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Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action (2013)

Chapter: Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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B

Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources

This appendix addresses Task 1, which requests trends in the size, growth, and demographics of the United States energy and mining workforce, disaggregating each industry of interest—oil and gas, nuclear, nonfuel mining, coal mining, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration—by sector and occupation. The future demand for and supply of workers in these industries, sectors, and occupations is also discussed, as requested in Task 3. This appendix primarily utilizes information available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) because it is the primary federal agency responsible for collecting and disseminating information about the U.S. workforce. The agency provides information on a wide range of workforce-related topics, including employment, productivity, pay and benefits, inflation and prices, workplace injuries, consumer spending and time use, and unemployment. As an independent agency, the BLS is the single best source of objective information about the U.S. energy and mining workforce. However, information from the BLS (and other federal agencies) utilizes standardized coding schemes, such as standardized industry and occupation classifications, that limit the way in which the energy and mining workforce can be examined. These limitations are discussed. Other data sources utilized in this appendix include information from the Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Department of Labor’s Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). This appendix also provides workforce information on the primary federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining based on FedScope, an online tool that enables users to generate information on the federal civilian workforce.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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A PRIMER ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM1

The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard industrial classification system used by statistical agencies, such as the BLS. The NAICS replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System in the late 1990s. Information presented in this appendix is based on the 2007 NAICS taxonomy, the most recent version available.2 Each industry in the system is assigned a six-digit NAICS code. The first two digits of the code designate the economic sector, the third digit designates the subsector, the fourth digit designates the industry group, the fifth digit designates the NAICS industry, and the sixth digit designates the national industry. National industry is the narrowest industry categorization available in the NAICS. There are more than 1,000 six-digit NAICS codes.3 The following is an example for NAICS 221113 (Nuclear Electric Power Generation):

221113 = Nuclear Electric Power Generation (national industry)

22111   = Electric Power Generation (NAICS industry)

2211     = Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (industry group)

221       = Utilities (subsector)

22         = Utilities (sector)

A NAICS code is assigned to an establishment, not to an organization or business, and is based on the primary business activity at the establishment. According to the Census Bureau, an establishment is “generally a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed (e.g., factory, mill, store, hotel, movie theater, mine, farm, airline terminal, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative office).”4 Thus, if an organization or business has more than one establishment, then a NAICS code will be assigned to each of its establishments. The primary business activity of an establishment is determined in theory by the processes used to produce goods or services (i.e., it is a production-oriented concept). In practice, a government agency will typically use revenue, value of shipments, or employment to identify the primary business activity of an establishment.

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1 Source for the information in this primer: U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, (http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/).

2 See the following for information on the 2012 NAICS: OMB, 2011, “Office of Management and Budget: North American Industry Classification System; Revision for 2012; Notice.” Federal Register 76 (17 August 2011): 51240-51243.

3 A comprehensive list of 2007 NAICS codes can be found at http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?chart=2007.

4 U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, Frequently Asked Questions (see http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/faqs/faqs.html).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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A CONCEPTUAL ISSUE: HOW BROADLY TO DEFINE ENERGY AND MINING

To make effective use of BLS information to paint a picture of the U.S. energy and mining workforce, an important first step is to identify the relevant NAICS codes. In attempting this exercise, a key conceptual question arises—namely, how broadly to define energy and mining. For example, a narrow definition might include only the following two NAICS sectors:

  • NAICS 21: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
  • NAICS 22: Utilities

A very broad definition of energy and mining might also include industries within the following NAICS sectors:

  • NAICS 23: Construction (e.g., Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction)
  • NAICS 31-33: Manufacturing (e.g., Petroleum Refineries)
  • NAICS 42: Wholesale Trade (e.g., Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant Wholesalers)
  • NAICS 44-45: Retail Trade (e.g., Gasoline Stations)
  • NAICS 48-49: Transportation and Warehousing (e.g., Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas)
  • NAICS 53: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing (e.g., Construction, Mining, and Forestry Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing)
  • NAICS 54: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services (e.g., Engineering services)
  • NAICS 81: Other Services (e.g., Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment (except Automotive and Electronic) Repair and Maintenance)

The following two considerations were used to identify the energy and mining NAICS sectors to examine in this appendix:

How central the sector is to the energy and mineral security requirements of the United States. For example, wholesale and retail trade, equipment leasing, and equipment and machinery repair are less central to energy and mineral security requirements than activities further up the supply chain, such as extraction, power generation, pipeline construction, and refining.

The difficulty of determining what percent of an industry is related directly to energy and mining. For example, Engineering Services is a six-digit NAICS code (the narrowest possible) and encompasses many different types of engineering services in addition to energy- and mining-related engineering services

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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(e.g., chemical engineering services, environmental engineering services, traffic engineering consulting services). It would be very difficult to determine the fraction of the workforce within this NAICS code that relates specifically to energy and mining.

On the basis of the above considerations, the following NAICS sectors are included in this appendix:

  • NAICS 21: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction
  • NAICS 22: Utilities
  • NAICS 23: Construction
  • NAICS 31-33: Manufacturing
  • NAICS 48-49: Transportation and Warehousing

A PRACTICAL ISSUE: IDENTIFYING RELEVANT ENERGY AND MINING NAICS

The section above defines energy and mining from a conceptual point of view as consisting of mining, quarrying, and extraction activities; utilities activities; construction activities; manufacturing activities; and transportation and warehousing activities. However, examining the size, growth, and demographics of the energy and mining workforce using BLS information requires the identification of the specific NAICS codes within each of these sectors that are related to energy and mining. For example, in addition to electric power generation and natural gas distribution, the utilities sector (NAICS 22) includes water supply and irrigation systems activities and sewage treatment facilities, which are not related to energy and mining. The following NAICS categories define energy and mining for the purposes of collecting workforce information:

  • NAICS 211: Oil and Gas Extraction
  • NAICS 212: Mining (except Oil and Gas)
  • NAICS 213: Support Activities for Mining5
  • NAICS 2211: Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution
  • NAICS 2212: Natural Gas Distribution
  • NAICS 22133: Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply6

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5 Establishments in NAICS 213 provide “support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the mining and quarrying of minerals and for the extraction of oil and gas.” These activities “are also often performed in-house by mining operators.” Source: U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, 2007 NAICS Descriptions (http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=213&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search).

6 NAICS 22133 includes geothermal steam production.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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  • NAICS 2371: Utility System Construction7
  • NAICS 324: Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing
  • NAICS 331: Primary Metal Manufacturing
  • NAICS 33313: Mining and Oil and Gas Field Machinery Manufacturing
  • NAICS 333611: Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing
  • NAICS 486: Pipeline Transportation

In addition to examining the energy and mining workforce as a whole, another objective of this task is to collect workforce information for each of the eight industries outlined in the statement of task: oil and gas, nuclear, nonfuel mining, coal mining, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration. Table B.1 outlines how NAICS codes have been mapped to the eight industries outlined in the statement of task.8 In some cases, a higher-level NAICS code is used to identify an industry of interest (e.g., three-digit NAICS); in other cases, a six-digit NAICS code is used because of overlap across industries. For example, because the entire “Oil and Gas Extraction” subsector (NAICS 211) applies only to oil and gas, the three-digit NAICS code is used to capture this area. On the other hand, “Support Activities for Mining” (NAICS 213) includes NAICS categories that are relevant to oil and gas as well as to mining. Thus, six-digit NAICS codes are included to reflect these different industries (e.g., NAICS 213112, Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations; NAICS 213114, Support Activities for Metal Mining).

As an example of how to read Table B.1, the following NAICS categories are identified as relevant to nonfuel mining:

  • NAICS 2122: Metal Ore Mining
  • NAICS 2123: Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying
  • NAICS 213114: Support Activities for Metal Mining
  • NAICS 213115: Support Activities for Nonmetallic Minerals (except Fuels) Mining
  • NAICS 331: Primary Metal Manufacturing
  • NAICS 333131: Mining Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing

Note, however, that not all of the NAICS codes in the table are uniquely mapped to one of the eight industries. For example, NAICS 22112 (Electric Power Transmission, Control, and Distribution) is related to oil and gas, nuclear, coal mining, solar, wind, and geothermal. Moreover, none of the NAICS codes

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7 NAICS 2371 includes some activities that are not energy and mining, such as communication line construction and water and sewer line construction. However, because the 6-digit NAICS codes for these activities are combined with activities that are relevant to energy and mining, such as geothermal drilling and power plant construction, there is no way to distinguish them using the NAICS taxonomy.

8 This mapping reflects input from the Census Bureau, although the final mapping was determined by the committee.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

matches to geological carbon sequestration.9 NAICS codes for the emerging industries—solar, wind, and geothermal—overlap substantially with each other and none of the industries maps uniquely to a NAICS code.10 On the other hand, with the exception of nuclear, NAICS categories match up fairly well to the more mature industries—oil and gas, nonfuel mining, and coal mining—with only a modest amount of overlap.

ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE: EMPLOYMENT

The BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program provides employment information for the United States (as well as states and major metropolitan areas) by detailed industry. The program includes workers covered by unemployment insurance laws, which represents 99.7 percent of wage and salary civilian employment BLS.11 The program excludes self-employed workers and collects information from quarterly tax reports submitted by establishments. Table B.2 presents 2010 average annual employment by sector for each energy and mining NAICS code under consideration. As defined here, employment in energy and mining exceeds 2.25 million. The largest industries are electric power generation, transmission, and distribution (21.7 percent of total employment); utility system construction (17 percent); primary metal manufacturing (16 percent); and support activities for mining (12.9 percent). The vast majority of energy and mining employment (>95 percent) is concentrated in the private sector. Governments, primarily local, play a modest role in electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; natural gas distribution; and utility system construction.

Table B.3 shows average annual energy and mining employment for 2005-2010. While total energy and mining employment remained virtually unchanged since 2005, employment grew at an annual rate of 3.2 percent12 from 2005 until 2008 and fell at an annual rate of -4.7 percent from 2008 until 2010, with the latter likely due to the recession that began at the end of 2007.13 Despite the

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9 The Census Bureau suggested that geologic carbon sequestration is a secondary activity that would be difficult to classify since an establishment is classified to a NAICS code according to its primary activity.

10 The 2012 version of the NAICS taxonomy includes distinct codes for Solar Electric Power Generation, Wind Electric Power Generation, Geothermal Electric Power Generation, and Biomass Electric Power Generation.

11 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.bls.gov/cew/cewfaq.htm.

12 Growth rates in this chapter are calculated using the compound annual growth rate formula: (Ending value ÷ Beginning value)1/N – 1, where N is the number of periods that have elapsed between the beginning and ending values.

13 The National Bureau of Economic Research determined that the recent recession began in December 2007. Source: Determination of the December 2007 Peak in Economic Activity, 11 December 2008, National Bureau of Economic Research, Business Cycle Dating Committee.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.1 Mapping of Energy and Mining NAICS Codes to the Eight Industries Outlined in the Statement of Task.

NAICS Code NAICS Title Oil and Gas Nuclear Nonfuel Mining Coal Mining Solar Wind Geoth Geol Carbon Seq
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 21)
211 Oil and Gas Extraction x              
2121 Coal Mining       x        
2122 Metal Ore Mining     x          
2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying     x          
213111 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells x              
213112 Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations x              
213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining       x        
213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining     x          
213115 Support Activities for Nonmetallic Minerals (except Fuels) Mining     x          
Utilities Sector (NAICS 22)
221112 Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation x     x        
221113 Nuclear Electric Power Generation   x            
221119 Other Electric Power Generation         x x x  
22112 Electric Power Transmission, Control, and Distribution x x   x x x x  
2212 Natural Gas Distribution x              
22133 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply             x  
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
NAICS Code NAICS Title Oil and Gas Nuclear Nonfuel Mining Coal Mining Solar Wind Geoth Geol Carbon Seq
Construction Sector (NAICS 23)
23711 Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction             x  
23712 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction x              
23713 Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction   x     x x x  
Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 31-33)
32411 Petroleum Refineries x              
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing     x          
333131 Mining Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing     x x        
333132 Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing x              
333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing x         x x  
Transportation and Warehousing Sector (NAICS 48-49)
486 Pipeline Transportation x              
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.2 Average Annual U.S. Energy and Mining Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title All Sectors Private Sector Federal Gov’t State Gov’t Local Gov’t
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,423 158,423      
212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 203,766 203,498     268
213 Support Activities for Mining 289,709 289,709      
2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution 489,233 395,960 12,801 3,849 76,623
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,138 108,605     6,533
22133 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply 2,191 1,935     256
2371 Utility System Construction 382,267 380,665 5   1,597
324 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 110,972 110,972      
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 361,211 361,211      
33313 Mining and Oil and Gas Field Machinery Manufacturing 70,335 70,335      
333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing 26,646 26,646      
486 Pipeline Transportation 43,151 42,265     886
TOTAL   2,253,042 2,150,224 12,806 3,849 86,163

NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.3 Average Annual U.S. Energy and Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 125,818 134,858 146,081 160,081 160,688 158,423
212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 211,880 219,691 219,932 223,149 207,118 203,766
213 Support Activities for Mining 223,277 262,498 294,264 330,168 273,910 289,709
2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution 489,022 484,680 488,106 495,528 498,785 489,233
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,394 115,170 114,941 115,860 116,785 115,138
22133 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply 2,023 1,887 1,881 1,965 2,106 2,191
2371 Utility System Construction 394,744 425,559 446,014 448,797 395,257 382,267
324 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 112,241 113,056 115,169 116,248 114,506 110,972
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 464,836 463,139 455,683 443,867 363,744 361,211
33313 Mining and Oil and Gas Field Machinery Manufacturing 55,692 63,627 71,677 75,690 71,574 70,335
333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing 19,484 19,797 21,663 25,037 26,093 26,646
486 Pipeline Transportation 39,628 40,363 41,216 42,042 42,285 43,151
TOTAL   2,254,039 2,344,325 2,416,627 2,478,432 2,272,851 2,253,042

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

recession, some industries have seen increases in employment since 2005. Most notably, employment in the turbine and turbine generator set units manufacturing industry, which “comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing turbines (except aircraft); and complete turbine generator set units, such as steam, hydraulic, gas, and wind,”14 grew at an annual rate of 6.5 percent from 2005 to 2010. Moreover, the following industries grew at an annual rate of more than 4.5 percent: support activities for mining (5.3 percent); mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing (4.8 percent); and oil and gas extraction (4.7 percent). Declines in employment were concentrated in primary metal manufacturing, which experienced a decline in employment of more than 100,000 from 2005 to 2010. Tables C.1, C.2, C.3, and C.4 in Appendix C show average annual energy and mining employment by sector for 2005-2010.

The primary advantage of using the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages to examine current and historic employment is the level of industry detail available. Specifically, employment information is available at the six-digit-level NAICS code, which facilitates the disaggregation of employment into the industries of interest for this study. A drawback is its exclusion of self-employed workers, which will result in an undercount of employment in energy and mining. The BLS Current Population Survey includes self-employed workers, although with less industry detail available. This survey of households captures information by industry based on the 2007 Census industry classification system. The system is derived from the 2007 NAICS taxonomy; however, there is not a one-to-one mapping between the 2007 Census industry codes and the 2007 NAICS codes. Using a crosswalk that maps the two classification systems, Table B.4 shows 2010 employment counts for the energy and mining Census industries that are generally comparable to the energy and mining NAICS industries.15Table C.5 in Appendix C provides a mapping of energy and mining NAICS industries to Census industries and outlines key differences. Across the available industries, employment in energy and mining is more than 300,000 higher using the Current Population Survey than the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. This difference is presumably due in part to the inclusion of self-employed workers in the former survey. Moreover, in five of the seven industries, the Current Population Survey employment count figure exceeds that from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. On a relative basis, these differences are largest in petroleum and coal products manufacturing and support activities for mining. Note, however, that there are other differences between the two surveys that could help explain these observed differences. For example, because the Current Population Survey is a household survey, whereas the Quarterly Census

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14 See 2007 NAICS definition of 333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing (http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=333611&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search).

15 The full crosswalk can be found at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.4 Employment for Energy and Mining Census Industries That Are Comparable to Energy and Mining NAICS Industries, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title Comparable Census Code(s) 2010 employment (annual average)
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages Current Population Survey
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 0370 158,423 75,000
212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 0380, 0390, 0470 203,766 204,000
213 Support Activities for Mining 0490 289,709 440,000
2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution 0570 489,233 670,000
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 0580, 0590 115,138 97,000
324 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 2070-2090 110,972 190,000
486 Pipeline Transportation 6270 43,151 56,000
TOTAL     1,410,392 1,732,000

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages and the BLS Current Population Survey. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

of Employment and Wages is an establishment survey, the industry information provided in each might differ, resulting in differences in industry classification.

The BLS also produces employment projections by industry through its Employment Projections Program.16 The most recent estimates project employment in 2020 using a base year of 2010. These projections are meant to reflect long-term trends in the economy and assume that the economy will be at full employment in 2020.17 The BLS notes that “given the severity of the most recent recession and the slowness of recovery to date . . . the current set of projections faces more uncertainty than usual” (Sommers and Franklin, 2012, p. 5), suggesting that the projections need to be used with caution. Projections are not available for all of the energy and mining NAICS codes discussed in this appendix and, for those available, the projections are available for private-sector wage and salary workers. Table B.5 presents employment projections for the energy and

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16 The Employment Projections Program includes wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Program, Projections Methodology, http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.

17 For a detailed discussion of the projection methodology, see the following: Overview of projections to 2020, Dixie Sommers and James C. Franklin, Monthly Labor Review, January 2012, pp. 3-20.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.5 Private-Sector U.S. Energy and Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2010 (base year) 2020 (projected)
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,900 182,100
212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 202,900 203,200
213 Support Activities for Mining 294,100 295,400
2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution 396,900 361,400
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 108,000 95,800
2371 Utility System Construction 390,100 515,500
324 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 114,000 100,000
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 360,700 366,300
486 Pipeline Transportation 42,400 32,600
TOTAL 2,068,000 2,152,300

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program

mining NAICS codes for which projections are available.18 Total private sector employment across these energy and mining NAICS codes is expected to grow by 84,300 between 2010 and 2020, which translates into an annual growth rate of 0.4 percent. However, specific industries are expected to see more sizable changes in employment. The industry expected to see the largest gain in employment is utility system construction, which is expected to experience an increase in employment of more than 125,000, amounting to an annual growth rate of 2.8 percent. The electric power generation, transmission and distribution industry is expected to experience the largest absolute decline in employment (more than 35,000 jobs), while the pipeline transportation industry is expected to experience the largest relative decline in employment (-2.6 percent per year between 2010 and 2020).

ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE: DEMOGRAPHICS

Through its Current Population Survey, the BLS also captures demographic information about the U.S. workforce. Table B.6 shows key demographic information for the energy and mining workforce. As a comparison, the top row of

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18 These NAICS represent more than 95 percent of 2010 energy and mining employment as defined in this chapter.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

the table provides demographic information for the U.S. workforce, age 16 years and older. The energy and mining workforce is predominantly male. The highest representation of women is found in the natural gas distribution industry (28.4 percent); the lowest is found in coal mining (6 percent). Moreover, the energy and mining workforce is generally less racially and ethnically diverse than the U.S. workforce as a whole.19 This lack of demographic diversity is most prominent in coal mining. The most demographic diversity is found in the natural gas distribution industry. The energy and mining workforce is also generally older than the overall U.S. workforce. The industries with the highest median age are nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (47.8 years old); natural gas distribution (47.6 years old); and water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems (47.4 years old). Moreover, a majority of the energy and mining industries have more workers age 45 and older than workers under age 45, suggesting that the loss of talent due to retirements over the next 20 years is likely to disproportionately affect energy and mining. This phenomenon is most notable in the natural gas distribution industry, in which 40.2 percent of workers are under the age of 45 (compared with 56.1 percent for the U.S. workforce as a whole). Those industries with the lowest median age are support activities for mining (40.9 years old) and electric and gas as well as other combinations (42.3 years old). Furthermore, 63 percent of workers in the former industry are under age 45.

According to BLS projections, the U.S. labor force is expected to become more diverse. For example, by 2020 the civilian labor force is expected to be 62.3 percent White non-Hispanic, compared with 67.5 percent in 2010, 72 percent in 2000, and 77.7 percent in 1990 (Toossi, 2012, p. 44). These changing demographics suggest that, all else equal, the energy and mining industries with workforces that are both less diverse and older, such as coal mining and nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, may experience greater difficulties replacing lost talent.

ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE: OCCUPATIONS

The BLS Occupational Employment Statistics program produces employment estimates for more than 800 occupations. The estimates are based on a survey of U.S. business establishments and reflect nonfarm wage and salary workers. The most recent data are as of May 2010. Occupations are classi-

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19 Under federal guidelines released in 2003, individuals are first asked to identify whether they consider themselves Hispanic/Latino (an ethnicity designation) and second to identify their race (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander). Thus, in the tables from the Current Population Survey included in this chapter, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity and the race categories shown are not mutually exclusive. For additional information, see the following: Mary Bowler, Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka, Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.6 Demographic Information for the U.S. Energy and Mining Workforce by Census Industry, 2010.

Census industry Women (%) Black or African American (%) Asian (%) Hispanic or Latino (%) 16-19 years (%) 20-24 years (%) 25-34 years (%) 35-44 years (%) 45-54 years (%) 55-64 years (%) 65 years and Over (%) Median Age (years)
U.S. WORKFORCE, 16 YRS+ 47.2 10.8 4.8 14.3 3.1 9.1 21.7 22.0 23.9 15.6 4.5 42.0
0370: Oil and gas extraction 18.0 5.9 3.5 12.8   6.7 28.0 17.3 29.3 17.3 1.3 45.1
0380: Coal mining 6.0 0.4   0.4   7.4 17.0 23.4 29.8 20.2 1.1 46.4
0390: Metal ore mining           2.9 25.7 22.9 25.7 20.0 5.7 43.4
0470: Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying 7.9 0.1 0.8 12.5   5.3 21.3 16.0 32.0 20.0 5.3 47.8
0490: Support activities for mining 16.3 7.2 1.1 19.7 0.7 8.9 28.6 24.8 23.4 11.8 1.8 40.9
0570: Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution 21.4 9.4 1.5 7.9 0.3 4.9 20.1 21.0 33.9 18.2 1.3 45.4
0580: Natural Gas Distribution 28.4 13.7 3.1 18.8   1.0 19.6 19.6 37.1 19.6 3.1 47.6
0590: Electric and gas, and other combinations 20.4 11.9 2.8 11.7   9.9 16.5 26.4 30.8 15.4   42.3
0670: Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems 21.9 11.1 2.0 12.7 0.4 4.2 15.8 22.4 32.8 20.1 3.9 47.4
2070-2090: Petroleum and Coal Products 19.2 11.5 5.3 13.6 1.1 2.1 16.8 27.9 33.7 15.8 2.1 45.8
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
2670-2990: Primary metals and fabricated metal products 15.9 6.2 2.2 15.0 1.0 6.0 18.3 24.4 29.0 18.0 3.3 44.7
3080: Construction, mining, and oil field machinery 16.2 7.0 4.3 10.2   5.2 29.1 16.4 23.9 22.4 3.7 45.1
3180: Engines, turbines, and power transmission equipment 17.7 2.5 3.6 10.0   1.9 20.4 25.9 20.4 25.9 3.7 45.9
6270: Pipeline Transportation 16.9 3.0   14.9 1.8 3.6 14.3 25.0 33.9 19.6 1.8 45.3

NOTES: A blank cell indicates data are not available or are not applicable. Age distribution figures may not add up to 100% because of rounding. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

fied using the SOC system.20 Moreover, the program provides private-sector occupational employment estimates by industry, using NAICS codes.21 Estimates are not available for all of the energy and mining NAICS codes included in this appendix, although the NAICS codes with available occupational employment information represent more than 95 percent of 2010 private-sector energy and mining employment.22Table C.6 in Appendix C provides private-sector employment estimates for the 300-plus occupations found in these energy and mining NAICS categories.23

Table B.7 provides a condensed list of occupations that constitute 1 percent or more of private-sector energy and mining employment. These occupations collectively represent 50 percent of total energy and mining employment. The most common occupations are construction laborers (4.39 percent of energy and mining employment), electrical power-line installers and repairers (4.11 percent), and operating engineers and other construction equipment operators (3.63 percent). For a majority of these 27 occupations, employment in energy and mining represents less than 15 percent of total employment in the occupation. For example, 11.8 percent of all construction laborers are in energy and mining; the remaining 88.2 percent are in other industries such as residential and nonresidential construction. On the other hand, for some occupations, employment in energy and mining represents more than 90 percent of total occupational employment, such as roustabouts, oil and gas (95.4 percent of occupational employment); service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining (94.6 percent); and helpers–extraction workers (93.9 percent).

Key Energy and Mining Occupations

The most common occupations discussed above are not necessarily the most important occupations from the standpoint of meeting the energy and mineral security requirements of the United States. In fact, the statement of task asks explicitly about the availability of skilled labor. Examining the availability of such talent requires a definition of skilled labor. For the purposes of this appendix, a high-skill occupation is defined as one that requires any of the following: (1) postsecondary education (e.g., vocational training, associate’s degree, and

_______________

20 See http://www.bls.gov/SOC/ for more detail on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.

21 The Occupational Employment Statistics program produces occupational employment information at the federal, state, and local government levels, but does not distinguish this information by industry.

22 Occupational employment information is available for the following energy and mining NAICS: 211, 212, 213, 2211, 2212, 2371, 324, 331, and 486 (and not available for NAICS 22133, 33313, and 333611).

23 Occupational employment estimates for each NAICS code with available data can be found at the following: http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrci.htm.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

Table B.7 Employment Estimates for Private-Sector Energy and Mining Occupations with 1 Percent or More of Energy and Mining Employment, 2010.

Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title 2010 Employment Percent of Energy and Mining Employment Percent of Occupation Employment
47-2061 Construction Laborers 87,300 4.39 11.8
49-9051 Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers 81,790 4.11 90.2
47-2073 Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators 72,150 3.63 27.5
47-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers 56,110 2.82 13.1
47-5071 Roustabouts, Oil and Gas 46,650 2.35 95.4
53-3032 Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers 41,940 2.11 2.9
11-1021 General and Operations Managers 39,810 2.00 2.5
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers 39,340 1.98 7.4
49-9041 Industrial Machinery Mechanics 39,090 1.97 15.0
49-9071 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General 38,320 1.93 3.9
51-8093 Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers 36,690 1.85 87.3
47-5013 Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining 34,650 1.74 94.6
49-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers 32,630 1.64 9.2
43-4051 Customer Service Representatives 32,280 1.62 1.6
43-9061 Office Clerks, General 31,250 1.57 1.4
51-8013 Power Plant Operators 30,350 1.53 92.5
47-2111 Electricians 28,050 1.41 5.8
53-7062 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 26,960 1.36 1.4
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers 24,800 1.25 8.0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title 2010 Employment Percent of Energy and Mining Employment Percent of Occupation Employment
47-2152 Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 24,190 1.22 7.2
43-3031 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 23,240 1.17 1.6
49-9012 Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door 22,960 1.16 65.6
43-6014 Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive 22,360 1.12 1.6
47-5081 Helpers—Extraction Workers 21,930 1.10 93.9
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers 21,060 1.06 5.2
13-2011 Accountants and Auditors 20,810 1.05 2.2
17-2171 Petroleum Engineers 20,610 1.04 74.4

NOTE: The table includes occupations in the following energy and mining NAICS codes: 211, 212, 213, 2211, 2212, 2371, 324, 331, 486 (and excludes 22133, 33313, and 333611 because data by occupation are not available for these NAICS codes). SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics program. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

bachelor’s degree), (2) a year or more of experience in a related occupation, or (3) long-term on-the-job training or apprenticeship.24 This definition can be operationalized using the BLS’s recently updated Education and Training Classification System. The system assigns to each occupation in the SOC system the typical education required for entry, work experience (if any) generally considered to be necessary by employers, and the typical amount of on-the-job-training needed to become competent in the occupation.25Table C.7 in Appendix C provides the education, experience, and training requirements for energy and mining occupations and identifies those occupations that are high skill. Based on the prior definition, more than 50 percent of energy and mining occupations are high skill. However, many of these high-skill occupations play a relatively small role in the overall energy and mining workforce, either because there are few people employed in these occupations (such as economists and real estate brokers) or because a relatively small percentage of occupational employment is in energy and mining (such as credit analysts and lawyers). For the purposes of

_______________

24 This definition of a high skill occupation is based on one developed by the Massachusetts Office of Labor and Workforce Development. See Career Moves: Your Guide to Growing Job Opportunities in Massachusetts, Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development, January 2010, p. 19.

25 For additional information on the Education and Training Classification System see http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.8 Key Energy and Mining Occupations.

Standard Occupation Code

Standard Occupation Title

17-2071

Electrical Engineers

17-2111

Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors

17-2131

Materials Engineers

17-2151

Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers

17-2161

Nuclear Engineers

17-2171

Petroleum Engineers

17-3029

Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other

19-2042

Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers

19-4041

Geological and Petroleum Technicians

19-4051

Nuclear Technicians

29-9011

Occupational Health and Safety Specialists

47-1011

First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers

47-2011

Boilermakers

49-2095

Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay

49-3042

Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines

49-9041

Industrial Machinery Mechanics

49-9044

Millwrights

49-9051

Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers

49-9052

Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers

51-8011

Nuclear Power Reactor Operators

51-8012

Power Distributors and Dispatchers

51-8013

Power Plant Operators

51-8021

Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators

51-8092

Gas Plant Operators

51-8093

Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers

53-7021

Crane and Tower Operators

53-7032

Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators

this appendix, key energy and mining occupations are defined as those meeting all of the following criteria: (1) it is a high-skill occupation, (2) employment in the occupation represents at least 0.10 percent of total industry employment, and (3) at least 10 percent of employment in the occupation is in energy and mining. Table B.8 lists the energy and mining occupations that meet these criteria.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

Demand for Talent in Key Energy and Mining Occupations

As part of the Employment Projections Program, the BLS generates projections of employment growth, replacement rates, and job openings by occupation over the period 2010 to 2020. These projections reflect private-sector as well as government employment and include wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Projected employment growth for an occupation is based on factors such as expectations regarding population growth, labor force growth, GDP growth, changes in industry output, productivity changes, and technology changes (BLS, 2012c). In using these projections, however, the BLS cautions that “[b]ecause levels of many variables are low in 2010 relative to their historical behavior, projected growth rates may appear more robust than they would otherwise be” (Sommers and Franklin, 2012, p. 4). Keeping this caution in mind, if employment in an occupation is expected to grow, this growth creates job openings. However, even if employment in an occupation is expected to remain steady (or decline), people leave occupations for a variety of reasons (e.g., retirement or career change) and all or a portion of these separations will need to be replaced. Thus, additional job openings are created when existing workers leave an occupation. Table B.9 shows projected employment growth, replacement rates, and job openings (due to growth and replacement needs) over the period 2010-2020 for key energy and mining occupations. As a benchmark, the top row provides information for all occupations across the nation.

The projections indicate that employment across all occupations in the nation is expected to increase by 14.3 percent over the period 2010 to 2020. Moreover, the replacement rate over this period is 23.6 percent, suggesting that roughly one in four jobs will need to be replaced over the 10-year period. This combination of employment growth and replacements is expected to result in job openings of approximately 55 million between 2010 and 2020. In comparison, some key energy and mining occupations are expected to experience relatively low employment growth rates, such as nuclear power reactor operators (3.6 percent growth rate). Others are expected to see declines in employment, most notably petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers (−14.0 percent). The occupations with the highest expected employment growth are first-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

workers (23.5 percent), industrial machinery mechanics (21.6 percent), boilermakers (21.3 percent), and geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers (21.2 percent). Replacement rates range from a low of 18.4 percent for telecommunications line installers and repairers to a high of 38.2 percent for boilermakers. Boilermaker is an occupation that is expected to experience both a high projected employment growth rate and a high projected replacement rate, suggesting that this occupation is likely to experience relatively high increases in talent demand over the period 2010-2020. The occupation expected to see the largest number of job openings over the 10-year period is first-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers (259,700 job openings), followed by industrial machinery mechanics (117,100 job openings).

DEGREES CONFERRED IN KEY ENERGY AND MINING-RELATED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

For a subset of key energy and mining occupations, the typical education required for entry into the occupation is some amount of postsecondary education. Specifically, eight occupations require a bachelor’s degree, such as electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, and occupational health and safety specialists; three require an associate’s degree, such as geological and petroleum technicians; and one occupation (electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay) requires a postsecondary nondegree award (e.g., a certificate). For these occupations, the availability of talent is determined in large part by the number of people receiving degrees and certificates in fields of study that are relevant to these occupations. To facilitate the understanding of this important link between fields of study and the occupational labor market, the NCES and the BLS have created a crosswalk relating instructional programs to occupations. The instructional programs are based on the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) taxonomy and the occupations are based on the SOC System.26 The CIP taxonomy includes more than 1,200 instructional programs.27 According to the NCES and the BLS, “A CIP-SOC relationship must indicate a ‘direct’ relationship, that is, programs in the CIP category are preparation directly for entry into and performance in jobs in the SOC category” (NCES/BLS, 2011, p. 3)

Applying the CIP-SOC crosswalk to key energy and mining occupations that require some amount of postsecondary education yields 47 instructional programs that feed into these 12 occupations. Table C.8 in Appendix C lists the instructional programs associated with each occupation. Most of the occupations have more than one related instructional program. For example, the materials engineers occupation is associated with five instructional programs: ceramic sciences and engineering, materials engineering, metallurgical engineering, textile sciences and engineering, and polymer/plastics engineering. For one occupation (electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay), there is no corresponding instructional program, likely because an insufficient number of educational institutions offer a program that directly prepares an individual for this occupation.

Information on the number of degrees and certificates conferred for each instructional program is provided through the NCES Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). This information is available for all but six of the instructional programs that feed into key energy and mining occupations that

_______________

26 The CIP-SOC crosswalk can be found at http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/resources.aspx?y=55.

27 A complete list of CIP codes is available at http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/default.aspx?y=55.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.9 Projected Employment Growth, Replacement Rates, and Job Openings for Key Energy and Mining Occupations.

Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title Projections (2010-2020)
Growth in employment (%) Replacement rate(%) Job Openings, (thousands)
All occupations across the U.S. 14.3 23.6 54,787.4
17-2071 Electrical Engineers 7.0 24.1 47.8
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors 13.0 21.8 8.2
17-2131 Materials Engineers 8.7 27.6 8.1
17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers 9.6 22.0 2.0
17-2161 Nuclear Engineers 10.2 22.0 6.2
17-2171 Petroleum Engineers 17.0 22.0 11.8
17-3029 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other 4.7 19.1 16.8
19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers 21.2 29.6 17.1
19-4041 Geological and Petroleum Technicians 14.7 33.7 7.0
19-4051 Nuclear Technicians 13.5 33.7 3.3
29-9011 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists 8.5 35.2 25.7
47-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers 23.5 23.0 259.7
47-2011 Boilermakers 21.3 38.2 11.8
49-2095 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay 4.9 24.6 6.9
49-3042 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines 16.2 26.0 52.5
49-9041 Industrial Machinery Mechanics 21.6 19.2 117.1
49-9044 Millwrights -4.8 20.9 7.6
49-9051 Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers 13.2 35.3 52.7
49-9052 Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers 13.6 18.4 51.4
51-8011 Nuclear Power Reactor Operators 3.6 35.5 2.0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
51-8012 Power Distributors and Dispatchers -3.0 35.5 3.6
51-8013 Power Plant Operators -2.5 35.5 14.4
51-8021 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators 6.2 22.0 10.6
51-8092 Gas Plant Operators -6.5 32.6 4.5
51-8093 Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers -14.0 32.6 14.4
53-7021 Crane and Tower Operators 15.7 27.2 17.2
53-7032 Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators 17.3 29.6 28.9

NOTE: Projected job openings are due to growth and replacement needs. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program.

TABLE B.10 Number of U.S. Degrees and Certificates Conferred in 2009 Across Instructional Programs Related to Key Energy and Mining Occupations That Require Postsecondary Education.

Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title Degree Level Degrees/Certificates Conferred (2009)
17-2071 Electrical Engineers Doctorate degrees 1,819
Master's degrees 9,281
Bachelor's degrees 11,862
Associate's degrees 180
Post-master's certificates 78
Postbaccalaureate certificates 33
1- but less than 2-year certificates 2
Less than 1-year certificates 11
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors Doctorate degrees 134
Master's degrees 560
Bachelor's degrees 570
Associate's degrees 7
Post-master's certificates 7
Postbaccalaureate certificates 14
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title Degree Level Degrees/Certificates Conferred (2009)
17-2131 Materials Engineers Doctorate degrees 542
Master's degrees 719
Bachelor's degrees 1,096
Associate's degrees 1
Post-master's certificates 1
Postbaccalaureate certificates 1
1- but less than 2-year certificates 1
Less than 1-year certificates 1
17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers Doctorate degrees 14
Master's degrees 131
Bachelor's degrees 309
Postbaccalaureate certificates 5
1- but less than 2-year certificates 2
17-2161 Nuclear Engineers Doctorate degrees 81
Master's degrees 252
Bachelor's degrees 373
Post-master's certificates 3
Post-baccalaureate certificates 5
Less than 1-year certificates 25
17-2171 Petroleum Engineers Doctorate degrees 52
Master's degrees 251
Bachelor's degrees 690
Associate's degrees 1
Post-master's certificates 2
Postbaccalaureate certificates 12
1- but less than 2-year certificates 3
Less than 1-year certificates 1
17-3029 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other Doctorate degrees 8
Master's degrees 101
Bachelor's degrees 819
Associate's degrees 2,992
2- but less than 4-year certificates 16
1- but less than 2-year certificates 1,049
Less than 1-year certificates 1,135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title Degree Level Degrees/Certificates Conferred (2009)
19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers Doctorate degrees 611
Master's degrees 1,315
Bachelor's degrees 3,801
Associate's degrees 92
Post-master's certificates 19
Post-baccalaureate certificates 20
Less than 1 year certificates 11
19-4041 Geological and Petroleum Technicians Master's degrees 1
Bachelor's degrees 11
Associate's degrees 101
1- but less than 2 year certificates 29
Less than 1 year certificates 19
19-4051 Nuclear Technicians Master's degrees 23
Bachelor's degrees 121
Associate's degrees 109
1- but less than 2-year certificates 21
Less than 1-year certificates 18
29-9011 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists Doctorate degrees 67
Master's degrees 551
Bachelor's degrees 812
Associate's degrees 372
Post-master's certificates 8
Postbaccalaureate certificates 23
2- but less than 4-year certificates 3
1- but less than 2-year certificates 91
Less than 1-year certificates 68

NOTE: Occupations in italic typically require an associate’s degree or higher upon entry; the remaining occupations typically require a bachelor’s degree or higher upon entry.

SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Completions Survey (accessed via WebCASPAR). Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

require some amount of postsecondary education. Five of these six instructional programs—electrical, electronics, and communications engineering, other; welding engineering technology/technician; chemical engineering technology/technician; packaging science; and marine sciences—are new to the CIP taxonomy and information is not yet available. For the sixth program, geochemistry and petrology, the lack of information is presumably because no educational institution offers a degree or certificate in this specific area. Table B.10 shows the number of degrees and certificates conferred in 2009 across the fields of study that are relevant to each key energy and mining occupation that requires postsecondary education. The table breaks down degrees and certificates conferred into the following categories: doctorate degrees, master’s degrees, bachelor’s degrees, associate’s degrees, post-master’s certificates, postbaccalaureate certificates, 2-but less than 4 year certificates, 1- but less than 2-year certificates, and less than 1-year certificates. The occupations that typically require an associate’s degree or higher upon entry are italicized; the remaining occupations typically require a bachelor’s degree or higher upon entry. Two tables in Appendix C provide additional detail. Table C.9 shows the latter information for the period 2005-2009. Table C.10 shows the number of degrees and certificates conferred in 2009 for each field of study that is relevant to key energy and mining occupations that require postsecondary education.

For the occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree or higher upon entry, virtually all degrees and certificates in related fields of study are conferred at this level or higher. The only exception is occupational health and safety specialists where more than 25 percent of degrees and certificates are conferred at the associate’s degree level or the prebaccalaureate certificate level.28 For the occupations that typically require an associate’s degree or higher upon entry, a majority of degrees and certificates are conferred at this level or higher, although for one occupation—engineering technicians, except drafters, all other—more than a third are conferred at the certificate level.29

Comparing the number of degrees and certificates conferred with the projected number of job openings can provide insight into which occupations may be at greater risk from low talent availability. Table B.11 shows for each key energy and mining occupation that requires postsecondary education, the number of degrees and certificates conferred in 2009 at or above the typical education level for entry; projected job openings per year over the period 2010-2020;30 the number of degrees and certificates conferred per projected job opening; annual growth

_______________

28 For this exercise, post-master’s certificates and post-baccalaureate certificates are included in the bachelor’s degree or above category.

29 For this exercise, 2 but less than 4 year certificates are included in the associate’s degree or higher category.

30 The projected number of job openings per year equals the total number of projected job openings over the period 2010-2020 (from Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Employment Projections Program) divided by 10.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

rate of degrees/certificates conferred at or above the typical entry education level over the period 2005-2009; and the projected number of degrees/certificates conferred at or above the typical entry education level in 2020 based on the latter growth rates. The occupation with the largest number of degrees and certificates conferred relative to the projected number of job openings is electrical engineers. Specifically, slightly more than 23,000 bachelor’s degrees and postbachelor’s degrees and certificates in fields relevant to electrical engineering were conferred in 2009; the number of job openings projected per year over the period 2010-2020 is 4,780. These figures suggest that there are approximately 4.8 newly degreed potential job candidates for each projected job opening.31 However, the number of degrees and certificates conferred that are relevant to the electrical engineering occupation has been on the decline since 2005 (the annual growth rate over the period 2005-2009 was −2.2 percent), suggesting that the number of newly degreed job candidates for each projected job opening may be on the decline. At the other extreme, 113 degrees were conferred in 2009 in instructional programs that feed into the geological and petroleum technicians occupation, while there are projected to be 700 job openings per year until 2020. These figures suggest that employers may have a difficult time finding geological and petroleum technicians with the requisite education. Although the annual growth rate of degrees conferred in fields relevant to this occupation was relatively high over the period 2005-2009 (17.6 percent), this continued growth rate would yield fewer than 700 new graduates in 2020.

In the near term, key energy and mining occupations requiring postsecondary education that may experience the greatest difficulties acquiring talent with the requisite education are geological and petroleum technicians; occupational health and safety specialists; nuclear technicians; petroleum engineers; nuclear engineers; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors. If annual growth rates of degrees and certificates conferred continue as they have over the past 5 years, these difficulties may continue over the longer term for occupational health and safety specialists; geological and petroleum technicians; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors.

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31 This exercise abstracts from other occupations competing for individuals with these same degrees and certificates. For example, according to the CIP-SOC crosswalk, those obtaining a degree or certificate in a field relevant to electrical engineering may also be prepared to become aerospace engineers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.11 Comparison of the Number of Degrees/Certificates Conferred in Instructional Programs Related to Key Energy and Mining Occupations That Require Postsecondary Education to Projected Job Openings.

Standard Occupation Code Standard Occupation Title (A) Degrees/Certificates Conferred at or Above Typical Entry Education Level, 2009 (B) Projected job Openings per Year, 2010-2020 (A÷B) Degrees/Certificates Conferred per Projected Job Opening Annual Growth Degrees/Certificates Conferred at or Above Typical Entry Education Level, 2005-2009 (%) Projected Degrees/Certificates Conferred at or Above Typical Entry Education Level, 2020
17-2071 Electrical Engineers 23,073 4,780 4.8 -2.2 18,099
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors 1,285 820 1.6 0.8 1,402
17-2131 Materials Engineers 2,359 810 2.9 2.5 3,096
17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers 459 200 2.3 11.6 1,534
17-2161 Nuclear Engineers 714 620 1.2 9.0 1,841
17-2171 Petroleum Engineers 1,007 1,180 0.9 12.9 3,822
17-3029 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other 3,936 1,680 2.3 1.2 4,477
19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers 5,766 1,710 3.4 2.7 7,718
19-4041 Geological and Petroleum Technicians 113 700 0.2 17.6 675
19-4051 Nuclear Technicians 253 330 0.8 21.3 2,110
29-9011 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists 1,461 2,570 0.6 3.3 2,084

NOTE: The projected number of job openings per year equals the total number of projected job openings over the period 2010-2020 (from Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program) divided by 10. SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Completions Survey (accessed via WebCASPAR) and Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

EXAMINING WORKFORCES OF THE MATURE ENERGY AND MINING INDUSTRIES

As mentioned earlier, information from the BLS is more useful for understanding the workforces of mature energy and mining industries than the workforces of emerging ones. However, as can be seen in Table B.1, there are NAICS codes that overlap across industries even for the mature energy and mining industries. For example, NAICS 333131 (Mining Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing) involves both nonfuel mining and coal mining. Thus, the examination below of the workforces in the mature energy and mining industries is limited to NAICS categories that are unique to a given industry. Although this method may underestimate the size of the workforce in each industry, it will provide a cleaner picture of the trends.

Oil and Gas

NAICS codes that are unique to oil and gas include the following activities: oil and gas extraction, drilling oil and gas wells, support activities for oil and gas operations, natural gas distribution, oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction, petroleum refineries, oil and gas field machinery and equipment manufacturing, and pipeline transportation. Table B.12 provides 2010 average annual employment by sector for each oil and gas NAICS code. Oil and gas employment across these NAICS categories is 817,498, the vast majority of which is in the private sector. The largest industries are support activities for oil and gas operations (24.7 percent of oil and gas employment), oil and gas extraction (19.4 percent), and natural gas distribution (14.1 percent).

Table B.13 shows average annual oil and gas employment for 2005-2010. Employment in oil and gas grew by almost 140,000 over the period 2005-2010, with an annual growth rate of 3.8 percent. Growth was concentrated in the period 2005-2008, at an annual rate of 9.2 percent. The largest growth was in support activities for oil and gas operations with an annual growth rate of 6.7 percent over the period 2005-2010. Employment over this period grew in all of the oil and gas NAICS codes except for natural gas distribution, where employment essentially remained the same. Tables C.11 and C.12 in Appendix C show average annual oil and gas employment for 2005-2010 for the private sector and local government, respectively.

Employment projections for the private sector are available for only a subset of oil and gas NAICS codes (see Table B.14). Employment in the oil and gas extraction industry is expected to grow by 23,200, amounting to an annual growth rate of 1.4 percent. Employment in the natural gas distribution and pipeline transportation industries, on the other hand, is projected to decline by 22,000 over the 10-year period. On net, employment across these industries is expected to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.12 Average Annual U.S. Oil and Gas Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title All Sectors Private Sector Federal Gov’t State Gov’t Local Gov’t
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,423 158,423      
213111 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells 74,491 74,491      
213112 Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations 201,685 201,685      
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,138 108,605     6,533
23712 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction 92,319 92,039     280
32411 Petroleum Refineries 72,689 72,689      
333132 Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing 59,602 59,602      
486 Pipeline Transportation 43,151 42,265     886
TOTAL   817,498 809,799     7,699

NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.13 Average Annual U.S. Oil and Gas Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 125,818 134,858 146,081 160,081 160,688 158,423
213111 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells 66,691 79,818 84,525 92,640 67,756 74,491
213112 Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations 145,725 171,127 197,100 223,635 193,589 201,685
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,394 115,170 114,941 115,860 116,785 115,138
23712 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction 71,849 83,408 97,114 111,254 98,501 92,319
32411 Petroleum Refineries 68,427 69,124 72,337 75,099 75,588 72,689
333132 Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing 45,293 52,382 60,045 63,827 60,360 59,602
486 Pipeline Transportation 39,628 40,363 41,216 42,042 42,285 43,151
TOTAL 678,825 746,250 813,359 884,438 815,552 817,498

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

TABLE B.14 Private-Sector U.S. Oil and Gas 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2010 (base year) 2020 (projected)
211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,900 182,100
2212 Natural Gas Distribution 108,000 95,800
486 Pipeline Transportation 42,400 32,600
TOTAL 309,300 310,500

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

increase by a modest 0.4 percent between 2010 and 2020, which translates into an increase of 1,200 jobs.

Table C.13 in Appendix C shows key demographic information for the oil and gas industries for which information is available.32 Relatively few women are employed in oil and gas in comparison with the overall U.S. workforce. Pipeline transportation has the lowest representation (16.9 percent), while natural gas distribution has the highest (28.4 percent). In terms of racial and ethnic diversity, a sizable percentage of the oil and gas workforce is Hispanic/Latino. This figure is notably high in natural gas distribution (18.8 percent). Moreover, close to 14 percent of the natural gas distribution workforce is Black/African American. On the other hand, a very small percentage of those employed in pipeline transportation are Black/African American (3 percent) and there are too few Asians to report. In terms of age, the oil and gas workforce is relatively old in comparison with the overall U.S. workforce. The industries with the highest median age are natural gas distribution (47.6 years old) and petroleum refining (46.0 years old). With the exception of oil and gas extraction, the percentage of the workforce age 45 and older exceeds 50 percent for all oil and gas industries. These figures suggest that these oil and gas industries may experience difficulties replacing talent lost to retirements.

Tables C.15, C.16, and C.17 in Appendix C provide 2010 employment estimates for the 20 largest occupations in the oil and gas extraction, natural gas distribution, and pipeline transportation industries, respectively. These occupations account for more than 50 percent of total employment in each industry. The largest occupations in oil and gas extraction are petroleum engineers (8.56 percent of industry employment); roustabouts, oil and gas (6.24 percent); and wellhead pumpers (5.17 percent). The largest occupations in natural gas distribution are customer service representatives (8.81 percent); control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door (7.7 percent); and plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters (5.18 percent). The largest occupations in pipeline transportation are petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers (15.9 percent); gas plant operators (8.46 percent); and industrial machinery mechanics (5.55 percent).

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear electric power generation is the only nuclear-energy-related activity that is associated with a unique NAICS code. Table B.15 provides 2010 average annual employment by sector for this industry. Table B.16 shows average annual employment over the period 2005-2010. Across all sectors, employment in the nuclear electric power generation industry is 56,778, of which close to 93

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32 Demographic information is by Census industries. See Table C.14 in Appendix C for a mapping of oil and gas NAICS industries to Census industries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.15 Average Annual U.S. Nuclear Energy Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title All Sectors Private Sector Federal Gov't State Gov't Local Gov't
221113 Nuclear Electric Power Generation 56,778 52,582 1,381   2,815
TOTAL 56,778 52,582 1,381   2,815

NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

TABLE B.16 Average Annual U.S. Nuclear Energy Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
221113 Nuclear Electric Power Generation 60,620 61,746 61,434 60,059 61,957 56,778
TOTAL 60,620 61,746 61,434 60,059 61,957 56,778

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

percent is found in the private sector. The remainder is in the federal government (2.4 percent) and local government (5 percent). Employment in this industry increased over the period 2005-2009, but fell below 2005 levels in 2010 due to declines in local government employment (see Tables C.18, C.19, and C.20 in Appendix C). BLS employment projections, demographic information, and employment information by occupation are not available for the nuclear electric power generation industry.

Nonfuel Mining

NAICS codes that are unique to nonfuel mining reflect the following activities: metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, support activities for metal mining, support activities for nonmetal minerals (except fuels) mining, and primary metal manufacturing. Table B.17 shows 2010 average annual employment by sector for each of these activities, while Table B.18 shows average annual employment across sectors over the period 2005-2010. Employment across these industries is 489,259, virtually all of which is in the private sector. The largest industry is primary metal manufacturing (73.8 percent of employment), followed by nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (17.7 percent). Because of reductions in employment in these two largest industries, nonfuel mining employment has fallen by more than 100,000 since 2005. Although employment fell in all of the nonfuel mining industries over the period 2008-2010, metal ore mining and support activities for nonfuel mining experienced

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

annual growth rates of more than 4 percent over the 2005-2010 period. Table C.21 and C.22 in Appendix C show average annual nonfuel mining employmen for 2005-2010 for the private sector and local government, respectively.

TABLE B.17 Average Annual U.S. Nonfuel Mining Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title All Sectors Private Sector Federal Gov’t State Gov’t Local Gov’t
2122 Metal Ore Mining 35,953 35,953      
2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 86,687 86,419     268
213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining 3,118 3,118      
213115 Support Activities for Nonmetal Minerals (except Fuels) Mining 2,290 2,290      
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 361,211 361,211      
TOTAL 489,259 488,991     268

NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

TABLE B.18 Average Annual U.S. Nonfuel Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2122 Metal Ore Mining 29,250 31,883 35,901 40,156 34,100 35,953
2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 108,180 109,160 107,428 101,899 91,018 86,687
213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining 2,315 2,582 2,896 3,357 2,538 3,118
213115 Support Activities for Nonmetal Minerals (except Fuels) Mining 1,773 1,888 2,216 2,428 2,064 2,290
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 464,836 463,139 455,683 443,867 363,744 361,211
TOTAL 606,354 608,652 604,124 591,707 493,464 489,259

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additiona tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

Private-sector employment projections (see Table B.19) are available for a subset of the nonfuel mining NAICS codes: metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and primary metal manufacturing. Employment in the latter two industries is expected to increase by 17,200 between 2010 and 2020, but it is expected to decline by 8,300 in metal ore mining, resulting in a net increase of 8,900 jobs in nonfuel mining.

TABLE B.19 Private-Sector U.S. Nonfuel Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2010 (base year) 2020 (projected)
2122 Metal Ore Mining 36,400 28,100
2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 85,900 97,500
331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 360,700 366,300
TOTAL 483,000 491,900

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Employment Projections Program.

Table C.23 in Appendix C shows demographic information for a subset of the nonfuel mining workforce where information is available.33 In comparison with the overall U.S. workforce, women make up a relatively small percentage of the nonfuel mining workforce. The highest representation is in foundries (16.3 percent female) and the lowest is in nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (7.9 percent). The latter industry also employs few Blacks/African Americans (0.1 percent) and Asians (0.8 percent). Hispanics constitute a relatively large share of the aluminum production and processing workforce (22.8 percent) and a notably small share of the nonferrous metal (except aluminum) production and processing workforce (5.3 percent). The nonfuel mining workforce is also older than the overall U.S. workforce. The industry with the oldest workforce is aluminum production and processing with a median age of 48.2. Moreover, close to 59 percent of the aluminum production and processing workforce is 45 years old or older.

Tables C.25, C.26, and C.27 in Appendix C provide 2010 employment estimates for the 20 largest occupations in the metal ore mining, nonmetal mining, and primary metal manufacturing industries, respectively. The largest occupations in the metal ore mining industry are operating engineers and other construction equipment operators (8.92 percent of industry employment); mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except engines (8.4 percent); and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (5.78 percent). In nonmetal mining, the most common occupations are petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers (15.9

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33 Demographic information is by Census industries. See Table C.24 in Appendix C for a mapping of nonfuel mining NAICS industries to Census industries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

percent); gas plant operators (8.46 percent); and industrial machinery mechanics (5.55 percent). The largest primary metal manufacturing occupations are first-line supervisors of production and operating workers (4.75 percent); rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic (4.61 percent); and maintenance and repair workers, general (4.18 percent).

In addition to the BLS, the MSHA also collects workforce information on the nonfuel mining industry. Specifically, the agency collects employment information (including office workers) related to metal mining, nonmetal mining, stone mining, and sand and gravel mining. These figures show employment of 225,643 in 2010 (MSHA, 2011b, Tables 2 and 6). Of this total, 160,146 are employed as nonfuel mining operators; the remaining 65,497 are nonfuel mining contractors. The comparable figure from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 2010 is 128,048,34 suggesting that the latter figures are undercounting nonfuel mining employment. This undercounting is likely due in large part to limitations associated with the NAICS taxonomy that results in the undercounting of contractor employment. In particular, if a nonfuel mining contractor engages in more than one activity and the primary activity is not the provision of nonfuel mining services, the NAICS code for this establishment will not fall under nonfuel mining and the corresponding employment will not be included as part of nonfuel mining.

Coal Mining

NAICS that are unique to coal mining reflect coal mining activities and support activities for coal mining. The latter support activities are similar to activities performed by coal mining operators, but are performed on a contract or fee basis. Table B.20 shows 2010 average annual coal mining employment by sector. Table B.21 shows average annual employment across sectors from 2005 to 2010. Employment in these two coal mining activities totals 89,252, all of which is in the private sector. Since 2005, coal mining employment has grown at an annual rate of 1.9 percent, representing an increase in employment of about 8,000 over the period 2005-2010. Unlike the energy and mining industries discussed above, coal mining did not experience a decline in employment during the recent recession. By 2020, however, private-sector employment in the coal mining industry (excluding support activities) is expected to decrease modestly to 77,500 (see Table B.22).

Table C.28 in Appendix C shows demographic information for the coal

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34 This figure reflects metal ore mining (NAICS 2122), nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (NAICS 2123), support activities for metal mining (NAICS 213114), and support activities for nonmetal minerals (except fuels) mining (NAICS 213115).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.20 Average Annual U.S. Coal Mining Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title All Sectors Private Sector Federal Gov't State Gov't Local Gov't
2121 Coal Mining 81,126 81,126      
213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining 8,126 8,126      
TOTAL 89,252 89,252      

NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

TABLE B.21 Average Annual U.S. Coal Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2121 Coal Mining 74,450 78,648 76,604 81,095 82,000 81,126
213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining 6,773 7,083 7,527 8,109 7,963 8,126
TOTAL 81,223 85,731 84,131 89,204 89,963 89,252

NOTE: All coal mining employment is in the private sector. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

TABLE B.22 Private-Sector U.S. Coal Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code.

NAICS Code NAICS Title 2010 (base year) 2020 (projected)
2121 Coal Mining 80,600 77,500
TOTAL 80,600 77,500

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program.

mining industry workforce.35 In comparison with the overall U.S. workforce, the coal mining industry has few women and little racial and ethnic diversity. Women make up 6 percent of the workforce, while Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latino workers each constitute less than 0.5 percent of the workforce (there are too few Asians to report). The median age in this industry is 46.4, with slightly more than 51 percent of the workforce age 45 or older.

Table C.30 in Appendix C provides 2010 private-sector employment estimates for the 20 largest occupations in the coal mining industry (excluding support activities). These occupations encompass more than 78 percent of total

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35 Demographic information is by Census industries. See Table C.29 in Appendix C for a mapping of coal mining NAICS industries to Census industries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

employment in this industry. The three largest occupations are operating engineers and other construction equipment operators (10.89 percent of total employment); continuous mining machine operators (10.67 percent); and roof bolters, mining (6.69 percent).

In addition to the nonfuel mining industry, MSHA also collects workforce information on the coal mining industry. The agency collects employment information (including office workers) related to underground mines, surface mines, preparation plants, and independent shops/yards. The 2010 figures show total operator employment of 89,209 and total contractor employment of 46,324 (MSHA, 2011b, Tables 1 and 5). The comparable 2010 figure based on the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages is 89,252.36 As with nonfuel mining, these results suggest that the BLS figures undercount coal mining employment, likely because of the undercounting of contractor employment.

SHORTCOMINGS OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS DATA

The primary shortcoming of using BLS data to examine the energy and mining workforce is limitations of the NAICS, the standard industrial classification system used by the BLS and other federal statistical agencies. The system was designed to provide “uniformity and comparability in the presentation of . . . statistical data”37 across federal agencies. Although this uniformity and comparability can be useful, it constrains the way in which industries can be examined. The dominant constraint as it relates to this study is the way in which the NAICS system handles the emerging energy sectors that are relevant to this study, namely, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration. None of these emerging industries is represented by unique NAICS codes, making it unfeasible to examine the workforce in each of these areas using BLS data. This limitation may be rectified over time as NAICS codes are updated to reflect the changing nature of the U.S. economy’s industrial makeup. For example, in the 2007 version of the system, NAICS 221119 (Other Electric Power Generation) includes solar, wind, and geothermal energy. In the 2012 version, separate NAICS codes are available for solar electric power generation, wind electric power generation, and geothermal electric power generation. It will be several years, however, before these changes make their way into all of the data sources available from the BLS and other agencies.

Another constraint imposed by the NAICS system is the way in which NAICS codes are assigned. As mentioned earlier, NAICS codes are assigned to an establishment. If an establishment engages in more than one activity, a single

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36 This figure reflects coal mining (NAICS 2121) and support activities for coal mining (NAICS 213113).

37 U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, Frequently Asked Questions (see http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/faqs/faqs.html).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

NAICS code is assigned on the basis of the primary activity at that establishment. As an example, if an establishment engages in the processing of natural gas as its primary activity, but also engages in carbon capture and storage as a secondary activity, the NAICS code for this establishment will reflect only the natural gas processing. Moreover, information captured about this establishment, such as employment, will be allocated to the primary NAICS code. Since geological carbon sequestration is often a secondary activity, employment information for this emerging industry will be difficult to estimate using the NAICS code system. A related constraint of the NAICS system is the outsourcing of energy- and mining-related activities. If an energy- and mining-related task is outsourced or contracted out to an establishment whose primary activity is not the provision of energy and mining services, the NAICS code for this establishment will not fall under the energy and mining umbrella. In such a case, employment related to the provision of energy and mining services will not be included in energy and mining employment counts, thus undercounting employment. As an example, establishments engaged in energy and mining-related engineering services (e.g., petroleum engineering services, mining engineering services) are classified as part of the more generic engineering services NAICS code. Another example is staffing companies that provide workers to companies that engage in energy and mining activities. In both cases, these workers would not be classified as part of energy and mining.

FEDERAL AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR OVERSIGHT OF ENERGY AND MINING

There are a wide variety of federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining. Some of these agencies are dedicated solely to energy and mining, such as MSHA and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, whereas others engage in a number of activities, a subset of which are related to energy and mining, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Bureau of Land Management. The following are key federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining:

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs;
  • Bureau of Land Management;
  • Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement;38
  • Department of Energy;

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38 On October 1, 2011, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement was replaced by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement. Since workforce information is not yet available for these two new agencies, this appendix reports workforce information for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×
  • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
  • Mine Safety and Health Administration;
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health;
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission;
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration;
  • Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement;
  • Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; and
  • U.S. Geological Survey.

Workforce information for these agencies has been compiled from FedScope, an online tool available from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management that enables users to generate information on the federal civilian workforce.39 An exception is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which is not reported separately in FedScope.40Table B.23 provides employment information for these federal agencies as of the fiscal year-end for 2007-2011 (note that historical information is not available for all agencies).

Despite the recent recession, employment in these agencies generally increased from 2007 to 2010. On a relative basis, the agencies with the largest annual growth in employment over this period were the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (5.8 percent annual growth), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (3.9 percent), and the Department of Energy (3.6 percent). However, except for the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, employment fell from 2010 to 2011 in the remaining agencies for which historical employment information is available. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement and the Department of Energy experienced the largest declines (−33.2 percent and −10.4 percent, respectively). For these latter two agencies, as well as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, 2011 employment levels fell below 2007 levels.

Table B.24 provides demographic information for each agency under consideration as of the fiscal year end 2011. Generally speaking, the workforces in the federal agencies that oversee energy and mining are more diverse than the energy and mining workforces. Compared with the U.S. workforce as a whole, however, these agencies tend to have relatively low female representation and, for certain agencies, relatively low minority representation. An exception is the Bureau of Indian Affairs which is 53.8 percent female and 89.4 percent minority. The agencies with the lowest female

_______________

39 FedScope can be accessed at http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/.

40 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is reported in FedScope as part of the Centers for Disease Control.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.23 Employment for Key Federal Agencies Responsible for Management and Oversight of Energy and Mining, Fiscal Years 2007-2011.

Agency 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Bureau of Indian Affairs 9,432 9,136 9,256 9,420 9,138
Bureau of Land Management 11,344 11,413 11,779 11,846 11,471
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 1,619 1,643 1,695 1,769 1,182
Department of Energy 14,945 15,448 15,826 16,625 14,893
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission         1,488
Mine Safety and Health Administration 2,260 2,321 2,394 2,351 2,330
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Healtha         1,200
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 3,750 4,080 4,151 4,211 4,111
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2,076 2,087 2,126 2,291 2,272
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 531 523 524 528 519
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 363 363 375 430 444
U.S. Geological Survey 8,750 8,875 9,016 9,246 9,078
TOTAL (excluding Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) 55,070 55,889 57,142 58,717 55,438
TOTAL 58,126

aEmployment Information for 2011 is from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Web site and reflects the approximate number of scientists employed at the agency (see http://wwwcdc.gov/niosh/about.html).

NOTE: Employment is as of the fiscal year-end (September 30), except as noted. A blank cell indicates that information is not available. SOURCE: FedScope (except as noted).

representation are MSHA (23.6 percent), the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (32.4 percent), and the Bureau of Land Management (35.7 percent). Those with the lowest minority representation are MSHA (9.0 percent), the U.S. Geological Survey (12.3 per cent), and the Bureau of Land Management (15.7 percent). Note that MSHA ha both the lowest female representation and the lowest minority representation o these agencies. The lack of diversity in this agency mimics the lack of diversit in the mining industry that was discussed earlier in the appendix.

The federal agency workforces that oversee energy and mining are considerably older than the energy and mining workforce and the overall U.S. workforce. In all of the agencies under consideration, more than 50 percent of the workforce is 45 years old or older; in most of the agencies this figure exceeds 60 percent. The oldest workforce is in MSHA where more than 75 percent of the workforce is 45 years old or older, with more than 40 percent between 55 and 64 years old.

Within the Federal Government, occupations are generally allocated into

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

TABLE B.24 Demographic Characteristics of Employees at Key Federal Agencies Responsible for the Management and Oversight of Energy and Mining, 2011.

Agency Female (%) Minority (%) < 20 Years (%) 20-24 Years (%) 25-34 Years (%) 35-44 Years (%) 45-54 Years (%) 55-64 Years (%) 65 Years and Over (%)
Bureau of Indian Affairs 53.8 89.4 0.0 1.5 12.6 22.0 30.4 27.9 5.5
Bureau of Land Management 35.7 15.7 1.0 6.0 20.7 19.6 25.2 24.9 2.6
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 45.1 20.8 0.2 2.4 15.7 17.8 26.6 32.9 4.6
Regulation and Enforcement                  
Department of Energy 37.6 24.0 0.1 1.5 14.1 19.2 33.9 26.9 4.3
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 44.0 32.9 0.1 3.0 25.3 17.9 23.1 25.6 5.0
Mine Safety and Health Administration 23.6 9.0 0.3 0.8 8.2 14.6 29.9 42.0 4.2
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 39.2 31.4 0.1 1.4 17.9 16.2 31.6 26.2 6.5
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 43.8 30.8 0.3 1.8 12.1 21.1 31.4 29.9 3.4
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 46.2 25.2 1.0 6.4 11.8 12.3 23.9 38.9 5.8
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 32.4 33.1 0.2 0.9 14.6 20.3 31.3 27.9 4.7
U.S. Geological Survey 37.9 12.3 0.6 5.8 16.5 20.0 28.2 25.4 3.5

NOTES: Employment is as of the fiscal year-end 2011 (September 30). Minority is defined as those who self-identify as Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/ Alaskan Native, Asian, Black/African American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or Of More Than One Race.

Source: FedScope. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

two categories: (1) white collar occupations and (2) trade, craft, or labor occupations. Within the former category there are more than 20 high-level occupational groups (e.g., engineering and architecture) and more than 400 occupations fall within these groups (e.g., electrical engineer, petroleum engineering). Within the trade, craft, or labor category, there are more than 30 high-level job families (e.g., electrical installation and maintenance) and close to 300 occupations fall within these families (e.g., electrician, electrical equipment repairer).41Table C.31 in Appendix C shows the distribution of 2011 employment across occupational groups and job families at the federal agencies under consideration in this appendix. The white collar occupational groups are represented by 00xx-Miscellanous Occupations through 22xx-Information Technology; the trade, craft, or labor job families are represented by 25xx-Wire Communication Equipment Installation and Maintenance through 88xx-Aircraft Overhaul. Groups or families with 5 percent or more of total agency employment are highlighted.

Occupations within these workforces are predominantly white collar. All of the agencies have a sizable administrative staff, particularly the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement where the General Admin, Clerical, and Office Svcs occupational group represents close to 40 percent of the workforce. The workforces in these agencies are generally concentrated in a small number of occupational groups. For example, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has 18 occupational groups and job families with 10 percent or more of total agency employment; however, more than 75 percent of total agency employment is concentrated in 3 occupational groups—Engineering and Architecture (45.2 percent); General Admin, Clerical, & Office Svcs (22.5 percent); and Physical Sciences (10.8 percent). Only two agencies have more than 50 percent of their workforce in a single occupational group: the Mine Safety and Health Administration has 68.8 percent of its workforce in the Investigation group and the U.S. Geological Survey has 50.7 percent of its workforce in the Physical Sciences group. Tables C.32-C.42 in Appendix C provide employment counts for the 20 largest occupations within each key agency responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining.

KEY FINDINGS

B.1 The demographics of the energy and mining workforce do not mimic the overall U.S. workforce: the energy and mining workforce is predominantly male and has relatively little minority representation. Moreover, the U.S. labor force is expected to become more diverse by 2020. The energy and mining workforce is also older than the overall U.S. work-

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41 For additional detail on occupational groups and job families see the OPM, 2009, Handbook of Occupational Groups and Families, May 2009, Office of Personnel Management (http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gshbkocc.pdf).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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     force: a majority of the energy and mining industries have more workers age 45 and older than workers under the age of 45. Taken together, these findings suggest that the energy and mining industries with workforces that are less diverse and older—such as mining—may experience greater difficulties replacing lost talent.

B.2 Key energy and mining occupations expected to experience the greatest increases in talent demand over the period 2010 to 2020 are boilermakers; geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers; electrical power-line installers and repairers; and geological and petroleum technicians.

B.3 In the near term, key energy and mining occupations requiring postsecondary education that may experience the greatest difficulties acquiring talent with the requisite education are: geological and petroleum technicians; occupational health and safety specialists; nuclear technicians; petroleum engineers; nuclear engineers; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors. If annual growth rates of degrees and certificates conferred continue as they have over the past 5 years, these difficulties may continue in the longer-term for occupational health and safety specialists; geological and petroleum technicians; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors.

B.4 The primary shortcoming of using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine the energy and mining workforce is limitations associated with the NAICS system, the industrial classification system used by the BLS and other federal statistical agencies. These limitations reflect the speed with which the classification system changes to reflect changes in the industrial makeup of the U.S. economy and the way in which industrial classification codes are assigned to an establishment. These limitations likely result in an undercounting of energy and mining employment.

B.5 The workforces in key federal agencies responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining are more demographically diverse than the workforces in the energy and mining industries they oversee, but are generally less demographically diverse than the overall U.S. workforce. Moreover, in each of these agencies, a majority of the workforce is 45 years old and older. The Mine Safety and Health Administration workforce is the least demographically diverse and the oldest, suggesting it runs a greater risk of losing talent due to retirement.

RECOMMENDATIONS TO MEET FUTURE LABOR REQUIREMENTS

The following recommendations should be initiated as soon as possible. They are ordered and labeled in terms of when they would be expected to be

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
×

operational. The recommended actions are expected to continue for the long term. Medium term is defined as 2-5 years, and long term as more than 5 years.

B.1 The government and industry (through its national industry associations) should consider working together to find ways to attract younger workers, women, and minorities into energy and mining occupations and into the federal agencies responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining. It would be beneficial to focus efforts on addressing potential talent gaps in the energy and mining occupations where talent demand is expected to be greatest. (Medium Term)

B.2 The Department of Education, in collaboration with the Department of Labor and national industry organizations, should consider working together to identify and implement strategies to increase the pipeline of workers with the postsecondary education necessary to work in the energy and mining industries, and particularly in occupations for which the supply of workers with the requisite education is anticipated to fall short of demand. (Medium Term)

B.3 The Department of Labor, through its Bureau of Labor Statistics, should determine and pursue a more effective way to partner with industry, through its national industry associations, to collect on a periodic basis key energy and mining workforce information that would facilitate the ongoing assessment of the demand for and supply of talent across the energy and mining industries. (Long Term)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources." National Research Council. 2013. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18250.
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Energy and mineral resources are essential for the nation's fundamental functions, its economy, and security. Nonfuel minerals are essential for the existence and operations of products that are used by people every day and are provided by various sectors of the mining industry. Energy in the United States is provided from a variety of resources including fossil fuels, and renewable and nuclear energy, all with established commercial industry bases. The United States is the largest electric power producer in the world. The overall value added to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011 by major industries that consumed processed nonfuel mineral materials was $2.2 trillion.

Recognizing the importance of understanding the state of the energy and mining workforce in the United States to assure a trained and skilled workforce of sufficient size for the future, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy technology Laboratory (NETL) contracted with the National Research Council (NRC) to perform a study of the emerging workforce trends in the U.S. energy and mining industries. Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action summarizes the findings of this study.

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