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Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary (2014)

Chapter: Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators

« Previous: Appendix B: Workshop Attendees
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

C

Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators

SPEAKERS: OPENING REMARKS

Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., is commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), where she has served since May 2009. As FDA commissioner, she is advancing regulatory science, medical product innovation, and globalization of the agency while overseeing the implementation of groundbreaking laws to curb the use of tobacco and to enhance food safety. She has undertaken major efforts to streamline and modernize the FDA’s regulatory pathways. Before joining the FDA, Dr. Hamburg was vice president and senior scientist at the Nuclear Threat Initiative. In the 1990s, as New York City’s health commissioner, she launched several major initiatives, including the nation’s first public health bioterrorism preparedness program and an internationally recognized program to curtail the resurgence and spread of tubercle bacillus. President Clinton later named her assistant secretary for planning and evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Michael R. Taylor, J.D., is deputy commissioner for foods and veterinary medicine at the FDA. In this position, he provides leadership and direction to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the Center for Veterinary Medicine. He also works closely with the foods-related programs of the FDA’s inspection and compliance arm, the Office of Regulatory Affairs. Dr. Taylor is responsible for establishing a modern, science-based, and prevention-oriented food safety program for domestic and imported foods. He also leads such critical areas as food labeling, nutrition, animal drug safety and effectiveness, and scientific

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

capacity. Dr. Taylor served previously in senior positions at the FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as a research professor in academia, and on several National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expert committees.

SPEAKERS

Amelia M. Arria, Ph.D., is associate professor of behavioral and community health and director of the Center on Young Adult Health and Development at the University of Maryland, College Park, School of Public Health. She is the principal investigator on the College Life Study, a 10-year longitudinal prospective study of college students. Dr. Arria has conducted research studies on adolescent and young adult health risk behaviors, including energy drink consumption patterns and the relationship between energy drink use and other forms of substance use. She is currently involved in several efforts to translate research findings for parents and policy makers.

Regan L. Bailey, Ph.D., R.D., is a nutritional epidemiologist in the Office of Dietary Supplements, Office of Disease Prevention, at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Bailey is also the director of the annual Mary Frances Picciano Dietary Supplement Research Practicum and the director of career development and outreach. In addition, she is an adjunct professor in the Department of Foods and Nutrition at Purdue University. The overarching goal of her research program is to prevent or lessen the risk of chronic disease through nutrition. Dr. Bailey has considerable expertise working with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. She is a member of the American Society for Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. She is also on the executive board of the Nutrition Epidemiology Research Interest Section of the American Society for Nutrition. She serves as an advisor to the International Life Sciences Institute–North America both on the Fortification Committee and in the Food, Nutrition and Safety Program. She is a registered dietitian.

Alvin C. Bronstein, M.D., is medical director of the Rocky Mountain Poison Center, the regional poison center for the states of Colorado, Hawaii, Montana, and Nevada. He is also associate professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine. In addition to his responsibilities as medical director, Dr.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

Bronstein actively participates in the poison center’s medical toxicology training program, oversees toxicology training for the center’s poison information specialists and providers, and directs the center’s Continuous Quality Improvement program. His research interests include creating new methods to deliver poison information services using computer databases and poison center data surveillance and trend analysis.

Christina Chambers, Ph.D., M.P.H., is professor in the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, and associate director of the Clinical and Translational Research Institute at the University of California, San Diego. She is a perinatal epidemiologist and teratologist who specializes in research related to the effects of prenatal and breastfeeding exposure to recreational substances, medications, vaccines, chemicals, and other environmental agents on the developing embryo, fetus, infant, or child.

Ahmed El-Sohemy, Ph.D., is associate professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences and holds a Canada Research Chair in nutrigenomics. He is the founder of Nutrigenomix Inc. and serves as chief science officer. Dr. El-Sohemy joined the faculty at the University of Toronto in 2000 to establish a research program in nutrigenomics. The goal of his research is to identify biomarkers of dietary exposure and elucidate the genetic basis for variability in nutrient response and dietary preferences. He collaborates with researchers across Canada as well as the United States, Costa Rica, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, South Korea, and Singapore. Dr. El-Sohemy has served on international expert advisory panels and scientific advisory boards of several organizations, and was appointed to Health Canada’s Scientific Advisory Board.

Sergi Ferré, Ph.D., M.D., is senior investigator and chief of the Integrative Neurobiology Section at the National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program. Dr. Ferré is interested in the role of receptor heteromers as targets for drug development in neuropsychiatric disorders and drug addiction. His research deals preferentially with the discovery of heteromers of receptors that are targets for addictive drugs or that are localized in brain circuits that are involved in addictive behaviors (such as dopamine, glutamate, cannabinoid, and adenosine receptors) and with the analysis of their biochemical and pharmacological properties involving studies at the cellular level as well as at the in vivo level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

Victor Fulgoni III, Ph.D., is currently senior vice president of Nutrition Impact, LLC, a consulting firm that helps food companies develop and communicate aggressive, science-based claims about their products and services. Nutrition Impact performs analyses of government food, nutrition, and health databases such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for clients evaluating the contribution certain food and beverage products make to nutrient intake and their effect on certain health parameters. Dr. Fulgoni previously worked for the Kellogg Company as vice president of food and nutrition research, where he helped develop a long-term research program and was involved in the company’s research and regulatory efforts to gain health claim approval from the FDA regarding soluble fiber from psyllium and the risk of heart disease.

Jeffrey Goldberger, M.D., a recognized scholar and clinician, has been a practicing clinical cardiac electrophysiologist at Northwestern University for 23 years. He is an innovator in the field and has been recognized as a “Top Doctor” by U.S. News & World Report and Chicago magazines. He has been a thought leader in the problems of sudden cardiac death, atrial fibrillation, and autonomic nervous system effects on cardiac electrophysiology, leading several multidisciplinary programs. He has written more than 200 publications, and he has served on multiple national committees of the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. Dr. Goldberger is an active participant in both undergraduate and graduate medical education and is involved in several community and national organizations in leadership roles.

Roland R. Griffiths, Ph.D., is professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His principal research focus in both clinical and preclinical laboratories has been on the behavioral and subjective effects of mood-altering drugs. He is also a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Drug Dependence for the World Health Organization (WHO). Dr. Griffiths’s research has provided the most complete description of caffeine withdrawal syndrome to date, including documenting clinically significant functional impairment in some people. His research was the first to rigorously demonstrate the following: (1) that caffeine produces reliable mood-altering effects at doses far lower than previously thought possible; (2) that caffeine functions as a reliable reinforcer when administered in beverages or capsules; (3) that caffeine withdrawal potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine; and (4) that some people become psychiatrically

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

dependent on caffeine in that they fulfill Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria for substance dependence applied to caffeine by being unable to quit despite repeated attempts to do so, by having a medical or psychological condition that is exacerbated by caffeine, and by continuing to use caffeine to avoid caffeine withdrawal symptoms.

John P. Higgins, M.D., M.B.A., is associate professor of medicine (cardiology) at the University of Texas Medical School, Houston, chief of cardiology at Lyndon B. Johnson General Hospital, and director of exercise physiology at the Institute for Sports Medicine and Human Performance at Memorial Hermann. Dr. Higgins was previously on the staff at the Veteran’s Administration West Roxbury hospital as an attending cardiologist and director of the Cardiac Stress Laboratory (instructor in medicine, Harvard Medical School). He currently sees patients at Lyndon B. Johnson General Hospital. He has received the prestigious Dean’s Teaching Excellence Award at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston 5 years in a row (2008–2013).

Diane C. Mitchell, M.S., R.D., is senior research scientist and the director of the Diet Assessment Center in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University. In this role she is responsible for managing external and internal research studies. She also manages proposal development, budget administration, manuscript development, and project management. Her research interests include validating and improving various diet assessment methodologies, accuracy and sources of error in diet recall, analysis of dietary patterns, diet quality, and database development. Ms. Mitchell is also scientific consultant to the International Life Science Institute of North America, Caffeine Working Group, to provide an update to earlier work on the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population.

Charles P. O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D., is the Kenneth E. Appel Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. He also established and directs a clinical research program that has had a major impact on the treatment of addictive disorders. His work involves discovery of central nervous system changes involved in relapse, new medications, behavioral treatments, and instruments for measuring the severity of addictive disorders. He led the discovery of the effects of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system and developed a new treatment for alcoholism. Dr. O’Brien was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the NAS in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

1991, and he has received numerous research and teaching awards as well as an honorary doctorate from the University of Bordeaux. Dr. O’Brien is past president of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease. In 2013 the president of France named him Chevalier dans l’Ordre National de la Légion d’Honneur for his contributions to Franco-American scientific collaboration.

Ashley Roberts, Ph.D., is senior vice president in the Food and Nutrition Group at Intertek Cantox. In this capacity, Dr. Roberts advises and assists international clients with issues that are scientific, regulatory, and toxicological in nature. In addition, he assists clients wishing to design and develop scientific research programs and helps those who are developing regulatory strategies for food additives, foods that are generally recognized as safe, and novel foods. While in the food industry he was largely responsible for developing scientific strategies for establishing safety and gaining regulatory approvals for new food ingredients throughout the world. Prior to working for Intertek Cantox, Dr. Roberts worked in the area of scientific and regulatory affairs for a multinational food company for more than 10 years. Prior to that he worked in two leading European contract research organizations conducting drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies and phase I clinical trials.

Andrew P. Smith, Ph.D., is professor in the School of Psychology and director of the Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology at Cardiff University. His research covers the areas of occupational and health psychology with the major emphasis being on well-being. Specifically, Dr. Smith has conducted extensive research on the nonauditory effects of noise on cognition and health. In addition, he conducts research on stress and fatigue in both the workplace and life in general. Dr. Smith’s interests in health psychology cover two main themes: health-related behaviors (effects of nutrition, caffeine, and chewing gum on behavior) and minor illnesses (psychosocial risk factors for susceptibility to colds and influenza; effects of upper respiratory tract infections on mood and cognition).

Jennifer Temple, Ph.D., is associate professor in the Departments of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Community Health and Health Behavior at the University of Buffalo. Dr. Temple is also director of the Nutrition and Health Research Laboratory in the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. Her research pro-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

gram focuses on several major areas, including physiological and behavioral effects of caffeine intake in children and adolescents, gender difference in the effects of caffeine, food reinforcement and sensory system influences on eating in adults, and the relationship between food reinforcement and weight change over time. Currently, Dr. Temple is investigating the cardiovascular, cognitive, subjective, and reinforcing effects of caffeine in pre- and post-pubertal children and across the menstrual cycle.

MODERATORS

Richard H. Adamson, Ph.D., is president of TPN Associates, LLC, a consulting firm specializing in toxicology, pharmacology, and nutrition issues. He spent 2 years as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Public Health Service and then became a civil servant at NIH. At NIH he was the director of the Division of Cancer Etiology and scientific director of the National Cancer Institute. In 1994 Dr. Adamson joined the American Beverage Association (ABA) as vice president for scientific and technical affairs. He retired from the ABA in December 2004. He has published more than 250 papers, serves on several editorial boards, and has received several honors and awards.

James R. Coughlin, Ph.D., is president of Coughlin & Associates. He has more than 35 years of experience in addressing and shaping the current understanding of food and nutrition science in the United States and Europe, particularly in the areas of food, chemical and environmental toxicology and safety, chemical risk assessment, risk-benefit evaluation of foods and food ingredients, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food additive safety evaluations, and scientific risk communication. Before undertaking his current role as a consultant in 1991, he spent 10 years at General Foods Corporation and Kraft Foods Inc. managing external toxicology, safety, and regulatory affairs, including several years as Director of International Scientific Relations. Health and regulatory issues surrounding coffee/caffeine is one of his areas of expertise. In the early 1990s, he served as President of the Association for Science and Information on Coffee. He has been deeply involved in the assessment and management of California Proposition 65 requirements since the law’s passage in 1986. He served for many years on the Editorial Advisory Board of Prop 65 News and the Prop 65 Clearinghouse Advisory Board.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

Stephen R. Daniels, M.D., Ph.D., is professor of pediatrics and chairman in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. He also serves as Pediatrician-in-Chief at Children’s Hospital Colorado. Dr. Daniels’s area of expertise is preventive cardiology, with a longtime interest in the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and bio-statistical methods to pediatric clinical research problems. He is interested in the causes of blood pressure elevation and cholesterol abnormalities in children and adolescents, particularly the role that obesity may play in these health issues; development of structural and functional abnormalities in the heart and vascular system, including cardiovascular abnormalities occurring in pediatric patients with diabetes mellitus; as well as the relationship of left ventricular hypertrophy to obesity and hypertension. The role of lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, is central to many of Dr. Daniels’s studies.

Mark Feeley, M.Sc., is associate director of the Bureau of Chemical Safety in the Food Directorate of Health Canada. The Bureau of Chemical Safety of Health Canada is responsible for policy, standard setting, risk assessment, research, and evaluation activities with respect to chemicals in foods in Canada. Chemicals under the authority of the bureau include food additives; food packaging materials, processing aids, and incidental additives; food allergens; food contaminants; and novel foods. Mr. Feeley is the head of the Canadian delegation for the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food, a current member of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Roster of Toxicological and Epidemiological Experts, and a member of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety.

Thomas J. Gould, Ph.D., is director of the Neuroscience Program, head of the Neurobiological Investigations of Learning & Addiction lab, and a professor of psychology at Temple University. In addition to affiliations with the psychology department and the neuroscience program, Dr. Gould has a secondary appointment in the Center for Substance Abuse Research at the Temple University School of Medicine, and he is also an investigator and member of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction at the University of Pennsylvania. His current research interest is the neurobiology of learning and memory with a specific focus on identifying the cellular and molecular events that underlie the effects of nicotine and ethanol on learning and memory. Current projects in the lab include an examination of the ef-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

fects of nicotine on hippocampus functioning and hippocampus-dependent learning.

Steven E. Lipshultz, M.D., is chief of staff of Holtz Children’s Hospital, Executive Associate Dean for Child Health, and Professor and Chairman of Pediatrics at the University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine. He has been the principal investigator in a number of groundbreaking NIH studies on the causes and treatment of cardiomyopathies in children. He studies the efficacy, long-term side effects, and outcomes of pharmacological agents in children using cross-sectional approaches. Another major focus of his research is development of surrogate outcome measures and biomarkers of adult-onset disease, such as coronary artery disease and health failure and prenatal and postnatal factors that moderate outcomes. Dr. Lipshultz has served on the faculties at Harvard Medical School and Boston University School of Medicine.

Barbara J. Petersen, Ph.D., M.P.H., is principal scientist in Exponent’s Health Sciences Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety. She is also a specialist in addressing regulatory issues involving exposure and risk assessments including the FDA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the European Food Safety Authority. Dr. Petersen chaired the WHO working group on methods for estimating intakes of food additives, nutrients, new biochemical traits associated with foods derived from modern biotechnology (genetically modified organisms), and contaminants in foods. She also served as Principal Investigator for the National Cancer Institute’s International FOODBASE project, a major effort to collect and computerize descriptive and summary information on food consumption surveys conducted in more than 40 countries. Dr. Petersen has provided statistical support to the FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, including developing criteria for evaluating nutrition databases, and specifically for the International Interface Standard for food databases and to EPA’s Office of Research and Development.

Joseph V. Rodricks, Ph.D., is a founding principal of ENVIRON, and an internationally recognized expert in toxicology and risk analysis. He has consulted for hundreds of manufacturers, government agencies and for the WHO in the evaluation of health risks associated with human exposure to chemical substances of all types. Dr. Rodricks came to consulting after a 15-year career as a scientist at the FDA. In his last 4 years at the FDA, he served as Associate Commissioner for Health Affairs. His

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×

experience extends from pharmaceuticals, medical devices, consumer products, and foods to occupational chemicals and environmental contaminants. He has served on the National Research Council’s Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, and on 30 boards and committees of the NAS and the IOM.

Stephen Schaffer, Ph.D., is professor of pharmacology at the University of South Alabama. For 11 years, he served as a member of the American Heart Association Southeast Regional Consortium study section. His research interests include ischemia-reperfusion injury, the effects of diabetes and insulin on the heart, and the cardiac effects of the sulfur-containing amino acid taurine. Dr. Schaffer’s work has been instrumental in establishing an important physiological role for taurine. In 1986 he discovered that taurine depletion caused a shift in energy metabolism of the heart in favor of glucose, an effect related to impaired mitochondrial function. He recently discovered that taurine deficiency leads to a decrease in the expression of mitochondria-encoded proteins, an effect that reduces the activity of the electron transport chain and enhances superoxide production by the mitochondria.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Moderators." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements: Examining Safety: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18607.
×
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Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine in August 2013 to review the available science on safe levels of caffeine consumption in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements and to identify data gaps. Scientists with expertise in food safety, nutrition, pharmacology, psychology, toxicology, and related disciplines; medical professionals with pediatric and adult patient experience in cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry; public health professionals; food industry representatives; regulatory experts; and consumer advocates discussed the safety of caffeine in food and dietary supplements, including, but not limited to, caffeinated beverage products, and identified data gaps.

Caffeine, a central nervous stimulant, is arguably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. Occurring naturally in more than 60 plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cola nuts and cocoa pods, caffeine has been part of innumerable cultures for centuries. But the caffeine-in-food landscape is changing. There are an array of new caffeine-containing energy products, from waffles to sunflower seeds, jelly beans to syrup, even bottled water, entering the marketplace. Years of scientific research have shown that moderate consumption by healthy adults of products containing naturally-occurring caffeine is not associated with adverse health effects. The changing caffeine landscape raises concerns about safety and whether any of these new products might be targeting populations not normally associated with caffeine consumption, namely children and adolescents, and whether caffeine poses a greater health risk to those populations than it does for healthy adults. This report delineates vulnerable populations who may be at risk from caffeine exposure; describes caffeine exposure and risk of cardiovascular and other health effects on vulnerable populations, including additive effects with other ingredients and effects related to pre-existing conditions; explores safe caffeine exposure levels for general and vulnerable populations; and identifies data gaps on caffeine stimulant effects.

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