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Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-1 Appendix D Sustainability Performance Measure Examples This appendix provides a set of examples in practice for a selected set of performance measures from the compendium. For each goal, one measure per focus area has been illustrated by an example of a similar measure in use by a transportation agency. Many of the measures are not exact duplicates but retain the same value or intention. In some cases the agency examples are more specific than those in the compendium. In a handful of cases the focus areas are combined and one measure is used due to the similarities in the compendium. In addition to the actual measure that is included, the documents these measures come from (website links are provided) are valuable resources for agencies building a sustainability performance measures program. The range of documents listed as references also provides an indication of the types of departments, programs, and policies that incorporate measures that can be used for sustainability measurement. Goal 1: Provide a Safe Transportation System for Users and the General Public Agency: Minnesota DOT (MnDOT) Document/website: Minnesota Statewide Transportation Policy Plan http://www.dot.state.mn.us/planning/stateplan/Final%20Plan%20Documents/Policy%20Plan/PD F/AppendixD.pdf Agency example measure: Annual number of severe or incapacitating injuries on all Minnesota roads Methodology: A severe or incapacitating injury, classified as a Type A injury in crash reports, is defined as an injury (other than fatal) that prevents the injured person from walking, driving, or normally continuing the activities he or she was capable of performing before the injury occurred. Hospitalization is usually required. This measure tracks the annual total number of severe incapacitating injuries on all state and local roads. Data source: Department of Public Safety Office of Traffic Safetyâs crash data Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, statewide Background: The Minnesota Statewide Transportation Policy Plan identifies 10 major policy areas. This measure supports the first policy area, traveler safety. This policyâs goal is to âreduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries for all travel modes.â MnDOT has a Toward Zero Deaths initiative as an overall target for their safety goal. While that is the focus, severe injury crashes are also of great concern. Focus area: Planning Objective: Reduce the severity of crashes Measure: Change in the number and severity of crashes
D-2 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: Arizona DOT (ADOT) Document/website: Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan http://www.azdot.gov/highways/traffic/TSS/SHSP/AZ_Strategic_Highway_Safety_Plan.pdf Agency example measure: Number of signalized intersections converted to roundabouts Methodology: This measure is based on data showing the reduction in crashes for intersections converted from signals to roundabouts. The measure is a calculation of the number of projects included in the funded program. Data source: Arizona DOT Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, statewide Background: The Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan underlies the stateâs safety vision: âZero fatalities on Arizona roads; your life depends on it,â or the Every One Counts vision. The stateâs safety goal is to reduce the number of fatalities by 12%. To achieve this goal, the state selected six emphasis areas: 1. Restraint usage, 2. Speeding, 3. Young drivers, 4. Impaired driving, 5. Roadway/roadside (lane departure and intersections), and 6. Data improvement. Fo cu s a rea : Pr ogrammin g Objective: Prior itized project s w ith explicit sa fe ty considerations Measure: Change in numbe r o f p ro gr amme d p roje ct s w ith highest re ductio n i n c ra shes out of al l a lternatives
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-3 Agency: ADOT Document/website: Comprehensive Approach to Wildlife Protection on State Route 260 http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/ecosystems/eei/az.asp Agency example measure: Use of engineering measures (wildlife-proof fencing, escape ramps, and one-way gates) to keep elk (and other animals) off the highway Methodology: ADOT worked in partnership with the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) to build bridges and other barriers that will enable elk and other animals to safely cross under the highway (or contain them) to reach critical watering sites and other habitat vital to their survival. In a pilot study, AGFD fitted 36 elk with GPS collars to track their movement along the highways and determine seasonal movements. The research has shown that the animals are using the underpasses. Data sources: Arizona DOT and AGFD Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: This project started as part of a road-widening project from a two-lane route to a four-lane divided highway. Agency: Kentucky Transportation Center Document/website: Improve Safety of Workers During Highway Construction and Maintenance http://www.ktc.uky.edu/Reports/KTC_07_16_SPR_323_05_1F.pdf Agency example measure: Use of a range of engineering and operations measures to reduce the number of accidents in work zones Methodology: This study collected survey data from construction and maintenance field workers, managers, and engineers. The data highlighted the four most significant safety improvements needed in the state. Data source: Kentucky Transportation Center Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop project with explicit safety considerations Measure: Selected project design has highest reduction out of all alternatives Focus areas: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce crash risk in work zones Measure: Change in number of crashes per time unit within a particular work zone Analysis scale: Statewide
D-4 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Background: The objective of this study was to identify best safety practices for workers on highway construction and maintenance projects. Although the study does not specifically develop performance measures, it does recommend a series of actions that state DOTs can take to improve safety, which could easily be translated into performance measures. Agency: King County Metro Transit, Washington Document/website: 2009 Annual Management Report http://metro.kingcounty.gov/am/reports/2009/2009-QMRyearend.pdf Agency example measure: Accidents per million miles Methodology: King County Metro Transit records the number of vehicle and passenger accidents each year. They classify accidents as preventable and unpreventable. Data source: King County Metro Transit Analysis scale: Service area Background: The annual report provides information and the transit agencyâs operating and financial statistics. Goal 2: Provide a Transportation System That Offers Accessibility That Allows People to Fulfill at Least Their Basic Needs Agency: Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California Document/website: Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis Report http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/2030_plan/downloads/EJ/T2030EquityAnalysisReport.pdf Agency example measure: Number of jobs accessible by auto and transit within 15, 30, and 45 minutes Focus area: System operations Objective: Reduce the crash risk of the traveling public using transit Measure: Number of fatal and disabling injuries sustained by transit users as a portion of 100 million passenger miles traveled or of 100,000 riders Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure accessibility to jobs Measure: Change in the number of jobs within reasonable travel time (by mode) for regionâs population Methodology: This evaluation factor measures the number of jobs accessible by auto and transit for each of the alternatives for communities of concern and the remainder of the Bay
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-5 Area. The analysis measures jobs accessible by both modes within 15, 30, and 45 minutes. The forecasts include regional population projections for 2030 as well as job growth projected for 2030. For this measure, job accessibility is considered representative of other key destinations such as hospitals, retail, government centers, and so forth. Data source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in the Metropolitan Transportation Commissionâs 2030 Equity Analysis Report. The report measures the benefits and burdens associated with the proposed transportation projects in the Transportation 2030 plan to ensure that minority and low- income communities receive equitable benefits without shouldering a disproportionate share of the burdens. Agency: Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) Document/website: Driven by Excellence: A Report on Transportation Performance Management at MDOT http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot/MDOT_DrivenExcellenceReport_323894_7.pdf Agency example measure: Number of Michigan counties that provide some form of local bus service Methodology: MDOT tracks the number of counties (out of 83) that offer some level of bus transit service to residents. Data source: MDOT Analysis scale: County, state Background: MDOT produced this report to provide its customers with an overview of how the transportation system in the state is functioning. The measures included in the report are linked to the four goal areas of the Michigan Transportation Plan: stewardship, safety and security, system improvement, and efficient and effective operation. MDOT views transit service as an important lower-cost transportation service and a critical service to maintain for its residents. Currently there is transit service in all 83 counties, but service is very limited in some counties. MDOTâs goal is protect the existing system, although it also recognizes the gaps that exist and could be improved. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that increase access to essential destinations Measure: Change in travel time (by mode) to schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation due to project
D-6 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Document/website: Vision 2040 http://www.psrc.org/assets/366/FullReport.pdf Agency example measure: Travel mode splits, travel times, and delay by county and major corridor, and by regional geography (including designated centers) Methodology: PSRC uses a range of data to calculate mode splits, travel times, and delay in key travel areas. Data sources: U.S. Census, PSRC Household Travel Survey, Washington State Department of Transportation Analysis scale: County, corridor, regional geography, designated centers Background: Vision 2040 was developed to create a shared strategy for moving the central Puget Sound region toward a sustainable future. Central to the document and policies is the concept of âPeople, Places, Prosperity.â Agency: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Document/website: Work Zone Safety Performance Measures Guidance Booklet http://www.workzonesafety.org/fhwa_wz_grant/atssa/atssa_wz_performance_measures Agency example measure: Travel time/delay during construction or maintenance Methodology: Relies on good baseline information; data are collected on commute days (Monday through Friday, not including holidays). Delay value can be scaled based on project/traffic characteristics. Data source: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that increase access to essential destinations Measure: Change in travel time (by mode) to schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation due to selected project alternative Focus area: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce delay to commuters due to construction or maintenance activities Measure: Change in travel time delay for commuters due to construction or maintenance activities Analysis scale: Project, local, county, corridor
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-7 Background: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse is dedicated to providing the transportation construction industry and the general public with comprehensive information to improve motorist, worker, and pedestrian safety in work zones. Agency: Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Document/website: 2010 Congestion Report http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Accountability/Congestion/2010.htm Agency example measure: Range of percentiles reliability analysis Methodology: WSDOT uses the reliable travel time measure using multiple percentile thresholds as part of their travel time analysis for 38 high-demand Puget Sound commute routes. Reliability percentile analysis looks at travel times at the 50th percentile (median), 80th percentile, 90th percentile, and 95th percentile values. The 95th percentile reliability score is the duration that gets drivers to their destination on time 95% of the time. Data source: WSDOT collects real-time data for 52 commute routes in the Puget Sound region, two commute routes in Spokane, and for other highways throughout the State. Analysis scale: Corridor, local, regional, statewide Background: WSDOT produces an annual analysis of travel statewide with an emphasis on major commute routes in the more densely populated areas of the state. The 2010 Congestion Report provides WSDOT with an evaluation of the success of their congestion relief projects and strategies. Goal 3: Provide Options That Allow Affordable and Equitable Transportation Options for All Sections of Society Agency: Metropolitan Transportation Commission, California Document/website: Transportation 2030 Equity Analysis Report http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/2030_plan/downloads/EJ/T2030EquityAnalysisReport.pdf Focus Area: System operations Objective: Improve travel time reliability to jobs and other essential destinations through operational improvements Measure: Change in the reliability of travel time per mode per destination type Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure accessibility to jobs and essential destinations for all communities Measure: Relative change in the level of access for disadvantaged populations to jobs, schools, health services, grocery stores, civic and public spaces, and recreation Agency example measure: Access and travel time to essential destinations by auto and transit
D-8 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Methodology: This evaluation factor measures the travel time to essential destinations by auto and transit for communities of concern and the remainder of the Bay Area. Essential destinations include schools, food stores, health services, and local services (e.g., banks and post offices). The Transportation 2030 investment alternatives are compared against this measure. Data source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in the Metropolitan Transportation Commissionâs 2030 Equity Analysis Report. The report measures the benefits and burdens associated with the proposed transportation projects in the Transportation 2030 plan to ensure that minority and low- income communities receive equitable benefits without shouldering a disproportionate share of the burdens. Agency: Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Document/website: 2008 Regional Transportation Plan â Environmental Justice Report http://www.scag.ca.gov/rtp2008/pdfs/finalrtp/reports/fEnvironmentalJustice.pdf Agency example measure: Distribution of plan expenditures Methodology: SCAG reports expenditure distribution by estimating the share of total regional transportation plan expenditures allocated to each category of household income by totaling expenditures on each mode and allocating them to each groupâs level of use. Data sources: U.S. Census, American Housing Survey, National Household Travel Survey Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in SCAGâs Environmental Justice Report. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program transportation projects that improve transportation infrastructure equitably Measure: Change in ratio of transportation disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged population benefitting from program Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop transportation projects that improve transportation infrastructure equitably Measure: Ratio of disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged population experiencing negative impacts of transportation program (e.g., noise, air quality, neighborhood fragmentation)
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-9 Agency : Mi d-Ohio Regiona l P lanning Commission Document/website : Environmenta l J ustic e T echnical Analysis http://www.morp c. org/pdf/CapitalWays%20EJ% 20 Appendix%20May%202008.pdf Agency exampl e m easure: Displacemen t f ro m p ro ject s Met hodology: Du ring th e p re paratio n o f t he trans portatio n p lan, al l p roj ect s a re qualitativel y asse sse d a s t o t he numbe r o f d is placements re su lting fro m t he pr oject . M ORPC develope d f ou r categor ies ânone , l ow , m ode ra te , a nd highât o c la ssi fy each project . Data sou rce: MORP C Analysis scal e: Regiona l Back ground: Th is measur e i s i nclude d i n M ORPCâs Environmenta l J ustic e T echnical Analysis . The purpos e o f t he analysis is to ensu re that th e i m portant principles of enviro nm enta l j ustic e a re considered an d i ntegrate d i nt o t he tr anspor tatio n p la nning process. Agency: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Document/website: Work Zone Safety Performance Measures Guidance Booklet http://www.workzonesafety.org/fhwa_wz_grant/atssa/atssa_wz_performance_measures Agency example measure: Travel time/delay during construction or maintenance Methodology: Relies on good baseline information; data are collected on commute days (Monday through Friday, not including holidays). Delay value can be scaled based on project/traffic characteristics. This measure can be calculated for disadvantaged and non- disadvantaged groups to understand the implications for sections of society. Data source: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Analysis scale: Project, local, county, corridor Background: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse is dedicated to providing the transportation construction industry and the general public with comprehensive information to improve motorist, worker, and pedestrian safety in work zones. Focus area: Construction and maintenance Objective: Reduce delay due to construction or maintenance activities equitably Measure: Ratio of disadvantaged to non-disadvantaged system users experiencing delay due to construction or maintenance activities
D-10 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: SCAG Document/website: 2008 Regional Transportation Plan â Environmental Justice Report http://www.scag.ca.gov/rtp2008/pdfs/finalrtp/reports/fEnvironmentalJustice.pdf Agency example measure: Taxes paid Methodology: SCAG reports the amount of taxes (sales, gasoline, and income) to determine whether lower income groups are paying an amount proportional to the transportation services they are using. Data source: SCAG Analysis scale: Regional Background: This measure is included in SCAGâs Environmental Justice Report. This measure is compared to the share of transit system usage and transit travel time savings by income groups to determine the benefits they are receiving compared to their tax burden. As transit operations are improved, this relationship changes. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process. Goal 4: Ensure That the Transportation Systemâs Functionality and Efficiency Are Maintained and Enhanced Agency: Texas Transportation Institute Document/website: Annual Urban Mobility Report http://mobility.tamu.edu/ Agency example measure: Travel time index calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel time in free flow Focus area: System operations Objective: Ensure that transportation costs do not disproportionately affect low-income users Measure: Change in incidence of travel costs by income group due to operational improvements Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure that transportation options are efficient for all users Measure: Change in travel time index by mode
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-11 Methodology: A measure of congestion that focuses on each trip and each mile of travel. It is calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel in free flow. A value of 1.30 indicates that a 20-minute free-flow trip takes 25 minutes in the peak. Data source(s): The Texas Transportation Institute produces this annual report of congestion on freeways and major streets in 101 cities in the United States. Analysis scale: Local, regional Background: This report is an excellent resource for the agencies included in the analysis areas. Agency: MDOT Document/website: Driven by Excellence: A Report on Transportation Performance Management at MDOT http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot/MDOT_DrivenExcellenceReport_323894_7.pdf Agency example measure: 90% of trunk-line pavement rated in fair or better condition Methodology: MDOT uses a measure called remaining service life (RSL), which estimates the remaining years until a pavementâs most cost-effective treatment is either reconstruction or major rehabilitation. Pavements with an RSL of two years or less are considered to be in poor condition. Data source: MDOT asset management Analysis scale: Local, regional, state Background: MDOT produced this report to provide its customers with an overview of how the transportation system in the state is functioning. The measures included in the report are linked to the four goal areas of the Michigan Transportation Plan: stewardship, safety and security, system improvement, and efficient and effective operation. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects designed to maintain or achieve a state of good repair for the existing transportation system Measure: Change in existing lane/track/sidewalk miles in a state of good repair due to program
D-12 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) Document/website: ODOT Operations Performance Measures Final Report http://mobility.tamu.edu/resources/odot_op_perf_measures_final.pdf Agency example measure: Volume-to-capacity ratio (V/C) Methodology: The Highway Economic Requirements System, State Version (HERS-ST) is used to estimate peak-period V/C as a function of the K-factor, annual average daily traffic (AADT), and internally computed capacity. Data source: ODOT Analysis scale: Local, regional, state Background: ODOT funded this report to identify and test a small number of operations performance measures. Based on the testing, the report makes recommendations for further improvements to data gathering, geographic precision, and sensitivity to operations programs. Agency: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Document/website: Work Zone Safety Performance Measures Guidance Booklet Agency example measure: Travel time/delay during construction or maintenance. Methodology: Relies on good baseline information; data are collected on commute days (Monday through Friday, not including holidays). Delay value can be scaled based on project/traffic characteristics. Data source: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse Analysis scale: Project, local, county, corridor Background: The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse is dedicated to providing the transportation construction industry and the general public with comprehensive information to improve motorist, worker, and pedestrian safety in work zones. Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that maintain or improve the functionality of the transportation system for all users Measure: Change in volume/capacity ratio [congestion reduction per unit (lane mile)] due to project Focus area: Construction and maintenance Objective: Minimize the impact of construction activities on system efficiency Measure: Change in travel time delay for commuters due to construction or maintenance activities
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-13 Agency: Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Document/website: Quarterly Incident Duration â Performance Measures Report (Palm Beach) http://www.smartsunguide.com/Reports/Quarterly_Palm_Beach_010111-033111_040511- 114316.pdf Agency example measure: Incident clearance duration Methodology: FDOT has an incident management system that allows for web-enabled automatic reports based on incident management activity logged into the system. The reporting includes reporting of detection, verification, response, and roadway clearance. Data source: FDOT incident management system Analysis scale: Local, regional, state Background: FDOT tracks incident management duration as part of an incident management system to alleviate nonrecurring delay and other impacts. Goal 5: Ensure That the Transportation System Is Secure from, Ready for, and Resilient to Threats from All Hazards Agency: U.S. Department of Homeland Security Document/website: Annual Performance Report, Fiscal Years 2010â2012 http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/cfo_apr_fy2010_appendix.pdf Agency example measure: Percent of mass transit and passenger rail agencies that have effectively implemented industry agreed-upon security and emergency management actions to improve security. Fo cu s a rea : Sy st em operatio ns Objective: Impl ement ope ra tional imp rovement s t ha t e nhanc e o r m aintai n t he re liabil ity of trans portation options Measure: Change in person hour s o f nonrecurr in g d elay due to operationa l i mprovement s Focus area: Planning Objective: Protect transportation users, agency personnel, and critical infrastructure Measure: Change in share of agency staff that have received appropriate emergency training Methodology: Transportation security inspectors conduct the baseline assessment for security enhancement jointly with transit agencies using a standardized checklist of 235 equally weighted questions.
D-14 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Analysis scale: National Background: This measure is calculated for the 100 largest mass transit, light and passenger rail, bus, and other commuter transportation agencies that have taken recommended steps to improve security. Agency: U.S. Department of Transportation â Research and Innovative Technology Administration Document/website: Ensure Redundancy of Critical Components in Transportation Support Systems to Be Used in Case of an Emergency: Experience Nationwide with Responding to Catastrophic Events http://www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/SummID/LL2010- 00520?OpenDocument&%5ELOTM Agency example measure: Prioritize system redundancy plans according to the agencyâs strategic functions Methodology: Possible strategies include having a source of backup power and having redundant supplies of equipment on call. Data source: U.S. Department of Transportation â Research and Innovative Technology Administration Analysis scale: Local, regional system Background: This measure is included in a study that looked at six case studies examining the effects of catastrophic events on transportation system management and operations. Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that prevent incidents within a transportation agencyâs control and responsibility Measure: Change in level of redundancy for critical passenger and freight infrastructure Focus area: Project development Objective: Program projects that prevent incidents within a transportation agencyâs control and responsibility Measure: Change in level of redundancy for critical passenger and freight infrastructure Agency: U.S. Department of Transportation â Research and Innovative Technology Administration Data source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-15 Document/website : En su re Redundanc y o f C ritic al Component s i n T ra nsportatio n S uppo rt Sy st em s t o B e U se d i n C as e o f a n E mergency (E xp er ienc e n ationwid e w ith re sponding to catastr ophi c e vents) http://www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/ID/2267EC3DCC57FBB2852576C70059F1E 3 ?OpenDocument&Que ry =Hom e ( or search for doc umen t a t h ttp:/ /www.itslessons.its.dot.gov ) Agency exampl e m easure: Prior itiz e s yste m r edu ndanc y p lans acco rdin g t o t he agency âs st ra tegi c f unctions Met hodology: Po ssi bl e s trategie s i nclude having a s ource of backup power an d h avin g re dundant supplie s o f e quipmen t o n call. Data sou rce: U. S. Department of Tr anspor tatio n â Resear ch an d I nnovativ e T echnology Administratio n Analysis scal e: Lo cal , r egiona l s yste m Back ground: Th is measur e i s i nclude d i n a st udy that looke d a t s ix cas e s tudies examinin g t he effect s o f catastr ophi c e vent s o n t ra nsportatio n s yste m m anagemen t a nd operations . Agency: FDOT Document/website: Performance Briefs: Safety and Security (October 2010) http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/performance/Safety-Security.pdf Agency example measure: Conduct research into innovative highway safety devices, including those which prohibit motorists from driving around railâhighway crossing protection systems, and work with appropriate agencies to incorporate research results into program development Methodology: FDOT monitors this activity. Data source: FDOT Analysis scale: Statewide Background: This measure is included in a performance brief reporting on one of the five goals of the 2025 Florida Transportation Plan. Focus area: System operations Objective: Implement operational improvements that enhance the security of freight transportation assets Measure: Relative change in operational funding allocated to disaster/incident response and management
D-16 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: FHWA Document/website: Freight Performance Measurement: Travel Time in Freight-Significant Corridors http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/perform_meas/fpmtraveltime/traveltimebrochure .pdf Agency example measure: Travel time on freight-significant corridors. Travel time index calculated as the ratio of travel time in the peak period to travel time in free flow. Methodology: Five freight-significant corridors (which account for almost 25% of commodity- carrying truck vehicle-miles traveled) were chosen. Speed data were collected from automatic vehicle location equipment and then averaged for each selected road segment. A buffer index was used to determine how much more time needs to be budgeted to make a trip on time at a given level of certainty. The buffer index was calculated using a 95% on-time arrival rate, which is typically what shippers and receivers tolerate. Data Sources: FHWA and American Transportation Research Institute Analysis scale: Freight corridor, national Background: FHWA produced this report to examine national-level issues with travel time on freight-significant corridors. It provides important background analysis for FHWA when working with regional, state, and local transportation agencies. Agency: WSDOT Document/website: The Gray Notebook http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/86DF8F42-BD2A-438A-A216- 6AA2C1A42133/0/GrayNotebookDec10.pdf Focus area: Planning Objective: Support growth in jobs and income by improving travel efficiency/reducing congestion Measure: Change in travel delay (e.g., travel time index) at major freight bottlenecks by mode Focus area: Programming Objective: Support growth in jobs and income by improving access to markets and factors of production (labor and raw materials) through programming Measure: Change in access to jobs and labor (how many jobs and how much labor can be accessed within various periods of time for an entire region or smaller areas) due to program Agency example measure: Economic vitality â to promote and develop transportation systems that stimulate, support, and enhance the movement of people and goods to ensure a prosperous Goal 6: Ensure That the Transportation Systemâs Development and Operation Support Economic Development and Prosperity
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-17 Methodology: Measure under development Data source(s): TBD Analysis scale: TBD Background: In 2010, the Governor and Legislature of Washington State added economic Agency: MnDOT Document/website: Annual Minnesota Transportation Performance Report http://www.dot.state.mn.us/measures/ Agency example measure: Number of national and international air destinations served by nonstop flights from Minnesota Methodology: MnDOT tracks this number as a key component of a healthy economic future for the stateâs people and freight. Data sources: Minnesota commercial service airports Analysis scale: Regional, statewide Background: MnDOT produces this annual report to describe the condition and service levels of the stateâs transportation system. It includes 18 performance measures that track progress on 10 policy goals. Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that support growth in jobs and income by improving access to markets and factors of production (labor and raw materials) Measure: Change in population within user-defined proximity to access controlled four-lane highway facilities, air cargo service, scheduled air service, intercity bus service, intercity rail service, and so forth Focus area: System operations Objective: Support growth in jobs and income by improving travel efficiency/reducing congestion Measure: Change in corridor/city/commuter-shed-specific travel delay or other congestion related measure Agency: FDOT Document/website: 2025 Florida Transportation Plan Performance Report economy. (Note: performance measures and WSDOT strategic directions for the economic vitality policy goal are under development.) vitality as a goal for transportation. Performance measures are still under development.
D-18 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/performance/PerformanceReport2010.pdf Agency example measure: Preserve new capacity on the strategic intermodal system for projected growth in trips between regions, states, and nations, especially for trips associated with economic competitiveness. FDOT measures this from a few perspectives (e.g., utilization â indicates whether or not a transportation system is properly sized and has the ability to accommodate growth). The measures are percent of system heavily congested, percent of travel heavily congested, vehicles per lane mile, and duration of congestion. Methodology: Percent of system heavily congested, percent of travel heavily congested, vehicles per lane mile, and duration of congestion. Data source: FDOT Analysis scale: Local, regional, statewide Background: FDOT released this document in 2010 to report on the goals of the 2025 Florida Transportation Plan (FTP). The 2011 Performance Report will be revised to align with the goals of the 2060 FTP. Goal 7: Ensure the Economic Feasibility of Transportation Investments over Time Agency: SCAG Document/website: 2008 Regional Transportation Plan â Environmental Justice Report http://www.scag.ca.gov/rtp2008/pdfs/finalrtp/reports/fEnvironmentalJustice.pdf Agency example measure: Taxes paid Methodology: SCAG reports the amount of taxes (sales, gasoline, and income) to determine whether the lower income groups are paying an amount proportional to the transportation services they are using. Data source: SCAG Analysis scale: Regional Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure that the financial burden borne by transportation system users is shared equitably Measure: Cost per user/vehicle/household of taxes and fees dedicated to transportation Background: This measure is included in SCAGâs Environmental Justice Report. The purpose of the analysis is to ensure that the important principles of environmental justice are considered and integrated into the transportation planning process.
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-19 Agency: Iowa Department of Transportation Document/website: Use of a Benefit-Cost Ratio to Prioritize Projects for Funding http://www.iowadot.gov/iowarail/assistance/130/130SelectionProcess_final.pdf Agency example measure: Use of a benefitâcost ratio for project selection Methodology: Iowa DOTâs benefitâcost calculation includes calculations of exposure, predicted accidents, severity, societal cost, benefits, and cost. The benefit is then divided by the cost for the final ratio. Data source: Iowa DOT Analysis scale: Project Background: The benefitâcost ratio calculation moves beyond a measure of the predicted accidents at a crossing to a calculation that allows Iowa DOT to maximize the public benefit in relationship to the public investment. Iowa DOTâs use of the benefitâcost ratio to prioritize projects for selection is projected to result in five fewer fatalities and an increased safety benefit that totals nearly $10 million over a 10-year period. Agency: Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) Document/website: Transportation System Dashboard http://itd.idaho.gov/dashboard/budget.htm Agency example measure: Construction costs at award as a percent of construction budget Methodology: The construction costs of projects obligated in the fiscal year are totaled and compared to the total construction budget programmed at the beginning of the year for the same projects. Focus area: Programming and project development Objective: Ensure that the expected value of social and economic benefits created by proposed transportation programs/projects exceeds their cost Measure: Project-level cost/benefit ratio for proposed programs, including freight Focus areas: Construction, maintenance, and operations Objective: Ensure construction, maintenance, and operation costs are within planned budget Measure: Proportion of projects with construction, maintenance, and operation costs within planned budget Data source: ITD Analysis scale: Project level, statewide
D-20 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Background: ITD maintains its dashboard as part of its commitment to efficiency, transparency, and accountability. Goal 8: Protect and Enhance Environmental and Ecological Systems While Developing and Operating Transportation Systems Agency: City of Gaithersburg, Maryland, Public Works Document/website: Gaithersburg, Maryland, Environmental Management System http://www.gaithersburgmd.gov/poi/default.asp?POI_ID=389&TOC=107;81;388;387;389 Agency example measure: Gaithersburgâs EMS covers the Department of Public Works, Parks Maintenance, and Engineering. Methodology: Gaithersburgâs EMS seeks to integrate environmental considerations into their day-to-day operations, improve their overall environmental performance and compliance, and demonstrate this performance to outsiders, including regulatory agencies. An EMS consists of a series of standard procedures and practices that organizations put into place to manage their environmental obligations. They do not impose new technical requirements, nor are they a substitute for existing regulatory standards. However, an EMS provides a framework for an organization to more effectively manage its environmental obligations and improve its environmental performance. By effectively managing these obligations, organizations can also operate more efficiently and reduce costs. Data source: Performance is measured on compliance with applicable environmental requirements and is reported in their State of the Environment Report. Analysis scale: Roadway, project, local, citywide Background: In the process of developing the EMS, a number of objectives and targets were identified. These included a reduction in the amount of grit, oil, and other materials entering the storm water system; environmental awareness training for employees; reduction in the amount of salt applied to city streets; and an assessment of soil conditions and the fertilizer needs of city property. The fundamental component of Gaithersburgâs EMS is continued pollution prevention and responsible compliance with all environmental statutes and regulations. Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure that environmental and ecological systems are free of contaminants and pollutants Measure: Existence of an agency-wide environmental management system (EMS) Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that maximize ecological opportunities and ecosystem benefits Measure: Change in the percentage of projects programmed on the basis of achieving priority ecological outcomes
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-21 Agency: Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) Document/website: Indiana Bat Habitat Conservation Plan http://www.in.gov/indot/3424.htm?cof=FORID%3A10&ie=UTF- 8&num=10&q=indiana+bat+habitat&cx=005966028202432817588%3Alwngueu4xie&siteurl= www.in.gov%252Findot%252F#843 Agency example measure: Protecting and planting natural habitats of bats Methodology: Offset the destruction and deterioration of natural habitat caused by road construction. Restore and protect natural habitat beyond regulatory requirements. Data source: Monitoring of the plantings for 5 years and the bat population in the project area for 15 years. Analysis scale: Local Background: The need for highway improvements near the Indianapolis International Airport brought together several agencies, including the Indiana Department of Transportation and the local office of the FHWA, to develop a plan to protect and conserve local habitat for the Indiana bat, an endangered species. The plan, called the Indiana Bat Habitat Conservation Plan, has the following features: 3,600 acres protected (approximately 10% existing bat habitat), 346 acres of newly planted habitat, a public outreach program, and a 15-year monitoring program. The HCP was completed in conjunction with approximately $1.5 billion in highway improvements in an area forecasted for high urban growth. Agency: City of Bellingham, WA Document/website: Northshore Drive Roadway and Drainage Improvement Project www.cob.org/documents/pw/curconst/ES-0367.pdf Agency example measure: Mimic predevelopment hydrological conditions in the right-of-way Methodology: Implementing storm water best management practices (BMPs) for storm water flow control, including low-impact development. Use BMPs to manage onsite runoff from the project as the first priority. This measure computes the flow rates and runoff volumes from post- construction compared to computed predevelopment values. Data source: City of Bellingham storm water runoff calculations Analysis scale: Roadway, local Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that maintain and improve quantity and quality of water and aquatic ecosystems Measure: Change in number (percentage) of projects designed to maintain or improve water quantity or quality
D-22 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Back ground: Th e p roj ect include s a ll of Northsho re Drive fro m t he Daki n S treet in ters ectio n t o th e B ritto n R oa d i nt er section, including si dewalk f acilitie s a nd st or m w ater syst em improvement s. Northshor e D rive receive d a n a sphalt overlay af te r s urface gr inding th e e xistin g ro adwa y a nd making min or alignmen t m odi fi cations . L an e w idth s w er e r educed to 11 ft to accommodate new porous pavement bike lane s a nd si dewalks. A n ew st or m w ater drainage syst em wa s a ls o i nstalle d t o m eet re quirement s f or bot h e nhanced and phosphorus treatment of st or m w ater runo ff . Agency: WSDOT Document/website: I-405 - Springbrook Creek Wetland & Habitat Mitigation Bank http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/i405/Springbrook/ Agency example measure: Acres of wetland enhanced and restored by construction Methodology: Springbrook Creek Wetland & Habitat Mitigation Bank is an early environmental investment project. The bank provides mitigation for highway construction and city development projects prior to impacts on wetlands and other aquatic resources. The Springbrook Wetland & Habitat Mitigation Bank benefits the environment and transportation projects by â¢ Increasing habitat diversity and developing habitat conditions, â¢ Potentially improving water quality and enhancing hydrologic function, â¢ Removing wetland fills, â¢ Improving riparian (strip of land adjacent to a body of water) functions in a highly urbanized area, â¢ Setting up the site in advance of project development and wetland impacts, and â¢ Consolidating mitigation for multiple small wetland impacts into one large site with greater ecological valueâthe value of the site increases as the site matures. Data sources: Washington State Department of Transportation and the City of Renton Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: The Springbrook Creek Wetland & Habitat Mitigation Bank project enhances 110 acres of wetlands and buffers, restores, and creates another connected 20 acres of wetland, totaling approximately 130 acres of wetlands. Thousands of native plants were planted over the entire project site, including black cottonwood, Pacific willow, Sitka spruce, western red cedar, snowberry, Douglas-fir, and big-leaf maple. These trees, shrubs, and plants will attract and create habitat for many different species of wildlife. WSDOT crews have completed building an interpretive boardwalk trail through a portion of the site that will provide opportunities to educate the public on the benefits of wetlands and the habitat they support. The start of the Focus area: Construction Objective: Apply context-sensitive corridor habitat restoration and landscaping during project implementation Measure: Ratio of restored and maintained area to disturbed area (acres) within project
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-23 boardwalk trai l i s l ocated on SW 27t h S treet betw ee n O akesdale Avenue SW an d L in d A venue SW . Agency : Sant a C ru z C ount y D epar tment of Public Wo rk s Document/website : Bonny Doon Road Herbicid e R eductio n P roj ect http://www.dpw.co.santa- cr uz.ca.us/Operations/HerbicideReductionProject/Bonny_Doon_Rd_R es ults_Report_3_10_PostI TR .pdf Agency example measure: Reduce or eliminate herbicide use in vegetation management Methodology: Particular native plant species encroach on the roadway right-of-way, which causes visibility concerns as well as safety issues. Typically these plants require semiannual maintenance to keep their height at a minimum. This measure evaluates the amount of maintenance required when new vegetation management techniques are implemented while also significantly reducing herbicide use. Data source: Santa Cruz County Department of Public Works Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: The Bonny Doon Road Herbicide Reduction Project was a pilot project as part of the Santa Cruz County Integrated Vegetation Management Program. Boony Doon Road is approximately 1.1 miles of a winding two-lane road that follows the contours of a canyon and nearby creek. Roadside vegetation including fennel and poison hemlock, if left to grow naturally, will block horizontal sight distance, which becomes a safety concern for motorists. The project proved that methods including mowing, mulch, and maintenance were effective in controlling growth of the roadside vegetation, which resulted in a reduction of 154 gallons of diluted herbicide. Agency: Banff National Park of Canada Document/website: Banff National Park in Canada, Highway Fencing and Wildlife Crossings http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/ab/banff/docs/routes/sec3.aspx Fo cu s a rea : Ma intenanc e Objective: Reduc e h er bicide use durin g p roj ect ma intenanc e Measure: Area (in acr es ) s prayed wi th herbicides durin g m aintenance Focus area: System operations Objective: Reduce vehicleâanimal collisions during operations Measure: Change in the number of animal kills
D-24 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Provide or improve wildlife access and mobility across roadway facility boundaries and reduce vehicleâwildlife collisions and related accidents Methodology: Dedicated wildlife crossings are structural features of the roadway that are not used by motorized vehicles. Installing new dedicated wildlife crossing structures and protective fencing (if needed) as recommended by the wildlife assessment greatly reduces the number of vehicleâwildlife collisions and related animal deaths. Data source: Banff National Park Maintenance and Operations Analysis scale: Roadway, local Background: Banff National Parkâs Highway Fencing and Wildlife Crossings is an example of one of the first and most successful projects to accommodate terrestrial habitat connectivity. In response to high and rising traffic volumes, sections of the Trans-Canada Highway have been upgraded from a two-lane to a four-lane divided highway in Banff National Park. To reduce the negative impacts of a larger highway on wildlife populations in Banff National Park: 1) Fencing has been installed on both sides of the twinned highway sections to prevent large animals from getting onto the highway, and 2) Wildlife underpasses and overpasses have been installed to connect vital habitats and help sustain biodiversity. Vehicleâwildlife collisions have been significantly reduced. Goal 9: Reduce Waste Generated by Transportation-Related Activities Agency: WSDOT Document/website: WSDOT Pavement Management System http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Research/Reports/300/315.2.htm Agency example measure: Tracking pavement performances to make them last longer by preserving and maintaining them Methodology: A pavement management system is a systematic process of preserving and rehabilitating a particular section of pavement or network of pavements. It measures the pavement condition, includes decision criteria for rehabilitation actions, and records when the pavement rehabilitation occurs. Data sources: Washington State Department of Transportation Materials lab in conjunction with the WSDOT Pavement Management System (WSPMS) Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Focus area: Planning Objective: Ensure that assets are managed to reduce life-cycle cost and increase useful life Measure: An asset management system exists Background: The WSPMS is one of the oldest internally built systems in the United States. It began collecting data in 1963 and developed a management system in 1982. WSPMS tracks
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-25 pavement condition, pr edicts future pavement co nd itio n b ased on curr en t a nd past conditions , an d c hooses when an d b y w ha t m ean s t he paveme nt shoul d b e p re se rv ed and/ or re habili tated. WSDOT make s t he cas e t ha t s ince trackin g b egan in 1971 , t he WSPM S h as contributed to a s hift toward good pavement condi ti ons . Agency: Asphalt Pavement Alliance (APA) Document/website: Perpetual Asphalt Pavements: A Synthesis http://asphaltroads.org/PerpetualPavement Agency example measure: Minimize life-cycle costs by promoting design of long-lasting design pavement structures. Methodology: As defined in the synthesis document (APA, 2002), âlong-life pavement is a well-designed and constructed pavement that could last indefinitely without deterioration in the structural elements provided it is not overlooked and the appropriate maintenance is carried out.â To reduce the life-cycle costs of pavement, the pavement must be designed accordingly. This includes the proper pavement section and material types. In addition, design life is also a function of the construction practices as well as maintenance procedures/activities. Data source(s): National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) Analysis scale: Roadway, nationwide Background: The APA defines a perpetual pavement as ââ¦an asphalt pavement designed and built to last longer than 50 years without requiring major structural rehabilitation or reconstruction, and needing only periodic surface renewal in response to distresses confined to the top of the pavementâ (APA, 2002). The synthesis provides guidance for design and construction of asphalt pavements that yield a longer life cycle. Agency: City of Vancouver, British Columbia Fo cu s a rea : Pr ogrammin g Objective: Develo p i nfrastructur e p roj ect s d esigne d f or long li fe Measure: Change in aver ag e d esign lif e o f i nf ra st ru ctur e ( by majo r c omponent ) due to program Focus area: Project development Objective: Increase the percentage of waste diverted (from landfill) from transportation projects Measure: Change in the percentage of projects with a recycling plan or waste diversion goal Document/website: British Columbia Recycling Initiative
D-26 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies http://www.tac- atc. ca/english/ re sourcecentre/readingroom/conference/conf2006/docs/s007/bremner.pdf Agency exampl e m easure: Ut iliz e a n accountin g a nd management plan fo r r oa d c onstructio n wast e m ater ials , a nd minimiz e t he amount of cons tr uction-relate d w aste destined fo r l andf il l Met hodology: Es tablis hing a f or ma l p ro ces s f or re moving an d r ecyclin g i nfrastructur e w aste will re duc e t he amoun t o f m ater ials bein g s en t t o t he landfill. Reducin g w aste will not onl y re duc e n eeded landfill space but wi ll be be tt er fo r t he environment, re duce dum p t ru ck tr ip s ( an d exhaust) , a nd will have an overall cost savi ngs fo r t he project . Data sou rce( s) : Th e i nf or matio n i n t his cas e s tudy comes fro m t he re po rt pr oduced by Br emne r an d t he City of Vancouve r ( 2006) . Analysis scal e: Roadway, local Back ground: In 2005, th e C ity of Vancouve r c reated a n ew engineerin g b ra nc h i n t heir governmental agency st ric tly fo r m anagemen t o f i nfrastructur e w aste , s uc h a s w aste generate d fro m r oadway , w ater , a nd sewe r d evelopmen t. Th e e stimate d a mount of this in fra st ru ctur e w aste exceeded 400,000 metric tons (a bout 441 ,000 t ons ) a nnually . T hi s w aste ha d p re viously been disposed of in th e V ancouve r l andfill . A ft er this ini tiative, 100 % o f a nnual hot- mix asphalt millin g w aste is now recycled; 100 % o f a nnua l c oncrete cu rb , s idewalk, an d r oadway sl ab material is now recycled ; s tockpile s o f s oil, asphalt, an d c oncrete ar e now availabl e f or more project s a ft er re pr ocessing, an d e xtractio n o f n ew a ggregat e i s o ft en avoide d. Agency: Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Document/website: TxDOT Waste Tracking System http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/00julaug/recyctx.cfm Agency example measure: Utilize an accounting and management plan for road construction waste materials, and minimize the amount of construction-related waste destined for landfill Methodology: Establish, implement, and maintain a formal construction and demolition waste management plan (CWMP) during roadway construction. Construction and demolition waste constitutes any material that must be hauled off-site for disposal or reprocessing, or if disposed (stockpiled) within the ROW is not intended for use as a structural element. Data source(s): TxDOT and Construction Materials Recycling Association Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Focus area: Construction Objective: Increase the percentage of waste diverted (from landfill) during construction Measure: Change in the amount of construction waste diverted by type, weight and/or volume
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-27 Background: TxDOTâs Waste Tracking System tracks the volume of materials used on a project, their associated costs, and environmental benefits. In addition, the system considers life- cycle costs of materials as well as cost incentives for contractors to implement a waste management plan. In the previous two years the program saved over 1.8 million tons of virgin aggregate by incorporating a variety of pavement recycling options into the general agency practice. Agency: NYSDOT Document/website: GreenLITES https://www.nysdot.gov/programs/greenlites/operations-cert Agency example measure: Change the amount of waste that is created during operations of roadway facilities Methodology: Increase sustainability measures in transportation maintenance statewide in all aspects of their work. This includes maintenance work on roadways that need construction maintenance as well as in-office recycling. Data source(s): GreenLITES Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: In 2009, GreenLITESâ Operations Division was launched to increase sustainability in all aspects of maintenance operations for transportation. The Operations Division has devised and incorporated more than 100 tasks into its planning process. These tasks are then chosen based on sustainability trade-offs and tracked for progress. Many of these GreenLITES tasks include recycling or waste diversionâfor example, office waste recycling and reuse, garage waste minimization and recycling, implementing a zero waste strategy, pavement in-place recycling, recycled asphalt paving, concrete recycling, fluorescent lightbulb recycling, and recycled materials for erosion/sediment control. Agency: New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) Document/website: NMDOT Litter Control Plan http://nmshtd.state.nm.us/upload/images/GTG/Q3_07/DOT_Litter_Control_Program.pdf Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Increase the percentage of waste diverted (from landfill) during maintenance Measure: Change in the percentage of maintenance projects with a recycling plan or waste diversion goal Focus area: System operations Objective: Reduce litter Measure: Change in the quantity of total litter collected annually (weight, volume, etc.)
D-28 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency exampl e m easure: Prevent pollu tio n a nd maintain aesthetic quality of ro ad an d b ridge networks through cleanin g a nd litte r r emova l Met hodology: To measur e t he ir ef fort s, NMDOT collect s t he following data an d r epor ts them on a quarterly an d a nnua l b asis : â¢ Number of speci al litte r e vents, â¢ Number of volunteers, â¢ Tons of tr as h r emoved, â¢ Number of highway mile s c leaned , a nd â¢ Number of dollars allocated to litte r r emoval. Data sou rce( s) : NMDOT data co ll ectio n Analysis scal e: Roadway, local , r egiona l, an d s tatewide Back ground: In recognitio n o f a worsening litte r p re senc e o n N ew Mexi co highway s a s w el l a s a r ealizatio n o f t he aesthetic benefits of a c lean an d s af e r oadway , N MDOT bega n a litte r c ontro l program . N MDOT track s p erfo rm ance of the lit te r c ontro l p ro gr am , i ncluding numbe r o f cleanin g e vents, tonnage of collected litte r, involve d volunteers, an d m one y s pent . S ources of cleanup include NMDOT maintenanc e c re ws, vol un teer effo rt s ( through th e Adopt-A-Highway program), and inmate labor. NMDOT also works with other agencies (e.g., Keep Ne w M exic o B eautif ul ) t o m eet department goals an d p romote a litter- fre e e nvi ronment. Go al 10: Re duc e t he Us e o f N on ren ew ab le Re so ur ces an d P ro mo te th e U se of Re ne wa bl e Re plac em en ts Agency: Seattle DOT Document/website: Seattleâs Sustainability Purchasing Plan http://www.cityofseattle.net/environment/purchasing.htm Agency example measure: Promoting the use of environmentally preferable products in the cityâs acquisition of goods and services Methodology: Sustainable purchasing demonstrates the commitment to buying goods, materials, services, and capital improvements in a manner that reflects fiscal responsibility, social equity, community, and environmental stewardship values. This measure tracks the amount of goods and services purchased that are environmentally preferable. Focus area: Planning Objective: Purchase sustainable materials as a priority Measure: Existence of a purchasing plan that establishes priority for sustainable materials
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-29 Data sou rce( s) : Th e D epar tment of Ex ecutiv e A d minis tratio n a nd Of fi ce of Su st ainability an d Environmen t p roduc e a n a nnua l s ummary of th e c it yâ s e nvironmentally re sponsible/sustainable purchasing actions . Analysis scal e: Al l c ity department s a nd offices th at make purchases of goods an d s er vices or that contract with others to make purchases Back ground: The goa l i s t o b ring together policie s, communicatio n t ools, proces s improvement s, st andards, an d r eportin g m echanisms to help align purchasin g p ractices with th e cityâs values an d i ncorporat e t hese into a s ustainable purchasin g p rogram . T he thre e v alue s t ha t th e c ity identif ie d a re envi ronmenta l f act or s i nclu di ng life-cycl e a ssessm ents , s ocia l e quity factors, an d f is cal factors. Th e c ity will purchas e a nd us e m ater ials , p roducts , a nd se rvi ces that ar e f is cally re sponsible , r educ e r esour ce consumptio n a nd waste, prom ot e opportun itie s t o l esser- advantaged segm ents of th e c ommunity , p erfo rm ad equately , a nd prom ot e human health an d well-being. Agency: Oregon Department of Energy Document/website: A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) for Oregon http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/RPS_home.shtml Agency example measure: Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels during operation and maintenance of facilities Methodology: Have a documented plan that outlines how renewable energy will be procured for operations and maintenance of roadway facilities. This includes maintaining an electricity monitoring system for operations and maintenance that tracks electricity usage for highway facilities. Data source(s): The Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System certifies the Renewable Energy Certificates (http://www.wregis.org/). Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Background: Oregonâs current RPS requires the largest utilities in Oregon to provide 25% of their sales of electricity from renewable sources of energy by 2025. Smaller utilities have similar obligations but at a smaller percentage of sales. Focus area: Programming Objective: Use renewable energy to provide project power Measure: Change in percentage of renewable energy, in kWh, created in relation to project energy requirements due to a program
D-30 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency: ODOT Document/website: Oregon Solar Highway http://www.oregonsolarhighway.com Agency example measure: Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels during operation of highway illumination Methodology: Compute the energy requirements for all electrified components on the project. Provide operational energy for the projectâs electrified components using autonomous, on-site, renewable energy sources. Data source(s): Portland General Electric Analysis scale: Roadway, local, regional, and statewide Background: In December 2008, ODOT partnered with Portland General Electric to form and implement the Oregon Solar Highway Initiative and build the first solar project in a public ROW in the United States. A 104-kW ground-mounted solar array was installed at the Corridor of the Future interchange of I-5 and I-205. The solar panels supply approximately one-third of the energy needed to illuminate the project. Over the lifetime of the project, it is expected to save 2,900 tons of CO2 emissions. Companies: Microsoft and Turner Construction Document/website: Constructing a Cleaner Work Environment, Biodiesel Magazine http://biodieselmagazine.com/articles/1798/constructing-a-cleaner-work-environment Agency example measure: Reduce the overall consumption of fossil fuels by non-road construction equipment. Methodology: Reduce the fossil fuel requirements of non-road construction equipment by using biofuel or biofuel blends as a replacement for fossil fuel. Focus area: Project development Objective: Use renewable energy to provide project power Measure: Change in percentage of renewable energy, in kWh, created in relation to project energy requirements in a project Focus area: Construction Objective: Use biofuel for non-road maintenance equipment Measure: Percentage of machine hours or gallons of biofuel used during construction
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-31 Data source(s): Turner Construction and the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries both collected air quality data. Analysis scale: Project specific Background: B99, a 99% proportion of biodiesel to conventional fuel, was used during the construction of the Microsoft Windows Live Columbia One Data Center in Quincy, Washington, to fuel equipment operated by subcontractors hired by Turner Construction Company. Discussions with the safety manager assigned to the project reveal that the reason behind the switch to biodiesel for the on-site construction equipment was to provide a remedy for the noxious diesel fumes that were emitted by the construction equipment. Air quality readings were reduced to 2â4 ppm CO at the exhaust of the concrete pump trucks, which is significantly less than the air quality regulation of 40â45 ppm. Agency: Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) Document/website: www.tennessee.gov/tdot Agency example measure: Reduce the overall consumption of fossil fuels by maintenance vehicles Methodology: Reduce the fossil fuel requirements of fleet and maintenance vehicles by using biofuel or biofuel blends as a replacement for fossil fuel. Biodiesel is made from renewable sources such as soybean oil, burns cleaner than traditional diesel, and requires little or no engine modifications. In addition, it also supports the farmers who grow the materials used. Data source(s): www.tennessee.gov/tdot Analysis scale: TDOT Maintenance Operations Background: TDOT has begun using B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel) to fuel TDOT maintenance and fleet vehicles, including heavy-duty dump trucks and large pieces of equipment such as bulldozers and backhoes. TDOT has also installed B20 pumps at each of the regional offices for use in these vehicles. Agency: Hawaii Department of Transportation (HDOT) Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Use biofuel for non-road maintenance equipment Measure: Percentage of machine hours or gallons of biofuel used during maintenance Focus area: System operations Objective: Purchase green energy Measure: Change in the amount and percentage of green energy purchased Document/website: http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/Hawaii-State-Department- Transportation-Purchase-Clean-Solar-Energy-From-Hoku-Solar-NASDAQ-HOKU-906483.htm
D-32 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Purchasing renewable solar energy for operations and maintenance of roadway facilities Methodology: Procuring renewable energy for the operations and/or maintenance of transportation facilities. Renewable energy will reduce the DOTâs carbon footprint and emissions. The goal of this measure is to reduce the amount of fossil fuels that would alternatively be imported. Data source(s): HDOT Analysis scale: Statewide DOT facilities Background: Hawaiiâs Clean Energy Initiative has the goal that by year 2030, 70% of Hawaiiâs energy is to come from clean sources. To reduce the stateâs dependency on imported fossil fuels, HDOT is currently purchasing solar electricity generated by Hoku Solar. This solar electricity comes from the photovoltaic (PV) power that is generated at several of HDOTâs facilities located across the state, including airports and administration buildings. It is expected that the PV systems will generate 1.2 million kWh of clean, solar energy and will offset 12,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Goal 11: Reduce Transportation-Related Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Agency: Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Document/website: Secondary Street Acceptance Requirements (SSAR) http://www.virginiadot.org/projects/ssar/ Agency example measure: Increasing roadway connectivity will reduce the amount of pollutant emissions created from vehicles. Methodology: Roadway connectivity involves a system of streets and routes and how the area is connected within the street system. Better connected streets make it easier to get from place to place within a community and provide several routes to do so. Increasing connectivity will reduce the amount of travel miles for vehicles, which will in turn reduce the related emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. This measure will increase the amount of connectivity for new developments. Data source(s): VDOT Focus area: Planning Objective: Increase street connectivity Measure: Change in street connectivity index Analysis scale: Statewide
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-33 Back ground: VDOT âs SSA R w as approve d i n 2 00 9 a nd re vise s t he polic y f or th e d esig n a nd functio n a st reet mu st meet in orde r t o b e c reated . O ne part of this re gulatio n i s c onnectivity . Street s m us t b e c reated to suppor t b ette r s treet co nn ectivity within th e a rea. Fewe r c uls-de-sac an d d ead en d s treet s w ill be allowe d t o e nt er th e s ta te syst em . A bette r c onnected st reet syst em will enabl e a m or e e ffi cien t u se of th e r oadway s a s w el l a s r educ e t he amount of vehicle mile s driven . M or e d irect routes will be cr eated fo r r esid ents , d eliver y v ehicles, an d e mergency vehicles when ther e i s a bette r g ri d o f s tr eets. Agency: TxDOT Document/website: Texas Emission Reduction Plan (TERP) http://www.tceq.texas.gov/airquality/terp Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from vehicles and construction equipment by encouraging the use of alternative fuel vehicles Methodology: Activities such as driving vehicles and operating construction equipment contribute to creating pollutants that cause adverse health conditions. This measure will assure that air quality is safe to breathe and meets minimum air quality standards in Texas by reducing the amount of emissions of pollutants. Data source(s): TERP Summary Reports Analysis scale: Statewide Background: Realizing that air pollution is a problem, TxDOT has created the TERP program, which is designed to increase the use of alternative fuel vehicles. TERP offers financial incentives and grants to individuals or companies to purchase vehicles or construction equipment that reduce emissions more than EPAâs Tier II standards. Agency: Washington State Department of Ecology Focus area: Project development Objective: Develop projects that reduce pollutant emissions (travel, trip length, mode split, emissions) Measure: Change in percentage of commercial vehicles by EPA tier compliance due to project Focus area: Programming Objective: Program projects that reduce pollutant emissions (travel, trip length, mode split, emissions) Measure: Change in percentage of commercial vehicles by EPA tier compliance due to program Document/website: Diesel Particulate Emission Reduction Strategy for Washington State
D-34 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/0602022.html Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from non-road construction equipment by encouraging early achievement of the EPA Tier 4 emission standard Methodology: Diesel engines release pollutants that include over 40 cancer-causing substances. The goal is to reduce the amount of diesel exhaust that produces air pollution, which will in turn reduce the negative health effects of diesel pollution for the public. One of the most significant sources of diesel emissions is non-road construction equipment. Data source(s): Washington State Department of Ecology Analysis scale: Statewide Background: Washington Stateâs Department of Ecologyâs Diesel Particulate Emission Reduction Strategy has the following four goals: (1) install emission reduction exhaust retrofits on 50% of the public legacy diesel fleet in four years; (2) install emission reduction exhaust retrofits and add-on fuel efficiency technologies on 50% of the private legacy diesel fleet in eight years; (3) evaluate, develop, and implement an idle-reduction program that addresses and remedies unnecessary idling through onboard retrofits, on-the-ground infrastructure, and anti- idling regulations; and (4) replace 25% of older (pre-1996 for non-road) legacy vehicles in the private fleet in eight years. Agency: Cook County Department of Environmental Control, Illinois Document/website: Cook County Green Construction Ordinance http://www.cookcountyclerk.com/countyboard/DocumentLibrary/2009ordinances.pdf Agency example measure: Reduce air emissions from non-road construction equipment by achievement of the EPA tier emission standards Methodology: Diesel engines release pollutants that include over 40 cancer-causing substances. The goal is to reduce the amount of diesel exhaust that produces air pollution, which will in turn reduce the negative health effects of diesel pollution for the public. One of the most significant sources of diesel emissions is construction equipment. Data source(s): Cook County Department of Environmental Control Analysis scale: Roadway, countywide Focus area: Construction Objective: Reduce equipment emissions (equipment conforming to latest EPA emissions standards) Measure: Percent of construction equipment at each tier of emissions standards (weighted or unweighted), percent of construction equipment retrofitted to meet latest EPA emissions standards Background: The Cook County Green Construction Ordinance requires all public construction contracts greater than $2 million (budgeted) to use ultralow sulfur diesel fuel for all non-road
Sustainability Performance Measure Examples D-35 vehicles an d e quipment. It also re qui re s t he us e o f d ie se l r et rofittin g o n a ll vehicles an d equipment. In mid-2011 , v ehicle s w ill need to be e quippe d t o m eet Le ve l 2 PM (p ar ti culate matter) re trofits (on non -ro ad equipmen t) , a nd begi nning in 2014 will need to be equippe d t o meet Le ve l 3 re tr of its (on non-road an d r oa d v ehicles/equipment) fo r a ny publicly funde d projects. Agency: INDOT Document/website: Interstate 70 Rehabilitation Project http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/98novdec/customer.cfm Agency example measure: Reducing the impact and delays on traffic operations by doing roadway maintenance during off-peak hours at night Methodology: Performing roadway maintenance during regular traffic hours (in particular peak hours) typically means closing a lane of traffic. This can cause long delays for commuters and increase the emissions of air pollutants. This measure encourages off-peak maintenance scheduling to minimize congestion (and air pollution). Data source(s): INDOT Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: As part of the Interstate 70 Rehabilitation Project, INDOT included the cost of traffic delays caused by roadwork as part of the proposals. As a result, the contractor finished with fewer lane closures and ahead of schedule. This reduced the amount of traffic delay hours and roadway emissions. Agency: New York State Thruway Authority Document/website: E-ZPass New York http://www.thruway.ny.gov/about/performance-quarterly.html Focus area: Maintenance Objective: Reduce adverse impact on traffic operations (lane reductions, traffic interruptions, detours, night operations) Measure: Change in peak hour/period capacity (e.g., lane miles), vehicle hours of delay, extra VMT, percent of passing VMT affected by maintenance Focus area: System operations Objective: Maintain efficient traffic operations Measure: Change in percentage of toll payers using E-ZPass
D-36 A Guidebook for Sustainability Performance Measurement for Transportation Agencies Agency example measure: Increase efficiency in traffic operations through the use of E-ZPass electronic tolling Methodology: E-ZPass is an electronic tolling device that eliminates the need to stop at toll booths. Tolls are prepaid, and a toll tag is placed inside vehicles. The E-ZPass system maintains the account balance and usage. Data source(s): New York State Thruway Authority Analysis scale: Roadway, statewide Background: The New York State Thruway Authority has a goal to increase efficiency and effectiveness of operations. Quarterly, the authority assesses this goal based on performance measures. One of these performance measures is the percentage of E-ZPass transactions. E- ZPass transactions increased by 2.08% in the third quarter of 2010 as compared to the same quarter of 2009.