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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Index

A

Acidification

ecoregion approach, 202-204

fish, 84-85

lakes, 32, 73, 76, 83-85, 92-95, 144, 146

mine drainage, 33-34, 76, 169, 171, 203

rivers, 33-34, 202-204

Adaptive Environmental Assessment, 345-346

Advocacy, environmental, 35, 51, 52, 437-438, 507

lakes, 169, 208, 234-235, 247-248

rivers, 272, 402, 406

Africa, 143

Agricultural Credit Act, 499

Agricultural Wetland Reserve Program, 12, 52, 285-286, 288-289, 366 , 371

Agriculture

Conservation Reserve Program, 9, 51, 285-286, 288, 302, 500, 507

export policy, 49-50

extent of land under, 21, 22

federal policy, general, 49-50

floodplains, uses, 176, 198

lakes, nonpoint runoff, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 393-397

pollution, general, 47

rivers, general, 176, 198, 201, 417

rivers, nonpoint runoff 9, 171-172, 191-192, 416-417, 481-482

wetlands, lost to, 34, 50, 194, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285, 295, 299, 300-301, 302, 492, 497, 505-506

wetlands, restoration of farmlands to, 4, 9, 12, 35, 51, 52, 270, 284-286, 288-289, 300, 301, 302, 307, 309, 320-321, 354, 366, 371, 500, 507-509

Air quality and pollution 47

Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373

lakes, non-acid pollutants, 77, 86-87

standards, 144

see also Acidification

Alabama, 136

Alaska, 262

Alewives, 82, 388

Algal blooms, 78, 84, 105, 112, 115-134, 147, 148, 153, 199, 394

Aluminum, 83, 112, 124, 126-129

American Fisheries Society, 193

American Rivers Conservation Council, 169, 208

Anadromous fish, see Salmonids

Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, 468

Arizona, 167

Arkansas, 346

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Arkansas River, 370-371

Army Corps of Engineers, 359, 360, 363, 371

dams, 200, 219, 451, 454

demonstration projects, wetlands, 49

dredging, 33, 109, 194, 404, 405, 406

lakes, 87, 108-109

rivers, 194, 229-230, 402, 404-411, 451, 453, 471-472, 479-480, 484 , 492-493

wetlands, 49, 286-287, 289, 290, 513, 514

wetlands, alteration permits see Section 404 permits

Artificial circulation, 132-133, 140

Artificial marsh creation, 18, 123, 203

ASIWPCA, 87-91

Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators , 192

Atchafalaya River, 244, 363, 398-406

Australia, 143

B

Bank stabilization, rivers, 170, 207, 221, 228, 427, 428, 454, 470 -477

Baseline and reference data, 19, 60

rivers, 173-174, 187, 188, 194, 244-245, 487

watersheds, 346-347

wetlands, 11, 300, 323-324, 328-329, 331

Bays, topographic

Carolina Bay, 299-300

Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358

San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321

San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295

Benefit-cost analysis4, 358-359

river restoration, 410-411, 473-474

Best management practices, 351

lakes, 115, 124-125, 141

Bioaccumulation, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391

Biogeochemical cycles

lake acidification and, 83

restoration of, 18

wetlands, 12, 331

Biological agents, 319

lake restoration, 73, 121-12, 131, 134-137, 153

Biomanipulation, see Food web management

Biotechnical engineering, 217-218, 247

Blanco River, 173, 181, 217, 218, 229-230, 470-477

Boats, 201-202

lampreys, 82, 202, 212, 387, 388

navigation, 201-202, 287, 366-367, 404, 406-409

zebra mussels, 82, 305

Buffers, wetlands, 11, 321

Bureau of Land Management, 49, 193-194, 246, 461

Bureau of Reclamation, 43, 289

Bush administration, 34-35, 51, 262, 307, 351

C

California, 283, 307, 317, 326

Mattole River, 172, 173, 457-463

San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321

San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295

California Coastal Conservancy, 353

California Sea Grant Program, 327

Canada

lakes, 83, 92, 95, 145, 353, 385

wetlands, 300

see also Prairie potholes

Carolina Bay, 299-300

Carrying capacity, 67

Case studies, 17, 379-518

lakes, 104, 112-113, 118-121, 123, 127-129, 136, 142, 380-398,

rivers, 167-168, 170-171, 203, 218, 219, 228, 234-235, 398-496

wetlands, 272-275, 294-295, 297-299, 302, 496-518

Channelization, 1-2, 169, 180-181, 183, 186, 194-195, 207, 229, 302 , 417, 470-495

extent of, 33

Palmiter method, 173, 174, 221-222

surveillance, 9-10

see also Bank stabilization; Dikes and levees

Charles River, 268

Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358

Civilian Conservation Corps, 211, 222, 461

Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States, 231, 247

Classification systems

greenways, 216

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

lakes, strees factors, 76-97, 107-108

rivers, 9, 166, 188-206, 231-232, 247, 248

wetlands, 8, 231, 247, 262-264, 277-278

see also Definitional issues

Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373

Clean Lakes Program, 7, 72-73, 107-109, 110, 149, 150, 364

Clean Water Acts, 9, 34, 44-47, 72-73, 191, 262, 279, 285, 287, 288 , 295, 307, 360, 369, 414-415, 437, 465, 468, 469, 482, 499, 506

Clear Lake, 123

Climate change, global, 36, 177, 280-282

Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana, 52

Coastal Ocean Program, 327, 367

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, 52, 287

Coastal zones, 52

rivers and, 177

wetlands, 35, 271, 272-275, 281-283, 287, 310, 311, 315, 331

wetlands, tidal action, 272-273, 282-283, 314-315

see also Bays, topographic; Estuaries

Colorado, 216-217, 228

Blanco River, 173, 181, 217, 218, 229-230, 470-477

Connecticut, 331

Conservation and conservationists

advocacy organizations, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 222, 235, 272, 402, 406, 507

historical perspective, 41

see also Refuges

Conservation Reserve Program, 9, 51, 285-286, 288, 302, 500, 507

Copper, 133-134, 199

Cost factors, 351, 361, 372

bank stabilization, 221

benefit-cost analysis, 4, 358-359, 410-411, 473-474

dam removal, 220

federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493

flood control, 268-269, 365

flood insurance premiums, 365

grazing on federal lands, 193-194

lake restoration, 6, 73, 107, 110, 111, 122, 124, 129, 133, 134, 137, 142, 144, 153, 215

opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359

project scaling, 59

restoration, national, 35-36

river dredging, 33

river restoration, 179, 221, 247, 410-411, 473-474, 482, 490, 494

wastewater treatment, 27, 350

water rights marketing, 373

wetland restoration, 270-271, 283, 286, 307, 308, 490, 494, 502

Council on Competitiveness, 35

Council on Environmental Quality, 148, 267, 279, 288, 363

Court cases, see Litigation

Czechoslovakia, 123

D

Dams, 26, 33, 166, 186, 188, 200-201, 219-221, 451, 454, 455, 514

COE, 200, 219, 451, 454

history, 41, 51, 200

lake outflow control, 79

natural, 178

navigation, 201-202, 406

removal costs, 220

thermal effects, 170

Data bases, 347

lakes, 87-97, 109-110

rivers, 231-232

wetlands, 11, 331

DDT, 147, 389

Definitional issues

ecologic restoration and related terms, 2, 5, 17-21, 293, 352, 360

greenways, 216

hydrological restoration, 21, 62

integrated resource management, 341

lake restoration, 72, 74, 97-104

nonstructural techniques, 209

restoration, general, 16, 17-21, 68, 360

rivers and river restoration, 170, 185, 207, 209, 217-218, 231

wetlands, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293

see also Classification systems

Delta Experimental Forest, 498, 500

Demonstration projects, 17

lake restoration, 108, 120-121

river restoration, 51, 484-495

watersheds, 7

wetlands, 49

see also Case studies

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Department of Agriculture, 4, 49-50, 52, 194, 285-286, 360

Farmers Home Administration, 51, 285, 289, 500

Depressional wetlands, 283, 291-292

prairie potholes, 51, 55-56, 284-285, 291, 300-301, 312, 505-509

Des Plaines River, 22

Dikes and levees, 8, 9, 169, 176, 178, 180-181, 201, 207, 215, 247 , 269, 295, 300, 301, 370-371, 400-401, 402, 472

Dilution

lake eutrophication control, 125

river capacities, 166, 169, 170

Dissolved oxygen, 27, 47

lakes, 130, 139-141

rivers, 182-183, 199-200, 414, 438, 467

Drainage, general

rivers, 194-195

wetlands, 1-2, 41, 49, 270, 264-265, 284, 291-292, 300-301, 507-508

see also Section 404 permits

Dredged Materials Research Program, 290

Dredging

COE, 33, 109, 194, 404, 405, 406

lakes, 109, 114, 129, 141-142, 395

rivers, 33, 194, 404, 405, 406

wetlands, 292, 296

see also Section 404 permits

see also Channelization

Drinking water, 6, 133, 150

Ducks Unlimited, 507

E

Easements, 9, 51, 286, 288-289, 427, 492, 500, 507, 508

Economic factors

federal incentives, wetland losses, 50-51

financing of land and water markets, 3

fishing, 75, 176-177, 206, 294, 429, 452

lake uses, 32, 42, 75-76, 143-144, 148, 149-150, 388

restoration projects, 30

rivers, 176-177, 207, 208, 427

tax policy, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491

wetlands, 14, 15, 268-270, 301, 307, 490-491

see also Cost factors;

Funding

Ecoregion approach, 36, 60, 358, 368-369

acidification, 202-204

historical perspectives, 43-44

lakes, 88, 93-95, 97-104, 152

rivers, 98, 103, 187-188, 244-245

wetlands, 277-280, 329

Ecosystem perspective, general

definitional issues, restoration, 2, 5, 17-21, 293, 352, 360

ecosystem function, 63-64, 65, 67-68, 326-327

lakes, 104-105, 147-148, 151

riverine-riparian, 175, 179-181, 184-187, 229-230, 232-233, 244, 489, 494

wetlands, 12, 303, 307, 324, 326-327, 329, 489, 494, 500-501, 517518

see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration

Edmondson, W. T., 119

Education, 12-13

lakes, 154, 391

rivers, 230-231, 247-248, 466, 493

wetlands, 270, 293, 330

Egypt, 201

Electric generators, 26, 214, 219-220, 369, 474

Elwha River, 220

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act, 506

Emergent plants, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482

Environmental Defense Fund, 35

Environmental Easement Program, 9

Environmental Protection Agency

construction grants, 51, 364

historical perspectives, 44-47, 360, 363

lakes, 6, 7, 32, 72-73, 87-97, 107-109, 110, 120, 149, 150, 152, 343, 364, 391

rivers and streams, 27, 31, 230-231, 469

wetlands, 263, 289, 307, 310, 316-317, 318, 347, 372, 500

see also Section 404 permits

Epilimnion, 127

Erosion and erosion control, 8, 32, 401, 428-428, 501

see also Bank stabilization

Estuaries, 282-283, 315, 367, 460-461

Carolina Bay, 299-300

Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358

Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518

San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321

San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Europe

lakes, 82, 83, 92, 119, 143, 145

landscape ecology, 342

rivers, 177

Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes, 14-15, 26, 32, 55-56, 73, 76, 77-79, 87, 91-92, 393-397

algal blooms, 78, 84, 105, 112, 115-134, 147, 148, 153, 199, 394

Lake Michigan, 380-381, 383-384, 385-386

Lake Washington, 74

models, 78-79, 121, 122-123, 153

research, 7

restoration technology, 97-103, 106, 115-141

surveys, 91-92

Evaluation, 16, 55-57, 64-69, 355-356

adaptive assessment, 345-346, 357-358

lake restoration, 74, 104-108, 110-112, 151, 153, 397

rivers, 169, 172, 173-175, 178, 187, 194, 206-208, 222, 231, 248, 410-411, 415-416, 454-455, 462-463, 466-467, 468-469, 477, 485-487 , 489-490, 492-494

social factors, 62-64, 68-69

wetlands, 290, 308-309, 312, 315-326, 328, 330, 489-490, 492-494, 500-501, 502, 503, 508-509, 516-518

see also Baseline and reference data;

Restoration criteria;

Surveillance and monitoring

Everglades, 49-50, 51-52, 287, 480-481, 482

see also Kissimmee River

Executive Order 11988, 499

Executive Order 11990, 499

F

Fallon Paiote Shoshone Truckee Carson Pyramid Lake Settlement Act, 287

Farm Bill, see Food Security Act

Farmers Home Administration, 51, 285, 289, 500

Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, 19

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology , 7, 152

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 365

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 219

Federal government, 16, 351, 353-376

agricultural policy, general, 49-50

cost sharing by, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493

flood control, 214-215, 480

floodplain management, 48-49, 214-215

grazing on federal lands, 193-194, 246

historical perspectives, 41-52

lake restoration, 107-109, 148-151, 152-153

landscape restoration, 356-357, 361, 369

local efforts, cooperation with, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462

nonpoint pollution efforts, 46, 47, 372

public lands, 49-50, 193-194, 213, 246, 301

river restoration, 214-215, 420, 437-438, 461-462

states, cooperation with, 4, 51-53, 108, 286, 373-375

taxation, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491

water allocation, 53, 213, 287, 372-373

water quality, general, 44-47, 371-372

watershed demonstration projects, 7

wetlands, 9, 41, 49, 50-51, 285-289, 302, 306-310, 330

see also Army Corps of Engineers;

Environmental Protection Agency;

Laws, specific federal;

National programs;

Policy issues;

other specific departments and agencies

Federal Reserved Water Rights, 213

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 45, 191

see also Clean Water Acts

Fencing, 216-217, 516

Fish and fisheries, 14, 29

acid pollution, 84-85

alewives, 82, 388

bioaccumulation, toxins, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391

consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390

economic factors, 75, 176-177, 206, 294, 429, 452

floods and, 183-184

lakes, 75, 78, 81-83, 84-85, 86, 112-113, 131-132, 134-139, 140-141 , 147, 380, 383, 387-389, 393, 394, 395

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

lakes, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

macrophytes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153

models, 220-221, 462

rivers, 15, 28-29, 33, 166, 170-171, 172, 177-178, 179, 183-184, 187-188, 194-197, 201, 202, 204-206, 211-212, 217-218, 220-221, 222 -227, 229, 234-244, 245-246, 401, 403, 406-411, 413, 414, 416, 418 , 425, 427, 451-453, 462, 481

rivers, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212

rivers, salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388 , 451-453, 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468

seasonal factors, 204-205, 403, 452

water quality management and, 112-113, 132, 147-148

wetlands, 268, 270, 294, 305-306, 403

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 265

Fish and Wildlife Service, 51, 171, 194, 215, 220, 222, 263, 284, 285, 343, 391, 406, 409, 468, 480, 507, 508, 509, 513

see also Refuges and preserves

Flood insurance, 48, 215, 365-366, 491

Flood pulse concept, 401-402

Floodplains, 8, 30, 31, 175, 179-182, 201, 231-232, 291, 363, 401, 412-429, 477-496

agricultural uses, 176, 198

federal management, 48-49, 214-215

forested, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505

nonstructural management, 48-49, 214-215, 365

riparian zone interactions, 169, 175, 184-187, 188, 207, 208, 232, 247

sedimentation, 176, 198, 264

urban, 167-168, 214

see also Forests and forestry;

Riparian zones

Floods and flood control, 14, 21, 22, 33, 367, 471-472

costs, 268-269, 365

dam failures, 219

federal programs, 214-215, 480

fisheries and, 183-184

historical perspective, 41-42, 471-472

lakes, 32, 79

laws, general, 41-42

rivers, 167-168, 174, 179-180, 183-184, 400-403, 415, 479, 480, 481 , 490

wetlands and, 268-269, 291, 286-287, 291, 294, 301, 302, 312, 491

wildlife and, 183-184

see also Dikes and levees

Florida, 310, 327, 373

Everglades, general, 49-50, 51-52, 287, 480-481, 482

Kissimmee River, 51, 52-53, 169, 208, 291, 293, 296, 367, 477-496

Lake Apopka, 147, 393-398

lakes, other, 96, 107, 109, 135-136, 397

rivers, 202

Flow regime, 167-168, 170-171, 175, 178-181, 183, 189, 201, 214, 245-246, 247, 402-403, 454-455

low-flow augmentation, 438-439, 455

scour, 174, 179-180, 247, 461

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 4, 9, 12, 52

Food and Drug Administration, 389-390

Food Security Act (Farm Bill), 50, 285, 286, 288, 371, 499, 500, 506

Food web management, 7, 67

lakes, 77, 82-83, 131-132, 148, 153, 387, 388, 396

wetlands, 265, 267-268, 269, 273-274, 295, 318

Foreign countries, see International perspectives and programs

Forest Service, 49, 193-194, 222, 246, 300, 499

Forests and forestry

rivers and, 33, 178, 192-194, 198, 403-404, 439-440, 457, 459, 463

timber harvesting, 49, 201, 211, 217, 439-449, 459, 497, 503

wetlands, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505

Foxcote Reservoir, 124

Functional attributes, 67-68

lakes, 104

rivers and streams, 175, 185, 188

wetlands, 263, 265-271, 272-273, 283, 290, 317-318, 320, 322, 323, 325-327, 330

see also Hydrological conditions and functions

Functional equivalency, 271, 275, 312, 323, 324-326, 373-374

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Functional improvement, 63-64, 272-275

Funding, 4

education programs, 154, 248

EPA construction grants, 51, 364

Everglades restoration, 51-52

federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493

federal restoration trust funds, 4, 51, 285, 289, 368-369

federal water resources development, 43, 366-367, 370-371

Kissimmee River restoration, 51

lake restoration, 7, 107-108, 110, 120, 149 154

Mississippi River restoration, 33, 407, 409

prioritization, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352

river restoration, 234, 248, 407-409, 414-415, 427, 454, 465, 469, 482, 484, 487, 492

wetlands restoration, 52, 273, 285-286, 287, 307, 323, 330, 482, 484, 487, 492, 493, 511

G

General Accounting Office, 193-194, 246

Genetic issues, 60-61, 63, 69, 204-206, 313

Geological conditions, as structural characteristics, 66

Geological Survey, 208, 342, 346, 415, 438-439

Germany, 124

Global effects

climate change, 36, 177, 280-282

sea level, 36, 37, 280-282

wetlands, 12, 15, 280-282

Grass carp, 135-136

Grazing, 8, 21, 49, 290, 299, 471

federal lands, 193-194, 246

fencing, 216-217

Government, see Federal government;

Local efforts;

Regulations;

Standards;

State-level efforts

Great Lakes, 22, 71, 82, 87, 92, 95, 117, 119, 143, 202, 305, 342, 353

see also specific lakes

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 342

Greenways, 30, 172, 216, 283, 439-440

Ground water

lake restoration using, 145-146

recharge, 14

rivers, 167-168, 467-468

salinity, 36

wetlands, 263, 291, 292

Gulf of Mexico, 281, 315

H

Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518

Hatcheries, 204-205

Herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515

Historical perspectives

agency missions, 360

dams, 41, 51, 200

ecoregion approach, 43-44

EPA, 44-47, 360, 363

federal government, 41-52

floods and flood control, 41-42, 471-472

lakes, 72, 74, 82-83, 87-97, 104, 110-112, 118-121, 127-128, 135-136 , 380-383, 384-388, 393-397, 413-414

management trends, 41-54, 363

paleoecology, 7, 19

rivers, 33-34, 166, 176, 191-192, 194, 211, 214, 222, 412-414, 436 -438, 457-459, 463-464, 471-473, 497-499

watersheds, 42-43, 46, 346-347

wetlands, 10, 23, 264-265, 271, 276-277, 280, 284, 294-295, 296, 300, 302, 320, 497, 505, 513-515

see also Baseline and reference data;

Case studies

Human factors, see Social factors

Hydrologic Services Program, 368

Hydrological conditions and functions

Everglades, 51-52, 480-481

lakes, 79-80, 96, 98

models, 347, 367-368, 490,

national units, 25

restoration, defined, 21, 62

rivers, 56, 172-173, 175, 186, 207, 223, 230, 231, 234, 283, 412-413 , 435-436, 467-468, 474, 479-481, 484-485

as structural characteristic, 66

urban areas, 22

wetlands, 24, 268-269, 277, 279, 283, 290-293, 297, 312, 321, 330, 500, 507-508, 513-514

see also Flow regimes

Hypolimnion, 123, 127-128, 131, 139-140

Hypoheos, 182-183

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

I

Idaho, 86

Illinois, 109-110, 142, 174, 191, 194, 199, 214, 215

Illinois River, 22, 169, 199-200 207, 215, 217, 412-432

Indiana, 103, 215

Inland Waterways Authorization Act, 407

Inland Waterways Commission, 42-43

Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration, 5-6, 7, 17, 341-349, 351

lakes, 147-148, 151

rivers, 175, 184-187

spatial dimension, 384, 344, 345-346, 347-348

wetlands, 307, 329

see also Landscape ecology;

Watersheds

Interagency coordination, 5, 7, 171, 343, 360, 361-362

lakes, 112, 150, 151, 152

wetlands, 285, 307-308, 514

Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach

Internal Revenue Service, 50

International Joint Commission, 95, 343

International perspectives and programs

export policy, agriculture, 49-50

lakes, 73, 82, 83, 92, 95, 119, 124, 129, 143, 144-145, 342, 343, 385

landscape ecology, 342

rivers, 176, 177, 201

UN, 36

wetlands, 300

Iowa, 232

Iron, 124, 133

Insects

as biocontrol agents, 135, 136-137, 153, 319

see also Pesticides

Izaak Walton League, 406

K

Kansas, 95

Kentucky, 109

Kissimmee River, 51, 52-53, 169, 208, 287, 291, 293, 296, 367, 477 -496

L

Lake Apopka, 147, 393-398

Lake Baldwin, 136

Lake Coeur d'Alene, 86

Lake Erie, 82, 92, 385

Lake Huron, 92

Lake Kissimmee, 208

Lake Michigan, 22, 92, 96, 144, 147, 191, 210, 380-392, 413-414

Lake Okeechobee, 50, 207, 479, 480, 491

Lake Ontario, 92, 385

Lakes and reservoirs, 6-7, 21, 26, 71-164, 355, 454

acidification, 32, 73, 76, 83-85, 92-95, 144-146

advocacy, environmental, 169, 208, 234-235, 247-248

agricultural runoff, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 393-397

air pollutants, non-acid, 77, 86-87

artificial circulation, 132-133, 140

best management practices, 115, 124-125, 141

biological agents, restoration, 73, 121-122, 131, 134-137, 153

Canadian, 83, 92, 95, 145, 353, 385

case studies, 104, 112-113, 118-121, 123, 127-129, 136, 142, 380-398

classification, stress factors, 76-97, 107-108

COE, 87, 108-109

cost of restoration, 6, 73, 107, 110, 111, 122, 124, 129, 133, 134

, 137, 142, 144, 153, 215

dams, outflow control, 79

data bases, 87-97, 109-110

definitional issues, restoration, 72, 74, 97-104

demonstration projects, 108, 120-121

dissolved oxygen, 130, 139-141

dredging, 109, 114, 129, 141-142, 395

economic factors, 32, 42, 75-76, 143-144, 148, 149-150, 388

ecoregion approach, 88, 93-95, 97-104, 152

ecosystem perspective, general, 104-105, 147-148, 151

education on, 154, 391

EPA, 6, 7, 32, 72-73, 87-97, 107-109, 110, 120, 149, 150, 152, 343 , 364, 391

epilimnion, 127

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Europe, 82, 83, 92, 119, 143, 145

evaluation, 74, 104-108, 110-112, 151, 153, 397

existing conditions, 31-32, 71, 75-97

exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

federal government, general, 107-109, 148-151, 152-153

fish, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

fisheries, 75, 78, 81-83, 84-85, 86, 112-113, 131-132, 134, 139, 140-141, 147, 380, 383, 387-389, 393, 394, 395

floods and flood control, 32, 79

food web management, 77, 82-83, 131-132, 148, 153, 387, 388, 396

funding, 7, 107-108, 110, 120, 149, 154

ground water and, 145-146

historical perspectives, 72, 74, 82-83, 87-97, 104, 110-112, 118-121 , 127-128, 135-136, 380-383, 384-388, 393-397, 413-414

hydrology, 79-80, 96, 98

hypolimnion, 123, 127-128, 131, 139-140

interagency coordination, 112, 150, 151, 152

international perspectives, 73, 82, 83, 92, 95, 119, 124, 129, 143 , 144-145, 342, 343, 385

local restoration efforts, 117

macrophytes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153

management, general, 105, 112-113, 115, 131-134, 142

morphology, general, 96, 98

nonpoint-source pollution, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 76-77, 122-124, 393-397

oligotrophic, 78, 85, 103

pesticides, 86-87, 95, 147, 389

planning, 107, 151, 151

point-source pollution, 76, 78-78, 380-381, 385, 395

recreation, 71, 75, 103, 118, 388

research on, 7-8, 152-154

restoration methodology, 97-103, 106, 113-147, 152-154, 380-398

rivers and, 98, 103, 147, 422-424

salinity, 79

seasonal factors, 123, 130, 140-141

sediments, 15, 31-32, 73, 79, 80, 85, 96, 98, 114-115, 129-130, 141 -142, 149, 386, 390-391, 395

social issues, 71, 75-76, 105-107, 141

standards, restoration criteria, 74, 104-107, 151

standards, water quality, 103, 117, 150

state-level efforts, 6-7, 72-73, 86, 87-88, 89, 91, 95-96, 108, 109 -110, 150, 151, 395-396

surveillance and monitoring, 73-75, 87-97, 91-92, 109-112, 150

thermal conditions, 26, 132-133, 140

toxic substances, 7, 32, 73, 76, 85-87, 95-96, 114, 126, 129, 131, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149, 150, 153, 389-391

urban areas, 75, 380-381, 385

vegetation, emergent, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482

vegetation, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

vegetation, macrophytes, 81, 105, 148, 134-139, 153

wastewater, 76, 105-107, 112, 115, 117-122, 127-128, 385

water level, 79-80, 137-138, 395-396

water quality, general, 32, 71-72, 88, 90, 98-102, 105-106, 112-113 , 118-121, 146-147, 153

watersheds, 103, 113-125, 147-148, 151, 152-153

wetlands associated with, 74, 123-124, 137-138, 312

wildlife, 77, 91

see also Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes;

Great Lakes;

Phosphorus;

specific lakes

Lake Sammamish, 121

Lake Superior, 82, 96

Lake Toho, 397

Lake Trummen, 129

Lake Victoria, 143-144

Lake Washington, 74, 117, 118-119

Lampreys, 82, 202, 212, 387, 388

Landfill, 19, 292, 294, 296, 313-314, 512

see also Section 404 permits

Landscape ecology, 60, 341, 343-344, 346-348

national program, 356-357, 361, 369

wetlands, 10, 272, 279-280, 290-291, 292, 301, 329, 504

see also Watersheds

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Laws, general

flood control, 41-42

restoration, definitional issues, 19, 360

Laws, specific federal

Agricultural Credit Act, 499

Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373

Clean Water Acts, 9, 34, 44-47, 72-73, 191, 262, 279, 285, 287, 288

, 295, 307, 360, 369, 414-415, 437, 465, 468, 469, 482, 499, 506

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, 52, 287

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act, 506

Executive Orders 11988 and 11990, 499

Fallon Paiote Shoshone Truckee Carson Pyramid Lake Settlement Act, 287

Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, 19

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 45, 191

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 265

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 4, 9, 12, 52

Food Security Act (Farm Bill), 50, 285, 286, 288, 371, 499, 500, 506

Inland Waterways Authorization Act, 407

National Environmental Policy Act, 288, 363, 402

Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, 453

Reclamation Act, 41

Sports and Fish Restoration Act, 234

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, 169

Swamplands Acts, 41, 49, 264

Tax Reform Act, 285

Water Quality Act, 108

Water Resources Development Acts, 48-49, 50, 53, 286-287, 354, 360 , 366, 371, 407, 409, 493, 499, 500

Water Resources Planning Act, 44, 363

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 9, 169, 466

Laws, state 210

dams, 219

greenways, 216

pollution control, 436, 438, 469

wetland restoration, 483, 487, 488-489, 491-492, 511, 512

water level, 215

water allocation, 166, 210, 212-214, 245, 287

League for Coastal Protection, 272

Legal issues, 306, 308, 320

see also Laws;

Litigation;

Private property;

Regulations

Levees, see Dikes and levees

Limestone, 73, 145-146

Litigation, 272, 273, 369, 406, 482

Local efforts

federal cooperation with, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462

lake restoration, 117

river restoration, 419-420, 461-462

wastewater treatment, 45

wetland preserves, 317

Louisiana, 52, 136, 244, 280, 281, 286, 287, 320, 346, 363, 497-499

Low-flow augmentation, 438-439, 455

M

Macrophytes, lakes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153

Maine, 219

Management measures, general, 350-351, 361-362

adaptive, 345-346, 357-358

best management practices, 115, 124-125, 141, 351

defined, 20, 341

fisheries versus water quality, 112-113, 132, 147-148

floodplains, federal, 48-49, 214-215, 363

historical perspectives, 41-54, 363

lakes, 105, 112-113, 115, 131-134, 142

rivers, 178-184, 223, 234, 246-247, 403-405, 419-429, 460-462

state-level efforts, 52-54

wetlands, 321, 329

see also Nonstructural methods

Mapping, 347

floodplains, 48

wetlands, 278

Massachusetts, 173, 215, 268, 464, 467

Mattole River, 172, 173, 457-463

Medical Lake, 112-113, 148

Mercury, 86, 96, 98, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Merrimack River, 173, 463-469

Metals

aluminum, 83, 112, 124, 126-129

copper, 133-134, 199

iron, 124, 133

mercury, 86, 96, 148

mining, toxic, 85-86, 169, 171

trace metals, general, 83, 85, 96

Methodology

current study, 15-17, 379

lake restoration, 97-103, 106, 113-147, 152-154, 380-398

river restoration, 169-175, 187, 205, 209-230, 231, 246-247, 420-429 , 459-463, 465-469, 475-477

wetland restoration, 272-275, 282-320, 327, 330-331, 501-503, 515 516

wetlands, cumulative impacts, 280

see also Multidisciplinary approach;

Nonstructural methods

Mexico, 167

Michigan, 103, 174, 210-212

Microorganisms, 331

Milwaukee River, 220-221, 222

Mining

acid pollution, 33-34, 76, 169, 171, 203

toxic metals, 85-86, 169, 171

wetlands, 294-295, 323

Minnesota, 53, 75, 95, 96, 98, 100-101, 103, 109, 110, 120-121, 123 , 284-285, 353

Mississippi, 136, 174, 496-505

Mississippi River, 33, 169, 177, 178, 181, 200, 207, 209, 232, 244 , 264, 283, 286, 301, 387, 404, 406-412

damming of, 33

wetlands, bottomland hardwoods, 496-505

Missouri, 234-235

Missouri River, 200, 366

Mitigation measures, general, 359

defined, 19-20

evaluation of, 64

lakes, 72, 105

wetlands, 298, 307-308, 317-318, 499, 511-512, 515-518

wetlands, ''no net loss" policy, 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500

see also Section 404 permits

Models

adaptive planning, 345-346, 357-358

hydrological, 347, 367-368, 490,

lake eutrophication, 78-79, 121, 122-123, 153

river fisheries, 220-221, 462

wetland restoration, 270-271, 296, 301, 490

see also Demonstration projects

Monitoring, see Surveillance and monitoring

Morphology

lakes, 96, 98

rivers, 172-173, 175, 180, 196-197, 207, 223, 230, 234, 435, 475-476

see also Channelization

as structural characteristic, 66

Moses Lake, 125

Multidisciplinary approach

current study methodology, 16-17

education for, 12-13

evaluation via, 65

interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 391, 514

wetland restoration, 308, 494

see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration

N

National Acid Precipitation Program, 85, 202

National Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Trust Fund, 4, 368-369

National Environmental Policy Act, 288, 363, 402

National Eutrophication Survey, 91-92

National Flood Insurance Program, 48, 215

National Governors Association, 53

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 327, 367-368, 512 -513

National Park Service, 51, 219, 287

National programs, 3-5, 15, 35-37, 350-376

Clean Lakes Program, 7, 72-73, 107-109, 110, 149, 150, 364

costs, 35-36

flood control, 214-215

landscape ecology, 356-357, 361, 369

surveys, 9, 33-34, 35, 87-97, 169, 171, 176, 194, 248, 200, 202, 208, 248, 265, 355-356

watershed management, 42-44

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

National Research Council, 16, 148, 379

National Resources Planning Board, 42, 43

National Rivers Inventory, 208

National Surface Water Inventory, 33-34

National Surface Water Survey, 92-95, 202

National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation , 176

National Wetland Inventory, 9, 169, 248

National Wetlands Policy Forum, 34

National Wildlife Federation, 402

Nature Conservancy, 52

Navigation, 201-202, 287, 366-367, 404, 406-409

Nebraska, 217

Nevada, 52, 287

New Hampshire, 109, 173, 463-469

New Jersey, Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518

New York, 95, 96, 145, 510

Nile River, 201

Nonpoint-source pollution, 3, 15, 351

agricultural, 6, 9, 32, 103, 115, 150, 171-172, 191-192, 393-397, 416-417, 481-482

federal policy, 46, 47, 372

lakes, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 76-77, 122-124, 393-397

rivers, 191-193, 195, 441, 449

Nonprofit organizations, environmental advocates, 4, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 247-248, 272, 234-235, 402, 406, 437-438, 507

Nonstructural methods

floodplain management, 48-49, 214-215, 363

river restoration, 209-217

see also Regulations

North American Lake Management Society, 91, 109

North American Waterfowl Management Plan, 500

North Carolina, 85, 174, 318

O

Oconee River, 216

Ohio, 101-103, 173

Oligotrophic lakes, 78, 103

acidification of, 85

Omnibus Water Bill, see Water Resources Development Acts

Opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359

Oregon

wetlands, 264, 300, 305, 327

Willamette River, 170-171, 216, 433-456

Organizational issues

federal-local coordination, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462

federal planning, history, 42-52

interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 391, 514

lake restoration, 112-113, 391

national restoration program, 3-4, 361-363

river restoration, 426-427

triage, restoration, 5, 151

wetland restoration, 306-310, 316, 499-500

see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration;

Multidisciplinary

approach;

Planning

Organochlorine compounds, 86-87, 95, 147, 389-391

Ouchita Wildlife Management Area, 497, 499, 502-503

P

Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, 453

Paleoecology, 7, 19, 153-154

Palmiter method, 173, 174, 221-222

Papua New Guinea, 143

Pere Marquette, 210, 211-212

Pesticides

lakes, 86-87, 95, 147, 389

rivers, 199

Phosporous, 78, 79, 101, 102, 114, 115, 117, 119, 121-131, 147-148 , 153, 198, 395, 482, 491

Lake Michigan, 382-383, 384-387

Pinchot, Gifford, 41

Planning, 55-64, 68-69

adaptive, 345-346, 357-358

historical perspectives, 42-54

interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 514

lakes, 107, 151, 151

large-scale restoration, 6, 369

local, 370

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

prioritization of goals, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352

rivers, 208-209, 223, 232-235, 244

triage, restoration, 5, 151

wetlands, 321, 329

Point-source pollution, 15, 372

lakes, 76, 78-79, 380-381, 385, 395

rivers, 169, 190-191

state control efforts, 53

Policy issues, 16, 352, 354-368

historical perspectives, 41-42, 50-52

national restoration strategy, 3-5, 10

taxation, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491

wastewater, 44-47, 371-372

wetlands, defined, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293

wetlands, "no net loss," 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500

Political factors, 487-488, 499-500

Polychlorinated biphenyls, 86-87, 95-96, 148, 380, 389-391

Prairie potholes, 51, 55-56, 284-285, 291, 300-301, 312, 505-509

Precipitation (meteorology), 6, 22, 27, 122-123

see also Acidification

"Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources," 215

Private property

river restoration, 222, 234-235, 427, 469

wetlands, 270, 301, 308, 316, 320, 505-509

see also Easements

Private sector, 373-375

environmental advocates, 4, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 247-248, 272, 234 -235, 402, 406, 437-438, 507

fishing, commercial, 206

restoration, general, 36

see also Agriculture;

Grazing;

Mining

Preservation, 19-20

see also Conservation and conservationists;

Refuges

Projections

dams, 200

lake restoration, 6

population, 36, 204

river restoration, 10, 403, 468

wetland restoration, 12, 354, 488

see also Global effects

Public education, 12-13

lakes, 154, 391

rivers, 247-248, 466, 493

wetlands, 270, 293, 330

Public lands, federal, 49-50, 193-194, 213, 246, 301

Public opinion, 2, 12-13, 44, 402, 419, 483-484

Q

Quayle, J. Danforth, 35

R

Reclamation, 19, 20, 21, 169, 171

Reclamation Act, 41

Recreation resources and uses

lakes, 71, 75, 103, 118, 388

rivers, 176-177, 178, 204-206, 211-212, 214, 234-235, 429

wetlands, 270, 330

Reference data, see Baseline and reference data

Refuges, 497-498, 502-503

riverine, 402, 404-405, 406-411

wetland, 272-275, 280-281, 305, 317, 320

Regulations, 210

floodplains and riparian areas, 48-49, 209

hydroelectric dams, 219

restoration, definitional issues, 19

wetlands, 10, 262, 278, 307-310, 317, 491;

see also Section 404 permits

see also Standards

Rehabilitation, 19, 20, 21, 72

Research and development, 16

lakes, 7-8, 152-154

rivers, 454

wetlands, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501

see also Demonstration projects;

Evaluation;

Methodology;

Surveillance and monitoring

Reservoirs, see Lakes and reservoirs

Resolution Trust Corporation, 51, 285, 289

Restoration criteria, 16, 57-59, 64, 65-68, 354-355

lakes, 74, 104-107, 151

rivers, 172, 178, 206-208, 410-411, 489-490, 494

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

wetlands, 290, 308-309, 316-317, 318-319, 320-326, 328, 500-501, 502, 508-509

Riparian zones, 172, 179

floodplain interactions with, 169, 175, 184-187, 188, 207, 208, 232 , 247

grazing, 8, 21, 49, 193-194, 216-217, 246, 290, 299, 471

Rivers and streams, 8-10, 165-261, 355, 362-363

acid pollution, 33-34, 202-204

advocacy, 272, 402, 406

agriculture, general, 176, 198, 201, 417

agriculture, nonpoint runoff, 9, 171-172, 191-192, 416-417, 481-482

bank stabilization, 170, 207 221, 228, 427, 428, 454, 470-477

baseline and reference data, 173-174, 187, 188, 194, 244-245, 487

benefit-cost studies, 410-411, 473-474

case studies, 167-168, 170-171, 203, 218, 219, 228, 234-235, 398-496

classification, stress factors, 9, 166, 188-206, 231-232, 247, 248

coastal, 177

see also Estuaries

COE, 194, 229-230, 402, 404-411, 451, 453, 471-472, 479-480, 484, 492-493

cost of restoration, 179, 221, 247, 410-411, 473-474, 482, 490, 494

data bases, 231-232

definitional issues, restoration, 170, 185, 207, 209, 217-218, 231

demonstration projects, 51, 484-495

dilution, 166, 169, 170

dissolved oxygen, 182-183, 199-200, 414, 438, 467

dredging, 33, 194, 404, 405, 406

economic factors, 176-177, 207, 208, 427

ecoregion approach, 98, 103, 187-188, 244-245

ecosystem perspective, general, 175, 179-181, 184-187, 229-230, 232 -233, 244, 489, 494

education on, 230-231, 247-248, 466, 493

EPA, 27, 31, 230-231, 469

Europe, 177

evaluation, 169, 172, 173-175, 178, 187, 194, 206-208, 222, 231, 248, 410-411, 415-416, 454-455, 462-463, 466-467, 468-469, 477, 485 -487, 489-490, 492-494

existing conditions, 9, 27-31, 32-34, 165, 166, 176-178, 188-206, 208, 248

federal development policy, history, 41-43

federal restoration efforts, 214-215, 420, 437-438, 461-462

fish, 15, 28-29, 33, 166, 170-171, 172, 177-178, 179, 183-184, 187 -188, 194-197, 201, 202, 204-206, 211-212, 217-218, 220-221, 222-227 , 229, 234-244, 245-246, 401, 403, 406-411, 413, 414, 416, 418, 425 , 427, 451-453, 462, 481

fish, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212

fish, salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388, 451-453, 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468

floods and flood control, 167-168, 174, 179-180, 183-184, 400-403, 415, 479, 480, 481, 490

flow augmentation, 166, 169, 170, 171

forests, 33, 178, 192-194, 198, 403-404, 439-440, 457, 459, 463

functional attributes, 175, 185, 188

funding, 234, 248, 407-409, 414-415, 427, 454, 465, 469, 482, 484, 487, 492

ground water, 167-168, 467-468

historical perspectives, 33-34, 166, 176, 191-192, 194, 211, 214, 222, 412-414, 436-438, 457-459, 463-464, 471-473, 497-499

hydroelectric generators, 26, 214, 219-220, 369, 474

hydrology, 56, 172-173, 175, 186, 207, 223, 230, 231, 234, 283, 412 -413, 435-436, 467-468, 474, 479-481, 484-485

hypoheos, 182-183

international perspectives, 176, 177, 201

lakes and, 98, 103, 147, 422-424

local efforts, 419-420, 461-462

management, general, 178-184, 223, 234, 246-247, 403-405, 419-429, 460-462

morphology, 172-173, 175, 180, 196-197, 207, 223, 230, 234, 435, 475-476

nonpoint-source pollution, 191-193, 195, 441, 449

pesticides, 199

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

planning, general, 208-209, 223, 232-235, 244

point-source pollution, 169, 190-191

private property, 222, 234-235, 427, 469

projections, 10, 403, 468

recreations, 176-177, 178, 204-206, 211-212, 214, 234-235, 429

refuges, 402, 404-405, 406-411

research on, 454

restoration criteria, 172, 178, 206-208, 410-411, 489-490, 494

restoration methodology, 169-175, 187, 205, 209-230, 231, 246-247, 420-429, 459-463, 465-469, 475-477

salinity, 177, 400-401, 481

scour, 174, 179-180, 247, 461

seasonal factors, 33, 167, 170, 174-175, 181, 188-189, 207, 403, 415, 426, 436, 438-439, 479-480

sediments, 33, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, 192-193, 195-200, 207, 230

, 401, 402-403, 409, 416-419, 420-429, 459, 461, 472, 474, 475

social factors, 165-166, 402, 419, 426-427

spatial dimension, 172-173, 174, 180, 181-183, 185, 209, 244

state-level efforts, 173, 210, 212-213, 234-235, 244, 420, 437-438

, 439-451, 461-462, 482-495

surveillance and monitoring, 9, 175, 222, 244-245, 247, 409-410, 415-416, 444-447, 484-485

temporal dimension, 175, 180, 181, 189, 207, 214, 217, 244, 409-411

, 424

thermal conditions, 28, 170, 174, 183, 200, 436, 453, 454-455, 457

topography, 196-197

toxic substances, 33, 166, 198, 199, 441, 450-451

university programs, 248, 286, 419

urban development, 167-168, 172, 191-192, 214, 414-415

vegetation, 15, 173, 174, 175, 194-198, 207, 418-425, 427-429, 461

wastewater, 165-166, 170, 191, 413-416, 436-455, 463-469

water quality, 27-29, 98, 103, 166, 169, 170, 179, 189, 191, 231, 413-429, 436-455, 441-469

wetlands associated with, 283, 286, 287, 291, 293, 295, 300, 301, 312, 403, 477-495, 514

wildlife, 166, 175, 177-178, 181, 183-184, 188-189, 194-195, 202, 403-404, 406-411

wildlife, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212

see also Channelization;

Dams;

Dikes and levees;

Floodplains;

Flow regimes;

Greenways;

Riparian zones;

Watersheds;

specific rivers

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 42

Roosevelt, Theodore, 42

Runoff, 6, 22, 27, 122-123

see also Nonpoint-source pollution

Russell Sage National Wildlife Refuge System, 320, 499

S

Sacramento River, 295

Salinity, 295, 300, 513

ground water, 36

lakes, 79

rivers, 177, 400-401, 481

Salmon River, 300

Salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388, 451-453 , 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468

San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296, 299, 319, 321

San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295

San Joaquin River, 295

San Juan River, 228, 472, 473, 476

Santa Cruz River, 167-168

Savannah River, 300

Scale issues, 36, 59-60, 345-346, 347-348, 361, 369, 424, 517

see also National programs

Scandinavia, 73, 144-145

Scheduling issues, 59

wetlands, evaluation periods, 319

Scour, rivers, 174, 179-180, 247, 461

Sea level, 36-37, 280-282

see also Tidal action

Seasonal factors

fish, 204-205, 403, 452

lakes, 123-130, 140-141

migratory wildlife, 344

see also Salmonids;

Waterfowl reservoirs

rivers, 33, 167, 170, 174-175, 181, 188-189, 207, 403, 415, 426, 436, 438-439, 479-480

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

thermal factors, 26

wetlands, 262, 505

Section 404 permits, 46-47, 262-263, 279-280, 287-288, 307, 317, 373-375, 474, 475, 479-480, 484, 492-493, 499, 512

Sedimentation and sediment-water systems, 1

dams and, 200

floodplains, 176, 198, 264

lakes, 15, 31-32, 73, 79, 80, 85, 96, 98, 114-115, 129-130, 141-142 , 149, 386, 390-391, 395

rivers, 33, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, 192-193, 195-200, 207, 230, 401, 402-403, 409, 416-419, 420-429, 459, 461, 472, 474, 475

turbidity, 28, 172, 195-196, 198-199, 416-418

wetlands, 12, 264, 269, 274-275, 283, 293, 327, 330, 331

see also Dredging;

Erosion and erosion>control

Selenium, 85

Shagawa Lake, 120-121

Sierra Club, 272, 406

Social factors, 62-64, 68-69, 350-352

evaluation and, 62-64, 68-69

fish consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390

lakes, 71, 75-76, 105-107, 141

opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359

planning and, 62-64

politics, 487-488, 499-500

population, 36, 191, 204, 436

public opinion, 2, 12-13, 44, 402, 419, 483-484

rivers, 165-166, 402, 419, 426-427

water resources planning, 44, 235

wetlands, 269-271

see also Public opinion;

Recreational resources and uses

Soil conditions

as structural characteristic, 66

see also Erosion and erosion control;

Sedimentation and sediment-water systems

Soil Conservation Service, 43, 51, 194, 284, 286, 342

South Carolina, 281, 300

Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, 498, 500, 502

Spatial dimension

heterogeneity, assessment measurement, 66, 324

integrated ecosystem restoration, 342, 344, 345-346, 347-348

large rivers, 173, 185, 209, 244

project scale, 36, 59-60, 345-346, 361, 369, 424, 517

rivers, general, 180, 181-183, 185

small lakes, 143

small rivers, 172-173, 174, 185

wetlands, 324

Sports and Fish Restoration Act, 234

Springfield Lake, 142

Standards

air quality, 144

drinking water, 6, 133, 150

lake water quality, 103, 117, 150

prioritization of goals, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352

product standards, 117

wastewater effluent, 46, 372

water quality, 6, 46, 103, 117, 150, 372, 438, 465, 467

see also Baseline and reference data;

Restoration criteria

State-level efforts, 52-53, 353, 370

federal cooperation with, 4, 51-53, 108, 286, 373-375

federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493

fish consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390

historical perspectives, 51-54

integrated ecosystem restoration, 342

lakes, 6-7, 72-73, 86, 87-88, 89, 91, 95-96, 108, 109-110, 150, 151 , 395-396

point-source pollution, 53

rivers, 173, 210, 212-213, 234-235, 244, 420, 437-438, 439-451, 461 -462, 482-495

wetlands, 49-50, 51-52, 53, 271, 276, 277, 295, 297-299, 482-495

see also Laws, state;

specific states

Stewardship 2000, 507

Stillwater wetlands, 52, 287

Streams, seeRivers and streams

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Structural attributes, 65, 66-77, 104, 175, 188, 321, 323, 351

see also Hydrological conditions and functions

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, 169

Surveillance and monitoring, 6, 15, 355-357

channelization, 9-10

lakes, 73-75, 87-97, 91-92, 109-112, 150

national programs, 9, 33-34, 35, 87-97, 169, 171, 176, 194, 248, 200, 202, 208, 248, 265, 355-356

planning for, 59, 64

rivers, 9, 175, 222, 244-245, 247, 409-410, 415-416, 444-447, 484 485

wetlands, 322-323, 328, 516

see also Baseline and reference data

Swampbuster program, 50, 285

Swamplands Acts, 41, 49, 264

Sweden, 129, 145

Sweetwater Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, 272-275

Switzerland, 119

Systems perspective, see Ecosystem perspective;

Integrated aquatic

ecosystem restoration

T

Tax policy, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491

Tax Reform Act, 285

Technical assistance, 13, 248, 454

wetlands drainage, 49

Temporal dimension

assessment criteria, 66, 153, 319, 322-323, 324

integrated ecosystem restoration, 344, 347

lakes, 153

rivers, 175, 180, 181, 189, 207, 214, 217, 244, 409-411, 424

scheduling issues, 59, 319

wetlands, 263, 319, 322-323, 324, 326-327, 329-330

see also Historical perspectives;

Seasonal factors

Tennessee River, 177

Tennessee Valley Authority, 43, 88, 289

Tensas National Wildlife Refuge, 497-499

Tensas River, 280, 346-347

Texas, 136

Thermal conditions

electric generators, 26

lakes, artificial circulation, 132-133, 140

reservoirs, 26

rivers, 28, 170, 174, 183, 200, 436, 453, 454-455, 457

wetlands, 310-311

Tidal action

wetlands, 272-273, 282-283, 310, 314-315, 515, 516

see also Estuaries

Topographic factors, 20-21

rivers, 196-197

as structural characteristic, 66-67

wetlands, 277, 280, 283, 284, 292, 327, 515

see also Depressional wetlands;

Landscape ecology

Toxic substances, 26-27, 47

algicides, lakes, 133-134

bioaccumulation, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391

herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515

lakes, 7, 32, 73, 76, 85-87, 95-96, 114, 126, 129, 131, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149, 150, 153, 389-391

mercury, 86, 96, 148

mining and, 85-86, 169, 171

organochlorine compounds, 86-87, 95, 147, 389-391

PCBs, 86-87, 95-96, 148, 380, 389-391

pesticides, 86-87, 95, 147, 199, 389

rivers and streams, 33, 166, 198, 199, 441, 450-451

wetlands, 292, 313

see also Acidification

Trace metals, 83, 85, 96

Truman, Harry S., 42

Turbidity, 28, 172, 195-196, 198-199, 416-418

U

"Unified National Program for Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration," 362-363

"Unified National Program for Flood-plain Management," 48, 362

A Unified National Program for Managing Flood Losses, 214-215

United Kingdom, 124, 145, 176

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

United Nations, 36

Universities and colleges

lakes, 152

rivers, 248, 286, 419

technical assistance by, 13, 286

wetlands, 286

Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, 407

Urban development, 21-22

floodplains, 167-168, 214

lakes, 75, 380-381, 385

rivers, 167-168, 172, 191-192, 214, 414-415

wetlands, 270, 277, 283, 293, 297-299, 307, 312, 317, 330, 510-511 , 513-514

U.S.Fish and Wildlife Wetlands Inventories, 265

V

Vegetation

endangered species, 303

genetic issues, restoration planning, 60-61, 63, 69, 313

herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515

integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 343-345

lakes, emergent plants, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482

lakes, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

lakes, macrophytes, 81, 105, 148, 134-139, 153

rivers, 15, 173, 174, 175, 194-198, 207, 418-425, 427-429, 461

as structural characteristic, 66

wetland, 11, 264, 272-275, 290, 292, 297, 303, 304, 311, 313, 318 319, 329, 508, 509, 513-517

wetlands, exotic species, 268, 305-306, 311, 327

see also Forests and forestry

W

Wahnback Reservoir, 124

Washington, 74, 112-113, 117, 118-119, 121, 125, 126, 148

Wastes, solid, 511, 512, 517

Wastewater and wastewater treatment, 26, 27

costs, 27, 350

federal policy, general, 44-47, 371-372

lakes, 76, 105-107, 112, 115, 117-122, 127-128, 385

local efforts, 317

rivers and streams, 165-166, 170, 191, 413-416, 436-455, 463-469

standards, 46, 372

wetlands, 62, 269, 295, 371-372

see also Nonpoint-source pollution;

Point-source pollution

Water allocation, 9, 210, 212-214, 245-246, 372-373

federal policy, 53, 213, 287, 372-373

Western water law, 166, 210, 214, 245, 287

Water consumption and supply, 24-26, 71, 246, 373

drinking water, 6, 133, 150

Waterfowl, 267, 304, 311, 345, 418, 425, 481, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516

Water quality and pollution, 27, 44-47, 350

federal policy, general, 44-47, 371-372

fisheries management and, 112-113, 132, 147-148

lakes, 32, 71-72, 88, 90, 98-102, 105-106, 112-113, 118-121, 146-147 , 153

lakes, standards, 103, 117, 150

rivers and streams, 27-29, 98, 103, 166, 169, 170, 179, 189, 191, 231, 413-429, 436-455, 441-469

standards, 6, 46, 103, 117, 150, 372, 438, 465, 467

as structural characteristic, 66

wetlands, 62, 269, 277, 292, 293, 371-372, 516

see also Acidification;

Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes;

Nonpoint-source pollution;

Phosphorus;

Point-source pollution;

Salinity;

Toxic substances

Water levels

floodplains, 215

lakes, 79-80, 137-138, 395-395

manipulation of, general, 24

sea level, 36-37, 280-282

wetlands, 280-282, 306-307

Water Quality Act, 108

Water Resources Council, 44, 363

Water Resources Development Acts, 48-49, 50, 53, 286-287, 354, 360

, 366, 371, 407, 409, 493, 499, 500

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

Water Resources Forecasting Service, 367-368

Water Resources Planning Act, 44, 363

Watersheds, 320, 501, 504, 508

baseline and reference data, 346-347

demonstration projects, 7

erosion control, 8, 32, 401, 428-428, 501

historical perspectives, planning, 42-43, 46, 346-347

integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 342, 344, 353

lakes, 103, 113-125, 147-148, 151, 152-153

water quality, ecoregion approach, 103

see also Erosion and erosion control;

Sedimentation and sediment-water systems

West and East Twin Lakes, 127-128

Wetlands, 10-12, 262-340, 354-355

agricultural displacement of, 34, 50, 194, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285 , 295, 299, 300-301, 302, 492, 497, 505-506

agricultural land, restoration to, 4, 9, 12, 35, 51, 52, 270, 284 286, 288-289, 300, 301, 302, 307, 309, 371, 320-321, 354, 366, 371 , 500, 507-509

artificial marsh creation, 18, 123, 203

baseline and reference data, 11, 300, 323-324, 328-329, 331

biogeochemical cycles, 12, 331

buffers, 11, 321

case studies, 272-275, 294-295, 297-299, 302, 496-518

classification, stress factors, 8, 231, 247, 262-264, 277-278

COE, 49, 286-287, 289, 290, 513, 514

see also Section 404 permits

coastal, 35, 271, 272-275, 281-283, 310, 311, 315, 331

see also Estuaries

coastal, tidal action, 272-273, 282-283, 314-315

cost of restoration, 270-271, 283, 286, 307, 308, 490, 494, 502

data bases, 11, 331

definitional issues, restoration, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293

demonstration projects, 49

drainage of, 1-2, 41, 49, 270, 264-265, 284, 291-292, 300-301, 507 -508

dredging, 292, 296

economic factors, 14, 15, 268-270, 297, 301, 307, 490-491

ecoregion approach, 277-280, 329

ecosystem perspective, general, 12, 303, 307, 324, 326-327, 329, 489, 494, 500-501, 517-518

education on, 270, 293, 330

EPA, 263, 289, 307, 310, 316-317, 318, 347, 372, 500

evaluation, 290, 308-309, 312, 315-326, 328, 330, 489-490, 492-494

, 500-501, 502, 503, 508-509, 516-518

existing conditions, 34-35, 265, 271, 277

federal efforts, general, 9, 41, 49, 50-51, 285-289, 302, 306-310, 330

fish, 268, 270, 294, 295, 305-306, 403

flood control functions of, 268-269, 291, 286-287, 291, 294, 301, 302, 312, 491

food web management, 265, 267-268, 269, 273-274, 295, 318

forests, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505

functional attributes, 263, 265-271, 272-273, 283, 290, 317-318, 320, 322, 323, 325-327, 330

funding, 52, 273, 285-286, 287, 307, 323, 330, 482, 484, 487, 492, 493, 511

global change, 12, 15, 280-282

ground water, 263, 291, 292

historical perspectives, 10, 23, 264-265, 271, 276-277, 280, 284, 294-295, 296, 300, 302, 320, 497, 505, 513-515

hydrology, 24, 268-269, 277, 279, 283, 290-293, 297, 312, 321, 330

, 500, 507-508, 513-514

interagency coordination, 285, 307-308, 514

lake-associated, 74, 123-124, 137-138, 312

landscape ecology, 10, 272, 279-280, 290-291, 292, 301, 329, 504

local preservation, 317

mining, 294-295, 323

mitigation measures, general, 19-20, 298, 307-308, 317-318, 499, 511-512, 515-518

mitigation measures, "no net loss" policy, 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500

models, 270-271, 296, 301, 490

planning, 321, 329

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
×

private property, 270, 301, 308, 316, 320, 505-509

projections, 12, 354, 488

R&D, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501

recreation, 270, 330

refuges, 272-275, 280-281, 305, 317, 320

regulations, 10, 262, 278, 307-310, 317, 491

research on, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501

restoration criteria, 290, 308-309, 316-317, 318-319, 320-326, 328 , 500-501, 502, 508-509

restoration methodology, 272-275, 282-320, 327, 330-331, 501, 503, 515-516

restoration models, 270, 271, 296, 301, 490

rivers, associated, 283, 286, 287, 291, 293, 295, 300, 301, 312, 403, 477-495, 514

seasonal factors, 262, 505

sediments, 12, 264, 269, 274-275, 283, 293, 327, 330, 331

social factors, 269-271

state laws, 483, 487, 488-489, 491-492, 511, 512

state-level efforts, other, 49-50, 51-52, 53, 271, 276, 277, 295, 297-299, 482-495

surveillance and monitoring, 322-323, 328, 516

temporal dimension, 263, 319, 322-323, 324, 326-327, 329-330

thermal conditions, 310-311

topographic factors, 277, 280, 283, 284, 292, 327, 515

see also Depressional wetlands

toxic substances, 292, 313

urban areas, 270, 277, 283, 293, 297-299, 307, 312, 317, 330, 510 511, 513-514

vegetation, 11, 264, 272-275, 290, 292, 297, 313, 303, 304, 311, 313, 318-319, 329, 508, 509, 513-517

vegetation, exotic species, 268, 305-306, 311, 327

wastewater, 62, 269, 295, 371-372

water levels, 280-282, 306-307

water quality, 62, 269, 277, 292, 293, 371-372, 516

wildlife, 11, 265-268, 272-274, 281, 289, 290, 292, 297, 304-306, 405, 318-319, 329, 330, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516, 517-518

wildlife, exotic species, 268, 280, 305-306

see also Floodplains;

Lakes;

Riparian zones;

Section 404 permits

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 9, 169, 466

Wildlife, 14

endangered and extinct, 2, 3, 91, 177-178, 222, 229, 265, 272-274, 280, 304-305, 345

exotic species, lakes, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389

exotic species, rivers, 166, 201-202, 212

exotic species, wetlands, 268, 280, 305-306

floods and flood control, 183-184

genetic issues, restoration planning, 60-61, 63, 69, 204-206

integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 343-345

lakes, 77, 91

migratory, 344

see also Salmonids;

Waterfowl

planning and, 60

riverine, 166, 175, 177-178, 181, 183-184, 188-189, 194-195, 202, 403-404, 406, 407, 406-411

as structural characteristic, 66

waterfowl, 267, 304, 311, 345, 418, 425, 481, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516

watersheds, 346-347

wetlands, 11, 265-268, 272-274, 281, 289, 290, 292, 297, 304-306, 405, 318-319, 329, 330, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516, 517-518

see also Fish and fisheries;

Refuges

Willamette River, 170-171, 170, 216, 433-456

Wisconsin, 95, 103, 126, 145-146, 215, 220-221, 222

World Register of Dams, 200

Y

Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, 497-498, 502

Z

Zebra mussels, 82, 305

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1807.
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Get This Book
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Aldo Leopold, father of the "land ethic," once said, "The time has come for science to busy itself with the earth itself. The first step is to reconstruct a sample of what we had to begin with." The concept he expressed--restoration--is defined in this comprehensive new volume that examines the prospects for repairing the damage society has done to the nation's aquatic resources: lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems outlines a national strategy for aquatic restoration, with practical recommendations, and features case studies of aquatic restoration activities around the country.

The committee examines

  • Key concepts and techniques used in restoration.
  • Common factors in successful restoration efforts.
  • Threats to the health of the nation's aquatic ecosystems.
  • Approaches to evaluation before, during, and after a restoration project.
  • The emerging specialties of restoration and landscape ecology.
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