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Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report (2013)

Chapter: Appendix D--Technical Specifications

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D--Technical Specifications." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2013. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18320.
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D--Technical Specifications." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2013. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18320.
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D--Technical Specifications." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2013. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18320.
Page 68

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Appendix D Technical Specifications Spurred initially by a California mandate, automakers have agreed on connectors and standards for 120-V and 240-V alternating current (ac) charging (Figure D-1). Most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can thus be charged with chargers made by a variety of manufacturers. Such cooperation and interchangeability remove what otherwise could be a substantial barrier to the adoption of PEVs. That is not the case for direct current (dc) fast charging. There are now at least two competing standards for the fast charge. Most battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the road that can be fast-charged, and the vast majority of chargers that have been installed in the United States, Japan, and Europe use the CHAdeMO standard (Figure D-2). Automobile manufacturers that intend to introduce PEVs starting in 2013 and SAE International have agreed on a new standard that they wish to call the Universal EV Combined Charging System (Figure D-3). Furthermore, Tesla has unveiled several DC fast-charging stations in California and on the East Coast that use a different plug design (Figure D-4). To help to develop standard terminology and technical specifications, SAE International has developed the charging specifications and terminology shown in Figure D-5. The standard accommodates two power levels for DC fast charging: Level 1 at a maximum power of 40 kW and Level 2 at a maximum power of 100 kW. FIGURE D-2 The CHAdeMO plug for DC FIGURE D-1 The standard connector used for fast charging is used for most DC fast chargers AC Level 1 and Level 2 charging (the J1772 in the United States, Europe, and Japan and is standard of SAE International) allows most available on most batter electric vehicles that plug-in electric vehicles to be charged with can accept DC fast charging. SOURCE: chargers built by various manufacturers. Brissette (2013). SOURCE: Adapted from GM (2012). 66

FIGURE D-3 Standard proposed as an alternative to the CHAdeMO connector includes the current plug and socket for AC Level 1 and 2 charging as the upper connector and two lower connectors added for DC fast charging. SOURCE: GM (2012). FIGURE D-4 The Tesla proprietary plug for DC fast charging is used for all Tesla DC fast chargers (Superchargers) now available in the United States. It is available only on the Tesla Model S. SOURCE: Gordon-Bloomfield (2011). Photo by Nikki Gordon- Bloomfield. 67

FIGURE D-5 Society of Automotive Engineers charging configurations and ratings terminology. SOURCE: SAE (2012). Copyright 2012 by SAE International. REFERENCES Brissette, P. 2013. “CHAdeMO Says Quick Charger Installations Doubled Last Year, To Double Again in 2013.” January 24. Available at quick-charger-installations-doubled-last-year-to-double-again-in-2013/, accessed April 29, 2013. GM (General Motors). 2012. “Global Automakers to Demo EV Fast Charging at EVS26: Combined Charging System Allows AC and DC Fast-Charging From Single Inlet Port.” GM News, May 3. Available at 2012/May/0503_combocharging.html, accessed April 24, 2013. Gordon-Bloomfield, N. 2011. “Tesla 2012 Model Charging Equipment. Redesign for Redesign’s Sake?” Green Car Reports. October 4. Available at teslas-2012-model-s-charging-equipment-redesign-for-redesigns-sake, accessed April 24, 2013. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). 2012. “SAE Changing Configurations and Rating Technology.” October 3. Available at &PAGE=showRelease&RELEASE_ID=1897, accessed April 24, 2013. 68

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The electric vehicle offers many promises—increasing U.S. energy security by reducing petroleum dependence, contributing to climate-change initiatives by decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, stimulating long-term economic growth through the development of new technologies and industries, and improving public health by improving local air quality. There are, however, substantial technical, social, and economic barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles, including vehicle cost, small driving range, long charging times, and the need for a charging infrastructure. In addition, people are unfamiliar with electric vehicles, are uncertain about their costs and benefits, and have diverse needs that current electric vehicles might not meet. Although a person might derive some personal benefits from ownership, the costs of achieving the social benefits, such as reduced GHG emissions, are borne largely by the people who purchase the vehicles. Given the recognized barriers to electric-vehicle adoption, Congress asked the Department of Energy (DOE) to commission a study by the National Academies to address market barriers that are slowing the purchase of electric vehicles and hindering the deployment of supporting infrastructure. As a result of the request, the National Research Council (NRC)—a part of the National Academies—appointed the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment.

This committee documented their findings in two reports—a short interim report focused on near-term options, and a final comprehensive report. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. This report also includes an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles. This interim report does not address the committee's full statement of task and does not offer any recommendations because the committee is still in its early stages of data-gathering. The committee will continue to gather and review information and conduct analyses through late spring 2014 and will issue its final report in late summer 2014.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment focuses on the light-duty vehicle sector in the United States and restricts its discussion of electric vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The common feature of these vehicles is that their batteries are charged by being plugged into the electric grid. BEVs differ from PHEVs because they operate solely on electricity stored in a battery (that is, there is no other power source); PHEVs have internal combustion engines that can supplement the electric power train. Although this report considers PEVs generally, the committee recognizes that there are fundamental differences between PHEVs and BEVs.

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