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i United StatesâCanadian Tables of Feed Composition NUTRITIONAL DATA FOR UNITED STATES AND CANADIAN FEEDS Third Revision Subcommittee on Feed Composition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Commission on Natural Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982
ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose mem- bers are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee con- sisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; by the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: United StatesâCanadian tables of feed composition. Bibliography: p. 1. FeedsâCompositionâTables. 2. FeedsâUnited StatesâCompositionâ Tables. 3. FeedsâCanadaâCompositionâTables. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Feed Composition. SF97.U56 1982 636.08 55 82â3625 ISBN 0-309-03245-8 AACR2 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
PREFACE iii PREFACE This report is the third revision of the joint United States-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition, NAS-NRC publication 659, issued in 1959. The first revision, publication 1232 (1964), consolidated the data in the first joint report with selected data from NAS-NRC publication 449 and NAS-NRC publication 585. The second revision was NAS-NRC publication 1684 (1969). The feeds included here were selected by the Subcommittee on Feed Composition and approved by the Committee on Animal Nutrition and its subcommittees on nutrient requirements of domestic animals. This report brings together analytical data on more than 600 feeds. Data are presented on 68 attributes (nutrients). The report provides working tables for feed manufacturers, nutritional research scientists, teachers, students, county agents, and farmers to use as adjuncts to reports in the NRC nutrient requirement series. This study was partly supported by financial assistance to Utah State University from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and from the Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Support for subcommittee activities was received from Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration, USDA; the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. The subcommittee wishes to thank the many scientists in commercial and university laboratories who supplied data that have been used in compiling the information contained in this report. We are grateful to the Technical Committee of the USDA Cooperative Regional Project S-45 for providing data on a number of forages grown in the southeastern section of the United States. Special thanks are due L.C.Kearl, P.V.Fonnesbeck, and Howard Lloyd of the International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah State University, for their untiring efforts and special competencies in compiling and organizing the data. We are indebted to Philip Ross and Selma P.Baron of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources for their assistance in the production of this report and to the members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition for their critical reviews and suggestions. We want to extend our special thanks to Donald L.Bath, Carl E.Coppock, Eugene S.Erwin, Steve Leeson, Fredric N. Owens, John V.Shutze, Milton L.Sunde, and Eric W. Swanson who reviewed the draft of the report and made helpful comments and suggestions for our consideration. The report was also reviewed by Bernard S.Schweigert for the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources and by Howard S.Teague for the Commission on Natural Resources. SUBCOMMITTEE ON FEED COMPOSITION JOSEPH H.CONRAD, Chairman, University of Florida CHARLES W.DEYOE, Kansas State University LORIN E.HARRIS, Utah State University PAUL W.MOE, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland RODNEY L.PRESTON, Texas Tech University PETER J.VAN SOEST, Cornell University
iv COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION JOSEPH P.FONTENOT,Chairman, VPI and State University DUANE E.ULLREY, Vice Chairman, Michigan State University JIMMY H.CLARK, University of Illinois RICHARD D.GOODRICH, University of Minnesota NEAL A.JORGENSEN, University of Wisconsin-Madison BERYL E.MARCH, University of British Columbia JAMES G.MORRIS, University of California, Davis WILSON G.POND, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center GARY L.RUMSEY, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service SELMA P.BARON, Staff Officer
v BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES GEORGE K.DAVIS, Chairman, University of Florida, retired NEVILLE P.CLARKE, Vice Chairman, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station WILLIAM L.BROWN, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. ROBERT O.HERRMANN, Pennsylvania State University MINORU HIRONAKA, University of Idaho LAURENCE R.JAHN, Wildlife Management Institute BERNARD S.SCHWEIGERT, University of California, Davis E.WAYNE SHELL, Auburn University GEORGE R.STAEBLER, Weyerhaeuser Co., retired CHAMP B.TANNER, University of Wisconsin JOHN F.TIMMONS, Iowa State University PAUL E.WAGGONER, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven PHILIP ROSS, Executive Secretary COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES ROBERT M.WHITE, Chairman, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research TIMOTHY ATKESON, Steptoe & Johnson STANLEY I.AUERBACH, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NEVILLE P.CLARKE, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station NORMAN A.COPELAND, E.I.du Pont de Nemours & Co., retired GEORGE K.DAVIS, University of Florida, retired JOSEPH L.FISHER, The Wilderness Society EDWARD D.GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography KONRAD B.KRAUSKOPF, Stanford University CHARLES J.MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey NORTON NELSON, New York University Medical Center DANIEL A.OKUN, University of North Carolina DAVID PIMENTEL, Cornell University JOHN E.TILTON, Pennsylvania State University WALLACE D.BOWMAN, Executive Director
CONTENTS vi CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 COMPOSITION OF FEEDS 2 International Feed Nomenclature 2 International Feed Classes 2 International Feed Number (IFN) 2 ANALYTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DATA 3 Source of Data 3 Variation of Data 3 Dry Matter 3 Energy Values of Feeds 3 Energy Values of Feeds for Ruminants 4 Energy Values of Feeds for Horses and Swine 4 Protein 4 Crude Protein 4 Digestible Protein 4 Plant Cell Wall Constituents Including Crude Fiber 5 Cellulose 5 Hemicellulose 5 Lignin 5 Proximate Analysis and Crude Fiber 5 Ether Extract 6 Linoleic Acid 6 Minerals 6 Vitamins 6
CONTENTS vii FEED COMPOSITION TABLES 7 TABLE 1 Energy Values, Proximate Analyses, Plant Cell Wall Constituents, and Acid Detergent Fiber, Data 8 Expressed As-Fed and Dry (100% Dry Matter) TABLE 2 Mineral Elements, Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry 59 TABLE 3 Vitamins, Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry 84 TABLE 4 Amino Acids, Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry 112 TABLE 5 Fat and Fatty Acids, Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry 132 TABLE 6 Mineral Supplements, Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry 134 TABLE 7 Stage of Maturity Terms for Plants 144 TABLE 8 Feed Classes 145 TABLE 9 Weight-Unit Conversion Factors 145 TABLE 10 Correlations of Composition with Voluntary Intake by Sheep and with Digestibility 145 TABLE 11 Typical Chemical Composition of Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), and Neutral Deter- 146 gent Fiber (NDF) in Alfalfa, Temperate Grasses, and Subtropical Grasses Grown in Florida, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin TABLE 12 Conversion of Beta-Carotene to Vitamin A for Different Animal Species 146 REFERENCES 147