National Academies Press: OpenBook

Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1 (1993)

Chapter: C Panel Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"C Panel Biographies ." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 430 C Panel Biographies ALBERT J. REISS, JR. (Chair) is the William Graham Sumner professor of sociology at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies and a lecturer in law at Yale University. He has served as a consultant to the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice (1966-1967), the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (1967-1968), and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1976). Under presidential appointment, he served as a member of the National Advisory Commission on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1975-1978). He is a past president of the American Society of Criminology and is currently serving as president of the International Society of Criminology. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Statistical Association, and the American Society of Criminology. He has authored or edited 12 books including Social Characteristics of Urban and Rural Communities (1950, with O. Duncan), The Police and the Public (1971), Indicators of Crime and Criminal Justice: Quantitative Studies (1980, with S. Fienberg), and Communities and Crime (1986, with M. Tonry). He received a Ph.D. degree in sociology from the University of Chicago, an L.L.D. (honoris causa) degree from the City University of New York, and a Docteur Honoris Causa from the Université de Montréal.

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 431 DAVID P. FARRINGTON (Vice Chair) is professor of psychological criminology at Cambridge University, where he has been on the staff since 1969. His major research interest is in the longitudinal study of delinquency and crime, and he is director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of over 400 London males from age 8 to 32. He is also co-principal investigator of the Pittsburgh Youth Survey, a prospective longitudinal study of over 1,500 Pittsburgh males from age 7 to 17. In addition to over 120 published papers on criminological and psychological topics, he has published 11 books, one of which (Understanding and Controlling Crime , 1986) won the prize for distinguished scholarship of the American Sociological Association Criminology Section. He is president of the British Society of Criminology, a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice, a member of the advisory boards of the U.S. National Archive of Criminal Justice Data and the U.S. National Juvenile Court Data Archive, joint editor of the Springer-Verlag book series on Research in Criminology, and a member of the editorial boards of several journals. He has been a member of the National Research Council's Panel on Criminal Career Research, a member of the national Parole Board for England and Wales, and chair of the Division of Criminological and Legal Psychology of the British Psychological Society. He is a fellow of the British Psychological Society and the American Society of Criminology. He received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in psychology from Cambridge University, and the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology (in 1984) for international contributions to criminology. ELIJAH ANDERSON is the Charles and William L. Day professor of the social sciences at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert on the sociology of black America, he is the author of the widely regarded sociological work, A Place on the Corner: A Study of Black Street Corner Men (1978) and numerous articles on the black experience, including "Of Old Heads and Young Boys: Notes on the Urban Black Experience" (1986), commissioned by the National Research Council's Committee on the Status of Black Americans, and "Sex Codes and Family Life Among Inner-City Youth" (1989). For his recently published ethnographic study, Streetwise: Race, Class and Change in an Urban Community (1990), he was honored with the Robert E. Park Award of the American Sociological Association. He has also won the Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching at Penn. He is associate director of Penn's Center for Urban Ethnography and associate editor

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 432 of Qualitative Sociology. Other topics with which he concerns himself are the social psychology of organizations, field methods of social research, social interaction, and social organization. He received a B.A. degree from Indiana University, an M.A. degree from the University of Chicago, and a Ph.D. degree from Northwestern University, where he was a Ford Foundation Fellow. GREGORY CAREY is assistant professor of psychology at the Department of Psychology, and faculty fellow, Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder. His research and publications are in the area of quantitative methods in the study of the genetics of behavior with a special emphasis on the development of and genetic architecture behind antisocial behavior, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse in teenagers. He received a B.A. degree from Duquesne University, an M.A. degree from the Graduate Faculty, New School for Social Research, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. JACQUELINE COHEN is associate director of the Urban Systems Institute and senior research scientist in the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University. Her research concerns quantitative methods (including econometrics and stochastic processes), criminal careers, and incapacitation. She is a member of the American Society of Criminology, the Law and Society Association, the American Sociological Association, and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. She received B.S. and M.A. degrees from the University of Pittsburgh and a Ph.D. degree in urban and public affairs from Carnegie Mellon University. PHILIP J. COOK is professor of public policy and economics at Duke University. His main research interests encompass criminal justice policy, public health regulation, and public finance. He has written extensively on alcohol control measures and on the technology of personal violence. His most recent book is Selling Hope: State Lotteries in America (with Charles T. Clotfelter). Cook received a B.A. degree from the University of Michigan (1968), and a Ph.D. degree in economics from the University of California, Berkeley (1973). From 1985 to 1989 he served as director of Duke's Institute of Policy Sciences. FELTON EARLS is professor of human behavior and development at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of child psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. He is also director of the Program on Human Development and Criminal Behavior,

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 433 which is supported by the MacArthur Foundation and the National Institute of Justice, and director of the Developmental Epidemiology Research Unit at the Judge Baker Children's Center. He chaired the advisory panel to the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress that produced the three volume study, Adolescent Health, and more recently has chaired the Violence Prevention Panel at the Centers for Disease Control as part of their project on Setting the National Agenda for Injury Control in the 1990s. His research has focused primarily on cultural and social determinants of conduct problems and substance use in children and adolescents and is currently concerned with how these elements interact to produce violence and crime. LEONARD D. ERON is professor of psychology and emeritus research professor of the social sciences in psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His major research interest has been in the development of aggression in children. He has conducted two major longitudinal studies: one over 22 years and one in its twelfth year, which is presently being conducted in four countries—the United States, Finland, Israel, and Poland. Currently he is also engaged in a large-scale preventive intervention in the public schools of Chicago and Aurora, Illinois. He is on the editorial board of the Guggenheim Review of Violence, Aggression, and Dominance and is chair of the Commission on Youth and Violence of the American Psychological Association. In 1980 he received the APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Knowledge. He was editor of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology from 1973 to 1980 and is author or coauthor of seven books including Learning of Aggression in Children (1971), Growing Up to Be Violent (1977), and Television and the Aggressive Child (1981). He received a B.S. degree from the City College of New York, an M.A. degree in psychology from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Wisconsin. LUCY FRIEDMAN is the founding director of Victim Services, a not-for- profit organization begun in 1978. Through hotlines, schools, police precincts, courts, and community offices throughout New York City, Victim Services helps over 100,000 victims each year, providing practical services, counseling, peer support groups, and advocacy. Victim Services operates specialized services for battered women, families of homicide victims, child sexual assault, and elder abuse victims. As a longtime advocate for victim rights, Dr. Friedman has written on various aspects of crime,

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 434 its impact on victims and their families, and its treatment in the criminal justice system. Before founding Victim Services, she was an associate director at the Vera Institute of Justice. She received a B.A. degree from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. degree in social psychology from Columbia University. TED ROBERT GURR, who formerly taught at Princeton and Northwestern Universities and the University of Colorado, has been professor of government and politics at the University of Maryland since 1989, and distinguished scholar of the University's Center for International Development and Conflict Management. Political conflict and violence have been the main foci of his research, including Why Men Rebel (recipient of the Woodrow Wilson Prize for best book in political science of 1970), Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (with Hugh Davis Graham, 1969, 1979), and Minorities at Risk: Dynamics and Outcomes of Ethnopolitical Conflict (forthcoming from the United States Institute of Peace). He also has analyzed long-run trends in violent crime and the evolution of criminal justice systems, including The Politics of Crime and Conflict: A Comparative History of Four Cities (with Peter N. Grabosky and Richard C. Hula, 1977) and Violence in America: The History of Crime (1989). He has held offices in the American Political Science Association (APSA) and the International Studies Association, and in 1991 was given a Lifetime Achievement Award by the APSA's Conflict Processes Section. He received a B.A. degree in psychology from Reed College and a Ph.D. degree in government and politics from New York University. JEROME KAGAN is professor of psychology at Harvard University and has been in this position since 1964. His research involves the study of cognitive and emotional development in children with a special emphasis on sources of temperamental variation in children. He has been awarded the Distinguished Scientific Award by the American Psychological Association and also by the Society for Research in Child Development. He was a Kenneth Craik scholar at Cambridge University, Phi Beta Kappa Travelling Scholar, and recipient of the Wilbur Cross Medal from Yale University. He received a B.S. degree in biology from Rutgers University, and a Ph.D. degree in psychology from Yale University. ARTHUR KELLERMANN is medical director of the Emergency Department at the Regional Medical Center at Memphis and is associate professor of internal medicine and preventive medicine at the University of Tennessee, Memphis. His major research

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 435 interests include emergency department technology assessment, provision of health services to the poor, and the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries in the United States. He is a member of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians, and the American Public Health Association. A former Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar, he received a B.S. degree from Rhodes College, an M.D. degree from Emory University, and an M.P.H. degree from the University of Washington. He is board certified in both internal medicine and emergency medicine. RON LANGEVIN is director of Juniper Associates Psychological Services and associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Toronto. His major research interest concerns sexual and violent offenders. He has examined both etiology and treatment of these problems from a psychobiological perspective. He is author of Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men (1983) and editor of Erotic Preference, Gender Identity and Aggression in Men (1985) and Sex Offenders and Their Victims (1990). He is a member of the International Academy for Sex Research and a board member of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA). He is editor of the ATSA journal, the Annals of Sex Research. He received a B.A. degree from McGill University in Montreal and a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Toronto. COLIN LOFTIN is professor of criminology in the Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminology and director of the Violence Research Group at the University of Maryland at College Park. His research concerns crime statistics and the causes and consequences of violence. It has focused on monitoring the character and distribution of violence, understanding violence as social processes that extend beyond individual action, examining population risk factors for criminal violence, and evaluating violence prevention strategies. He received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. KLAUS A. MICZEK directs the psychopharmacology laboratory at Tufts University where he serves as professor of psychology. He has authored some 80 research articles, 25 reviews and edited half a dozen volumes on psychopharmacological research in various animal preparations on the topics of brain mechanisms of aggression, anxiety, and social stress. He has served since 1983 on research review committees for the National Institute on Drug

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 436 Abuse, National Institute on Mental Health, and National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. He is currently the coordinating editor of Psychopharmacology and serves on the editorial board of several other journals in this area. He is the current president of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society, past president of the Division of Psychopharmacology, and the past chair of the Committee on Animals in Research and Ethics of the American Psychology Association. He is a fellow or member of 10 scientific societies. He was originally educated in Berlin, Germany, and received a Ph.D. degree in biopsychology from the University of Chicago. MARK H. MOORE is the Guggenheim professor of criminal justice policy and management at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. His major research interests lie in the fields of criminal justice policy, public management, and governmental ethics. Within the field of criminal justice, he has concentrated on the control of "criminogenic commodities" such as drugs, guns, and alcohol; on "dangerous offenders"; and on juvenile justice. He is the author or editor of six books including Buy and Bust: The Effective Regulation of an Illicit Market in Heroin; Dangerous Offenders: Elusive Targets of Justice; From Children to Citizens: The Mandate for Juvenile Justice ; and Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. He also chaired the National Research Council's Panel on Alternative Policies for the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and is coeditor of its report entitled Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. He has also been a member of the National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control and led a national "Executive Session” at Harvard on the future of policing. He received a B.A. degree from Yale University and M.P.P. and Ph.D. degrees in public policy from Harvard University. JEFFREY A. ROTH, study director for the panel, is currently research director for the Law and Public Policy Area of Abt Associates, Inc. He previously served as study director for National Research Council panels on research on criminal careers and on taxpayer compliance. Before joining the NRC staff, he served as senior economic analyst at the Institute for Law and Social Research and as director of legal studies at Westat, Inc. His previous publications concern pretrial release decision making, taxpayer compliance, and mentally disordered offenders. His current research interests include violence and the evaluation of drug treatment

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 437 programs. He received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Michigan State University. JAMES F. SHORT, JR. is professor of sociology and senior research associate at the Social and Economic Sciences Research Center, Washington State University. He was director of research (with Marvin E. Wolfgang) of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968-1969) and a consultant to the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice (1966-1967). He is past president of the American Sociological Association and editor of the American Sociological Review. A recipient of the Edwin H. Sutherland Award of the American Society of Criminology, the Paul W. Tappan Award of the Western Society of Criminology, and the Bruce Smith Award of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Short is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology and has been a Guggenheim fellow and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences (Stanford), the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and Wolfson College (Oxford), and the Institute of Criminology and Kings College (Cambridge), and a resident fellow at the Rockefeller Center in Bellagio. He received the 1990 Distinguished Contribution Award of the Section on Environment and Technology (American Sociological Association). His books include Suicide and Homicide: Some Economic, Sociological and Psychological Aspects of Aggression (with A. Henry), Group Process and Gang Delinquency (with F. Strodtbeck), and Delinquency and Society. He has edited several volumes, including The State of Sociology: Problems and Prospects, The Social Fabric: Dimensions and Issues, and Organizations, Uncertainties, and Risks (with Lee Clarke). He received a B.A. degree and an honorary D.Sc. from Denison University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Chicago. LLOYD STREET is associate professor of human service studies at the College of Human Ecology, Cornell University. His research and teaching interests include race and crime, human service delivery, and program planning. Publications that reflect these interests include The Transient Slum (with Phil Brown), Background for Planning (with E. Fruedenberg), and Race, Crime and Community (in press). He received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology and a post master's certificate in community organization research from the University of California, Berkeley.

PANEL BIOGRAPHIES 438 FRANKLIN E. ZIMRING is William G. Simon professor of law and director of the Earl Warren Legal Institute at the University of California at Berkeley. His major research interest is the empirical study of law and legal institutions, with special emphasis on criminal violence. He is author or coauthor of The Changing Legal World of Adolescence (1982), Capital Punishment and the American Agenda (1987), The Scale of Imprisonment (1991), and The Search for Rational Drug Control (1992). He received a B.A. degree in 1963 from Wayne State University and a J.D. degree in 1967 from the University of Chicago, where he served on the law faculty from 1967 to 1985. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1 Get This Book
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By conservative estimates, more than 16,000 violent crimes are committed or attempted every day in the United States. Violence involves many factors and spurs many viewpoints, and this diversity impedes our efforts to make the nation safer.

Now a landmark volume from the National Research Council presents the first comprehensive, readable synthesis of America's experience of violence--offering a fresh, interdisciplinary approach to understanding and preventing interpersonal violence and its consequences. Understanding and Preventing Violence provides the most complete, up-to-date responses available to these fundamental questions:

  • How much violence occurs in America?
  • How do different processes--biological, psychosocial, situational, and social--interact to determine violence levels?
  • What preventive strategies are suggested by our current knowledge of violence?
  • What are the most critical research needs?

Understanding and Preventing Violence explores the complexity of violent behavior in our society and puts forth a new framework for analyzing risk factors for violent events. From this framework the authors identify a number of "triggering" events, situational elements, and predisposing factors to violence--as well as many promising approaches to intervention.

Leading authorities explore such diverse but related topics as crime statistics; biological influences on violent behavior; the prison population explosion; developmental and public health perspectives on violence; violence in families; and the relationship between violence and race, ethnicity, poverty, guns, alcohol, and drugs.

Using four case studies, the volume reports on the role of evaluation in violence prevention policy. It also assesses current federal support for violence research and offers specific science policy recommendations.

This breakthrough book will be a key resource for policymakers in criminal and juvenile justice, law enforcement authorities, criminologists, psychologists, sociologists, public health professionals, researchers, faculty, students, and anyone interested in understanding and preventing violence.

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