rates Vary? 45 Multiple Regression Predictions of TOD Housing Trip Generation Rates 47 Applying the Research: Four TOD Housing Case Studies 51 Implications of Applying New Standards for TOD Housing 54 Conclusion and Recommendations 57 References