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/. 941726 PB83-111682 Dehydration and Compression of Foods (Final workshop rept) National Research Council. Washington. DC. Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies. Corp. Source Codes: O19O26369 ' Sponsor: Army Natlck Research and Development Labs., MA. Report No.: ABMPS-116 1982 49p Languages: English NTIS Prices: PC AO3/MF AO1 Country of Publication: United States Journal Announcement: GRAI83O2 Contract No.: DAAK6O-79-C-OO15 This report contains an examination of the problems faced by the armed forces In attempting to obtain high quality, dehydrated compressed foods as economically as possible. Descriptors: *Armed forces procurement; *Dr1ed foods; Quality control; Cost engineering; Flavor: Color; Packaging Identifiers: *Compressed foods: NTISNASNRC; NTISDODA; NTISNASIOM; NTISNASNAE Section Headings: 6H (Biological and Medical Sciences--Food) ; 15E (Military Sciences â Logist 1cs); 98H (Agriculture and FoodâFood Technology); 74E (Ml 1 1 tary Sciences â Logist Ics, Military Facilities, and Supplies)
ABMPS Report No. 116 Dehydration and Compression of Foods Prepared by the Planning Committee for the Workshop on Dehydration and Compression of Foods Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982 SEP1 61982 LIBRARY
NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Prepared for the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts, under Contract No. DAAK60-79-C-0015. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self- governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Copies available from: Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 ii
PREFACE This study was carried out by the Planning Committee* for the Workshop on Dehydration and Compression of Foods to examine the problems faced by the armed forces in attempting to obtain high quality, dehydrated compressed foods as economically as possible. Dehydration and compression of foods offer significant reduction in weight and volume; therefore, they are of significant value to the military in reducing storage and transportation requirements. This is especially important aboard submarines, in space missions, or in military operations requiring that food supplies be carried by the individual. In order to optimize all factors contributing to the production of high quality dehydrated and compressed foods at reduced cost, members of the Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies (ABMPS) and the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories concluded that a comprehensive effort was needed to review the state of the art, identify gaps in knowledge, and identify opportunities for obtaining high quality products economically. This workshop on dehydration and compression of foods focused on the current problems relative to quality of end product, cost of production, stability, and utility. It offered a unique opportunity to identify scientific and techno- logical information needed for the synthesis of new ideas in the development of processing techniques of dehydration and compression of foods to yield high quality products at reduced cost of production. The workshop objectives were to: â¢ Provide the research community with guidelines to help make research decisions for improving the technology of weight volume reduction and packaging for dried foods. â¢ Identify cost and quality indices to guide research to meaningful answers for new developments. â¢ Identify new technologies that may contribute to significant cost reductions and quality improvements. *A committee of the Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies (ABMPS) of the National Research Council formed to plan and conduct the workshop. ill
â¢ Identify research and development needs to serve Department of Defense (DOD) logistics requirements for weight- and volume-reduced foods. Among the areas of knowledge or disciplines represented in the membership of the Planning Committee are the following: processing and economical aspects of dehydration and compression of foods; raw materials for dehydration processes; general food science and tech- nology; food engineering. The workshop was held at the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts, on 29 to 30 October 1980, bringing together over 30 participants from industry, academia, and the military to review the status and development of dehydrated compressed foods, to discuss their utilization in the military and civilian markets, and to identify opportunities for reducing the costs of these products. Funding for this workshop was provided by the Natick Laboratories under the Herbert A. Hollender Workshop Series in Food Engineering and Food Sciences, a program honoring Dr. Hollender for his many con- tributions to military food programs during his 30 years of service. The Planning Committee extends special thanks to Dr. Abdul R. Rahman and other members of the Food Engineering Laboratory at Natick for their assistance in planning and conducting this workshop. Iv
CONTENTS SUMMARY 1 RECOMMENDATIONS 4 INTRODUCTION 5 COST REDUCTION APPROACHES 7 Drying . . . 8 Partial Drying Prior to Freeze-Drying 9 Compression 10 Commodities 13 RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCT PREPARATION 17 SHELF LIFE 20 Packaging 20 Storage 22 Food Kinetcs 23 NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES 26 APPENDIX Bibliography 30 Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies 33 Workshop Planning Committee 35 Biographical Sketches 36 Workshop Program 37 Workshop Attendees 40