National Academies Press: OpenBook

Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats

Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under contracts NO1-CM-57644 and NO1-CM-07316. administered by the Division of Cancer Treatment.

Infectious diseases of mice and rats / Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. Commission on Life Sciences. National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

Includes index.

ISBN 0-309-06332-9

1. Mice—Infections. 2. Rats—Infections. 3. Laboratory animals—Infections. 4. Mice as laboratory animals. 5. Rats as laboratory animals. I. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.) Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats.

[DNLM: 1. Animals, Laboratory. 2. Communicable Diseases—veterinary. 3. Mice. 4. Rats. QY 60.R6 I43]

SF996.5.I54 1990

636'.93233—dc20

DNLM/DLC

for Library of Congress 90-6152

CIP

Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, May 1991

Second Printing, May 1997

Third Printing, November 1998

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
×

COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF MICE AND RATS

J. Russell Lindsey,

Department of Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama

(Chairman)

Gary A. Boorman,

Chemical Pathology Branch, Toxicological Research and Testing Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Michael J. Collins, Jr.,

Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, NCI, Frederick Cancer Research Facility, Frederick, Maryland

Chao-Kuang Hsu,

Smith Kline Animal Health Products, West Chester, Pennsylvania

Gerald L. Van Hoosier, Jr.,

Division of Animal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Joseph E. Wagner,

Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri

Staff

Dorothy D. Greenhouse, Senior Program Officer

Bernadette M. Marriott, Staff Officer

Sybil A. Paige, Administrative Secretary

Thomas L. Wolfle, Director

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Its mission is to provide expert counsel to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of laboratory animals within the context of the interests and mission of the National Academy of Sciences. ILAR promotes the high-quality humane care of laboratory animals; the appropriate use of laboratory animals; and the exploration of alternatives in research, testing, and teaching.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
×

INSTITUTE OF LABORATORY ANIMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL

Steven P. Pakes,

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas

(Chairman)

June R. Aprille,

Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

Melvin W. Balk,

Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Washington, Massachusetts

Douglas M. Bowden,

Washington Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Lester M. Crawford,

Food Safety and Inspection Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Thomas J. Gill III,

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Alan M. Goldberg,

School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Jon W. Gordon,

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York

Margaret Z. Jones,

Department of Pathology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, Michigan

Michael D. Kastello,

Merck Sharp & Dohme, Rahway, New Jersey

Robert H. Purcell,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

J. Wesley Robb,

School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

John L. VandeBerg,

Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Staff

Thomas L. Wolfle, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
×

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

Bruce M. Alberts,

University of California, San Francisco, California

(Chairman)

Bruce N. Ames,

University of California, Berkeley, California

Francisco J. Ayala,

University of California, Irvine, California

J. Michael Bishop,

University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, California

Michael T. Clegg,

University of California, Riverside, California

Glenn A. Crosby,

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Freeman J. Dyson,

The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

Leroy E. Hood,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

Donald F. Hornig,

Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

Ernest G. Jaworski,

Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

Marian E. Koshland,

University of California, Berkeley, California

Richard E. Lenski,

University of California, Riverside, California

Steven P. Pakes,

Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas

Emil A. Pfitzer,

Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey

Joseph E. Rall,

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Richard D. Remington,

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Paul G. Risser,

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Harold M. Schmeck, Jr.,

Armonk, New York

Richard B. Setlow,

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

Carla J. Shatz,

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Torsten N. Wiesel,

Rockefeller University, New York, New York

Staff

John E. Burris, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
×

PREFACE

Progress in biomedical science leads inexorably to greater refinements in scientific methodologies. In recent years it has become apparent that further refinement is needed in the quality of laboratory mice and rats. The scientific community has increasingly recognized that infectious diseases in these species significantly alter many research results. Unfortunately, the literature on this subject is voluminous, scattered, and often confusing, with the result that its practical application has been disappointing. Additional material on control of infections in immunodeficient rodents can be found in Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use, 1989, report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) Committee on Immunologically Compromised Rodents (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 246 pp.).

This text is an expansion of the newly revised second edition of the Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. It is intended to serve as a detailed reference of principles, methods, and facts to be applied by biomedical scientists in improving the quality of animals required in individual research settings. The expanded text is written for students of infectious disease and for investigators and veterinarians who want more detail than that contained in the companion guide. There are three main parts. Part I, "Principles of Rodent Disease Prevention," summarizes the basic concepts and practices of infectious disease exclusion and detection, and gives data on the prevalence of infectious agents in contemporary rodent populations. Part II, "Individual Disease Agents and Their Effects on

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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Research," gives in a synoptic format the factual information deemed most pertinent to understanding the importance, epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of natural infections due to each agent, complete with a listing of the known instances in which each agent has interfered with research. Part III, "Indexes to Diagnosis and Research Complications of Infectious Agents," contains tabular information intended for use as an aid to diagnostic problem solving.

Many people have contributed to the compilation of the information in this report. The outlines in Part II were patterned after those in the first edition of the handbook, but have been extensively revised by one of us (J. R. L.) through many years of teaching a course on diseases of laboratory animals and have been further revised by this committee. The many contributions of the faculty and students in the Department of Comparative Medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham are gratefully acknowledged. In addition, the following gave invaluable advice on specific agents: Drs. Gail H. Cassell and Jerry K. Davis, University of Alabama at Birmingham (mycoplasmal infections); Dr. C. A. Bruggeman, Department of Medical Microbiology, State University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands (rat cytomegalovirus); Dr. Steven W. Barthold, Yale University (mouse hepatitis virus); Dr. Steven L. Vonderfecht, Johns Hopkins University (rat rotavirus-like agent); Dr. James R. Ganaway, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. (Bacillus piliformis); Dr. Anton M. Allen, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. (mousepox); and Dr. Lizbeth M. Kraft, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (poxviruses of rats). Dr. Kenneth Boschert, formerly a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, assisted with compiling information for the diagnostic indexes in Part III. Drs. Fred Quimby and Melvin Balk provided review at each stage of preparation for the ILAR Council. Special gratitude is due Ms. Doris Whatley and Ms. Audrey Farrow, who typed the manuscript through numerous revisions.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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6.Respiratory System

 

33

   

Overview

 

33

   

Sendai Virus

 

35

   

Mycoplasma pulmonis

 

42

   

Cilia-Associated Respiratory Bacillus

 

48

   

Streptococcus pneumoniae

 

50

   

Corynebacterium kutscheri

 

54

   

Rat Coronavirus

 

58

   

Pneumonia Virus of Mice

 

59

   

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare

 

62

   

Pneumocystis carinii

 

64

   

Chlamydia trachomatis

 

69

   

Chlamydia psittaci

 

71

   

Klebsiella pneumoniae

 

72

   

Streptococcus pyogenes

 

75

   

Mycoplasma neurolyticum

 

77

   

Mycoplasma collis

 

80

   

K Virus

 

81

   

7.Digestive System

 

85

   

Overview

 

85

   

Mouse Cytomegalovirus

 

87

   

Rat Cytomegalovirus

 

91

   

Mouse Thymic Virus

 

94

   

Sialodacryoadenitis Virus

 

97

   

Mouse Hepatitis Virus

 

102

   

Mouse Rotavirus

 

111

   

Rat Rotavirus-Like Agent

 

116

   

Reovirus-3

 

118

   

Adenoviruses

 

123

   

Bacillus piliformis

 

126

   

Salmonella enteritidis

 

132

   

Citrobacter freundii (Biotype 4280)

 

139

   

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 

141

   

Common Endoparasites

 

145

   

Spironucleus muris

 

146

   

Giardia muris

 

151

   

Hymenolepis nana (Dwarf Tapeworm)

 

154

   

Syphacia obvelata (Mouse Pinworm) and Syphacia muris (Rat Pinworm)

 

156

   

Aspicularis tetraptera

 

159

   

Entamoeba muris

 

160

   

Tritrichomonas muris

 

162

   

Other Endoparasites

 

163

   

8.Skin and Joints

 

164

   

Overview

 

164

   

Ectromelia Virus

 

165

   

Poxvirus(es) in Rats

 

171

   

Mycoplasma arthritidis

 

173

   

Streptobacillus moniliformis

 

176

   

Common Ectoparasites

 

179

   

Myobia musculi

 

179

   

Myocoptes musculinus and Radfordia affinis

 

182

   

Other Ectoparasites

 

182

   

Staphylococcus aureus

 

182

   

Dermatophytes

 

185

   

Pasteurella pneumotropica

 

187

   

Mouse Papule Virus

 

190

   

Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus

 

192

   

Self-Mutilation Associated with Otitis Media

 

195

   

Noninfectious Skin Conditions Important in Differential Diagnosis

 

195

   

Bite Wounds in Adult Mice and Rats

 

195

   

Bite Wounds in Weanling Mice

 

195

   

"Whisker Trimming," "Hair Nibbling," and "Barbering"

 

196

   

Muzzle Alopecia

 

197

   

Hair Growth Cycling Arrest

 

197

   

"Ringtail"

 

197

   

9.Hemopoietic System

 

198

   

Overview

 

198

   

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus

 

199

   

Lactic Dehydrogenase-Elevating Virus

 

205

   

Haemobartonella muris

 

211

   

Eperythrozoon coccoides

 

214

   

Murine Leukemia Viruses

 

217

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1429.
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This new edition--a must for all researchers who use these lab animals-- provides practical suggestions for breeding, keeping, and identifying pathogen-free laboratory rodents. It contains three informative sections. The first, Principles of Rodent Disease Prevention, summarizes methods for eliminating infectious agents. It offers information on pathogen terminology; pathogen status of rodents; and breeding, transporting, isolating, testing, and diagnosing rodents. The second section, Individual Disease Agents and Their Effects on Research, describes the diagnosis and control of each infectious agent, and the last section, Diagnostic Indexes: Clinical Signs, Pathology, and Research Complications, contains informative tables covering all the diseases listed in the volume, arranged to help in the diagnosis of infected animals.

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