The following guiding principles are reprinted from the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (pp. 3-5) as they were approved on December 1, 2008.
I. Employ Integrated Design Principles
Integrated Design. Use a collaborative, integrated planning and design process that
- Initiates and maintains an integrated project team in all stages of a project’s planning and delivery;
- Establishes performance goals for siting, energy, water, materials, and indoor environmental quality along with other comprehensive design goals; and, ensures incorporation of these goals throughout the design and life cycle of the building; and,
- Considers all stages of the building’s life cycle, including deconstruction.
Commissioning. Employ total building commissioning practices tailored to the size and complexity of the building and its system components in order to verify performance of building components and systems and help ensure that design requirements are met. This should include a designated commissioning authority, inclusion of commissioning requirements in construction documents, a commissioning plan, verification of the installation and performance of systems to be commissioned, and a commissioning report.
II. Optimize Energy Performance
Energy Efficiency. Establish a whole building performance target that takes into account the intended use, occupancy, operations, plug loads, other energy demands, and design to earn the ENERGY STAR® targets for new construction and major renovation where applicable. For new construction, reduce the
energy cost budget by 30 percent compared to the baseline building performance rating per the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., (ASHRAE) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential. For major renovations, reduce the energy cost budget by 20 percent below pre-renovations 2003 baseline.
Measurement and Verification. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines issued under section 103 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), install building level utility meters in new major construction and renovation projects to track and continuously optimize performance. Compare actual performance data from the first year of operation with the energy design target. After 1 year of occupancy, measure all new major installations using the ENERGY STAR® Benchmarking Tool for building and space types covered by ENERGY STAR®. Enter data and lessons learned from sustainable buildings into the High Performance Buildings Database (www.eere.energy.gov/femp/highperformance/index.cfm).
III. Protect and Conserve Water
Indoor Water. Employ strategies that in aggregate use a minimum of 20 percent less potable water than the indoor water use baseline calculated for the building, after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992 fixture performance requirements.
Outdoor Water. Use water efficient landscape and irrigation strategies, including water reuse and recycling, to reduce outdoor potable water consumption by a minimum of 50 percent over that consumed by conventional means (plant species and plant densities). Employ design and construction strategies that reduce storm water runoff and polluted site water runoff.
IV. Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality
Ventilation and Thermal Comfort. Meet the current ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, including continuous humidity control within established ranges per climate zone, and ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.
Moisture Control. Establish and implement a moisture control strategy for controlling moisture flows and condensation to prevent building damage and mold contamination.
Daylighting. Achieve a minimum of daylight factor of 2 percent (excluding all direct sunlight penetration) in 75 percent of all space occupied for critical visual tasks. Provide automatic dimming controls or accessible manual lighting controls, and appropriate glare control.
Low-Emitting Materials. Specify materials and products with low pollutant emissions, including adhesives, sealants, paints, carpet systems, and furnishings.
Protect Indoor Air Quality during Construction. Follow the recommended approach of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 1995. After construction and prior to occupancy, conduct a minimum
72-hour flush-out with maximum outdoor air consistent with achieving relative humidity no greater than 60 percent. After occupancy, continue flush-out as necessary to minimize exposure to contaminants from new building materials.
V. Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials
Recycled Content. For Environmental Protection Agency-designated products, use products meeting or exceeding EPA’s recycled content recommendations. For other products, use materials with recycled content such that the sum of post-consumer recycled content plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes at least 10% (based on cost) of the total value of the materials in the project.
Biobased Content. For U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-designated products, use products meeting or exceeding USDA’s biobased content recommendations. For other products, use biobased products made from rapidly renewable resources and certified sustainable wood products.
Construction Waste. During a project’s planning stage, identify local recycling and salvage operations that could process site related waste. Program the design to recycle or salvage at least 50 percent construction, demolition and land clearing waste, excluding soil, where markets or on-site recycling opportunities exist.
Ozone Depleting Compounds. Eliminate the use of ozone depleting compounds during and after construction where alternative environmentally preferable products are available, consistent with either the Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, or equivalent overall air quality benefits that take into account life cycle impacts.