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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs

Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) through grants DAMD17-88-2-8016 and DAMD17-87-G-7021. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the committee and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other documentation.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals : a guide for developing institutional programs / Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

1. Laboratory animals. 2. Animal welfare. I. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.). Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science.

SF406.E38 1990

636.088'5—dc20 90-49571

CIP

ISBN 0-309-04382-4

Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences

Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, January 1991

Second Printing, December 1992

Third Printing, October 1998

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE

Gale D. Taylor (Chairman),

Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana

Lynn C. Anderson,

Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Sharp Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey

David A. Blake,

The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Lynn Dahm,

Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington, Seattle

Thomas E. Darby,

Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, New Jersey

John E. Harkness,

Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State

James F. Harwell,

National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Staff

Dorothy D. Greenhouse, Senior Program Officer

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Its mission is to provide expert counsel to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of laboratory animals within the context of the interests and mission of the National Academy of Sciences. ILAR promotes the high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals; the appropriate use of laboratory animals; and the exploration of alternatives in research, testing, and teaching.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

INSTITUTE OF LABORATORY ANIMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL

Steven P. Pakes (Chairman),

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

June R. Aprille,

Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

Melvin W. Balk,

Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts

Douglas M. Bowden,

University of Washington, Seattle

Lester M. Crawford,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Thomas J. Gill III,

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Jon W. Gordon,

Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York

Alan M. Goldberg,

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Margaret Z. Jones,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

Michael D. Kastello,

Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey

Robert H. Purcell,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland

J. Wesley Robb,

School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles

John L. VandeBerg,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

Staff:

Thomas L. Wolfle, Director

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

Bruce M. Alberts (Chairman),

University of California, San Francisco

Bruce N. Ames,

University of California, Berkeley

Francisco J. Ayala,

University of California, Irvine

J. Michael Bishop,

University of California Medical Center, San Francisco

Michael T. Clegg,

University of California, Riverside

Glenn A. Crosby,

Washington State University, Pullman

Freeman J. Dyson,

The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

Leroy E. Hood,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Donald F. Hornig,

Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

Marian E. Koshland,

University of California, Berkeley

Richard E. Lenski,

University of California, Irvine

Steven P. Pakes,

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

Emil A. Pfitzer,

Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey

Thomas D. Pollard,

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Joseph E. Rall,

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Richard D. Remington,

University of Iowa, Iowa City

Paul G. Risser,

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

Harold M. Schmeck, Jr.,

Armonk, New York

Richard B. Setlow,

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

Carla J. Shatz,

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

Torsten N. Wiesel,

Rockefeller University, New York, New York

Staff:

John E. Burris, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

Preface

The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science was appointed in 1988 to "prepare an annotated syllabus [guide] for a course in humane practices of animal care and use to assist institutions in complying with recently enacted federal laws, which mandate that educational programs be provided for personnel who use animals in research, testing, and teaching." The committee met four times between November 1988 and June 1990. During the first meeting, several decisions were made that determined the scope and content of this report. First, to assist the scientific community in meeting its demonstrated commitment to humanely care for and use research animals, it was determined that the report would include more information and in much more depth than is necessary to meet minimal requirements of existing regulations. Second, it was resolved that the intended audience should be anyone who can directly or indirectly influence the well-being of animals. These people include investigators, research technicians, teachers, teaching assistants, people in physical plant maintenance, and administrators and animal care staff, all of whom need an understanding of their responsibilities to make an institution's animal care and use program successful. It was also decided that the report would address primarily the principal species used in biomedical research, with limited inclusion of less commonly used species. The care and use of animals in agricultural research were considered beyond the scope of the committee's charge. The consensus was that the committee would develop a core syllabus appropriate for every institution where animal research is performed. In addition, a number of individual packages would be developed that would allow each institution to adapt this guide to its own unique needs. It was recognized that many of the research facilities that will use this guide are not academic institutions and that some basic guidance on development, presentation, and evaluation of an education and training program should be included.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×

The committee recognizes that this report reflects only an initial effort to fulfill both the scientific community's need for information and the mandated requirements for education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals. The dynamics of biomedical research and legislation, critical comments by those who use the guide, and the ongoing development of audiovisual programs will almost certainly require that the report be extensively revised within a few years. The committee hopes that this guide serves as the first building stone in the development of institutional education and training programs that assist scientists in the conduct of biomedical research, as well as meeting the spirit and intent of federal legislation.

The committee extends its appreciation to Kevin P. Engler and Jean A. Larson of the National Agricultural Library's Animal Welfare Information Center, who prepared the appendix on how to use the center, and to the staff of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, especially Dorothy D. Greenhouse, whose support has made this document possible.

Gale D. Taylor, Chairman

Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×
   

1.3 State and Local Regulations Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education

 

34

   

1.4 Institutional Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education

 

34

   

References

 

34

2

 

Ethical and Scientific Issues

 

36

   

2.1 Definitions

 

36

   

2.2 Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decisions

 

36

   

2.3 Arguments Used by Those Advocating the Humane Use of Animals for Human Purposes

 

37

   

2.4 Arguments Used by Animal-Rights Advocates

 

37

   

2.5 The Role of Laws, Regulations, and Policies

 

37

   

2.6 Suggested Ethical Principles

 

37

   

References

 

37

3

 

Alternatives

 

39

   

3.1 Definitions

 

39

   

3.2 Rationale for Considering Alternatives

 

39

   

3.3 Nonanimal Research Methods and Models

 

40

   

3.4 Factors Influencing Model Selection

 

41

   

3.5 Utilization of Services

 

42

   

References

 

42

4

 

Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs

 

43

   

4.1 Responsibilities of the Institution

 

43

   

4.2 Responsibilities of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

 

44

   

4.3 Responsibilities of the Investigator

 

45

   

4.4 Responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian

 

47

   

References

 

47

5

 

Pain and Distress

 

48

   

5.1 Definitions

 

48

   

5.2 Categories of Pain

 

49

   

5.3 Pain Perception

 

49

   

5.4 Assessment of Pain

 

49

   

5.5 Stress

 

50

   

5.6 Distress

 

50

   

5.7 Ethical Obligations

 

51

   

5.8 Legal Obligations

 

51

   

5.9 Adequate Veterinary Care

 

51

   

References

 

52

6

 

Anesthetics, Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

 

53

   

6.1 General Anesthetics

 

53

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×
   

6.2 Tranquilizers and Sedatives

 

55

   

6.3 Analgesics

 

57

   

6.4 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Paralytics or Immobilizing Agents)

 

58

   

6.5 Factors Modifying the Effects of Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

 

59

   

6.6 Safety Precautions

 

59

   

6.7 Recordkeeping Requirements

 

59

   

6.8 Functions of the Attending Veterinarian in Pain Management

 

59

   

References

 

59

7

 

Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care

 

61

   

7.1 Definitions

 

61

   

7.2 Legal Requirements

 

61

   

7.3 Preparation for Surgery

 

62

   

7.4 Anesthesia

 

63

   

7.5 Surgical Complications

 

63

   

7.6 Incisions

 

64

   

7.7 Postsurgical Care

 

65

   

7.8 Equipment

 

65

   

7.9 Recordkeeping

 

66

   

References

 

66

8

 

Euthanasia

 

67

   

8.1 Definition

 

67

   

8.2 Legal Requirements

 

67

   

8.3 Ethical and Humane Considerations

 

68

   

8.4 Human Considerations

 

68

   

8.5 Criteria for Selection of Method of Euthanasia

 

69

   

8.6 Pharmacologic Methods

 

69

   

8.7 Physical Methods

 

72

   

8.8 Carcass Disposal

 

74

   

References

 

74

9

 

Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment

 

75

   

9.1 Legal Requirements for Husbandry and Care

 

75

   

9.2 Importance of Proper Husbandry and a Stable Environment

 

75

   

9.3 Environmental Variables That Can Be Controlled

 

76

   

9.4 Dealing with Emergencies

 

76

   

Reference

 

76

10

 

Species-Specific Overview

 

77

   

10.1 Factors Associated with Selection of Animals

 

77

   

10.2 Procurement of Animals

 

79

   

10.3 Caging

 

79

   

10.4 Environmental Enrichment

 

80

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
×
   

10.5 Food

 

80

   

10.6 Water

 

80

   

10.7 Handling and Restraint

 

81

   

10.8 Identification and Records

 

81

   

10.9 Animal Health

 

81

   

10.10 Zoonoses

 

83

   

10.11 Specific Techniques

 

84

   

References

 

84

IV
RESOURCES

 

 

1

 

Sources of Information

 

87

2

 

Selected Bibliography

 

89

   

Laws, Policies, and Guidelines

 

89

   

Ethics, Animal Welfare, and the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research, Education, and Testing

 

90

   

Alternatives

 

90

   

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees

 

91

   

Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress

 

91

   

Surgery

 

93

   

Euthanasia

 

93

   

Biology, Husbandry, and Care

 

93

   

Genetics and Nomenclature

 

97

   

Nutrition

 

97

   

Occupational Hazards and Laboratory Safety

 

98

   

Pathology and Therapy

 

99

   

Design of Educational Course

 

102

3

 

Audiovisual Materials

 

103

V
HOW TO DEVELOP, DELIVER, AND EVALUATE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

 

 

1

 

How to Approach the Task of Education

 

109

   

Educational Goals

 

109

   

Setting Objectives

 

110

   

Selecting Methods

 

110

   

Overcoming Resistance to Change

 

112

   

Conclusions

 

113

2

 

How to Plan and Implement a Training Course

 

114

   

Identifying the Target Audience

 

114

   

Allocating a Budget/Funding

 

114

   

Determining Goals and Objectives

 

115

   

Scheduling the Course

 

115

   

Reserving Facilities

 

115

   

Identifying and Contacting Lecturers

 

115

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1592.
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Next: I Introduction »
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Get This Book
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Federal law now requires that institutions provide training for anyone caring for or using laboratory animals. This volume provides the guidelines and resources needed to coordinate a quality training program, as well as to meet all legal requirements.

A core module for all personnel takes no more than four hours to present. Most staff then proceed to one or more additional skills-development modules including the species-specific module that can be customized to any species in use at the institution, the pain management module, and the surgery module.

The volume provides content information for required topics--from ethics to record keeping--and lists sources of additional publications, audiovisual programs, and computerized teaching aids.

Included are:

  1. Ready-to-use teaching outlines, with detailed instructions for presenting material.
  2. Practical guidelines on logistics, covering scheduling, budgeting, and more.
  3. Guidelines on how to design training for adults and how to work with investigators who may resist taking training courses.

This practical guidebook will be necessary for research institutions, particularly for staff members responsible for training coordination.

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