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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1861.
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INDEX 439 INDEX A and development of violence potential, Abortion, 307 360, 361, 362-363, 364 Acetylcholine, 115 and homicide victimization, 62-63, 64, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 94n.15, 256-257 387, 389 National Crime Survey limits, 2, 43, 45, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 418 (AIDS), 34, 138, 345 and reporting of victimization, 422-423 Adolescents as victimization risk factor, 4, 68-69 alcohol abuse in, 13, 332 and violent criminality, 72, 377, 393 as community risk factor, 133-134, 147 Aggressiveness continuity of aggression in, 103 alcohol effects on, 189-190, 195-196, drug use in, 197 197, 199-200, 333 female, sexual violence against, 241 animal studies of, 118, 119, 121-122, gangs and, 17 125, 128, 189-190, 192, 193, 194, homicide victims, 62, 256-259 195, 196 individual risk factor to, 146 biological influences on, 115-116 pubertal development, 118-119, 371-372 biomedical theories of, 128 robbery in, 187 childhood, antecedents of, 105-106, violence potential in, 360, 363-364, 384 108, 156, 358, 364, 365-366, 367, 369 violence prevention curriculum for, childhood, correlation with adult vio- 317-319 lence, 7, 35-36, 103-104, 196, 197, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 358 164n.3 childhood, in development of violence Age potential, 358, 359, 360, 361-362, adjustment for, 93-94n.13 363-364, 379-380 and child abuse victimization, 235 childhood, genetic influences, 117

INDEX 440 childhood, and peer rejection, 105, 107, social skills training and, 386-388 369-370 television and, 106, 371, 384 childhood, preventive interventions, 8, treatment interventions, 113 22, 107-109, 124, 125-126, 163, 319, Alaska natives, 70, 71 328, 329-330, 384-394 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health childhood, research needs, 380-381, 382 Administration, 345 cognitive-behavioral theories, 379-380, Alcoholism 385 childhood aggressiveness and, 196, 207 continuity across ages, 107, 157, 319, genetic predisposition to, 117, 191 358, 361-363, 368 and neurochemical functions, 121, 190 data collection on, 104-105 and violent crime, 185, 189, 368 definitions of, 35, 103 Alcohol use, 147, 160 dietary influences on, 124 abuse treatment, 11, 22-23, 246, 248, 329 drug effects on, 183, 191, 192, 193, 194, and aggressive behavior, 189-190, 195, 197 195-196, 197, 199-200, 206, 333 frustration-aggression theory, 378 animal studies of, 189-190, 196 genetic influences on, 117, 118 in committed crimes, 184, 185, 189 hormonal influences on, 118-119, 372 cultural influences and, 14, 198-200 IQ and, 367 emotional interactions, 197 and marital violence, 227 endocrinological interactions, 189-190 mass media influences, xii-xiv and family violence, 10-11, 237 measurement of, 103-104 gender differences and, 196 multicommunity longitudinal study rec- genetic interactions, 191 ommendation, 25, 156, 157, in homicides, 184, 185 158-159, 160, 162, 163, 341, 342, 344 and hypoglycemia, 124 neurochemical influences on, 119, 120, and multiple drug use, 187 121 National Youth Survey reports, 345 neurological abnormalities and, 12, and neurological functioning, 12, 121-122, 123-124 182-183, 190-191, 302 nicotine reduction of, 125 pharmacological interventions, 205, in opiate withdrawal, 22, 192, 329 206, 333, 340 parent and teacher training and, 389 in pregnancy, 13, 124, 158 pharmacological treatments, 120, 121, preventive interventions, 22, 207, 329, 205, 206, 211, 329, 333, 340 332, 333 protective factors for, 107, 373, 381, 382 Prohibition, xii, 202 public policy issues, 394 research needs, 211, 332-333, 348 research needs, 211, 344, 366, 380-381, risk factor for violence, 307, 330, 333 382, 391, 392 and sexual violence, 9, 110, 126, 189, as risk factor for violence, 103, 105-106 330, 340 risk factors for, 7, 156, 299, 329, 365, 366 social-level interactions, 197-198 school-based interventions, 391 taxation interventions, 206, 209, 333 and sexual violence, 9, 113 and testosterone levels, 118, 189-190 social learning of, 7, 104, 106, 379, 384 and violent behavior, 13-14, 182, 183, social-learning interventions, 8, 184-185, 190, 196, 198, 357, 363 107-108, 384-385, 386

INDEX 441 Alpha-blockers, 120 research needs, 22, 247, 329, 335 American Society of Criminology, 350 and spouse assault, 11, 244-245, 246, Amines, 339 247, 248 Amphetamines, 120 urinalysis testing, 212n.1 correlation with violence, 13, 182, 191, violent crime rates, 76 193-194, 197-198 Arson, 54, 61 Anger management training, 9, 11, 113, Asian Americans, 48-49, 90 126, 340 Assault, 2 Animals, cruelty to, 103-104, 364 aggravated, 3, 43-45, 68, 85-87, Animal studies 92-93n.5, 407 aggressive and violent behavior, 116, arrest rates for, 74 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 128-129, attempted and completed, 57, 58 189-190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 339 on children, 3, 48, 227, 228, 409 alcohol use, 189-190, 196 co-offenders, 5 drug use, 191, 192, 193, 195, 206 costs of, 4, 60, 345 hormonal mechanisms, 119, 189-190 data collection, 3, 43-45, 48, 67-68, neurobiological, 12-13, 190 249n.6, 315, 413-414, 418, 426 neurochemical, 120, 121, 164n.2 development of violence potential and, Antiandrogen drugs, 340 359, 375 Antianxiety drugs, 340 drug use and, 186-187 Antipsychotic drugs, 120, 194 on elderly, 229 Antisocial behavior in families, 231-234, 247, 407, 419 age at maturation and, 372 family, arrest policies and, 311, 407 aggressiveness in, 370 federal research funding, 349-350 cognitive/behavioral intervention, felony, 247, 407 385-386, 387 gun control laws and, 268, 275, 276, in development of violence potential, 277, 278 359, 360, 361 injuries in, 57, 58, 59, 62, 69, 422 genetic influences, 11, 116, 191, 207 international comparisons, 53 parent training and, 388-389 offender characteristics, 71, 72, 74 research needs, 25, 341, 348, 381, 392 offender self-reporting, 373 temperament and, 7, 366, 394 offender-victim relationships, 5, 77, Antisocial personality disorder, 11, 113, 231, 421 196, 333, 359 in prisons, 154-155, 185, 350 Anxiety, 379 proportion of violent crime, 3, 54, 55, Anxiolytics, 330, 340 70, 411 Arrest rates of, 47, 56, 57, 58, 83, 85-87, 234 age distribution, 72, 73, 74 reporting rates, 47, 48, 68, 88-90, childhood abuse and, 239, 368 249n.6, 407, 413-414, 419-420, data collection, 49, 71, 373, 415-416 421-422, 426-427 and deterrence of violent crime, 11, research needs, 24, 279, 337, 338 244-245, 313, 314, 407 in schools, 155, 370 ethnic distribution, 71, 72 self-defense in, 266, 282-283n.7 evidentiary restrictions and, 294 series victimizations, 424, 425 and family violence, 11, 246, 247, 248, sexual, 53, 55, 77, 88-90, 154-155 249n.7, 311-314, 329, 407 sexual motivation in, 109 mandatory arrest policies, 247, 407 simple, 3, 45, 54, 68, 92-93n.5, 93n.7 probability of, 292, 294 on spouses, 22, 231, 234, 329 rearrest, 208, 209, 212n.4, 311, 314 victimization risks, 69, 70, 146

INDEX 442 weapons and lethality of, 24, 57, 61, 337 neurobiologic processes, 12-14 weapon use in, 263, 267, 269 neurochemistry, 119-121 on women, 3, 10, 69, 77, 231, 407 neurological abnormalities, 121-123 women's shelters and, 22-23 puberty, 371-372 Assault weapons, 18, 260, 332 research needs, 125, 127-128, 206-207 regulation of, 274, 277-278, 281 risk factors, 20, 159, 296, 297 research needs, 279, 280 in violence matrix, 296, 297, 300, Assertiveness training, 9, 113, 126, 340 302-303 Atlanta, Ga., homicide rate study, 130, 131 Biological markers, 116, 339 Attention deficit, 7, 105, 106, 366-367 neurobiological, 12, 24, 161, 337, 339 Attitudes Toward Women Scale, 164n.1 neurophysiological, 123 Australia, sexual assault rate, 53 Birmingham, Ala., undercover drug busts, 209-210 B Birthweight, 22, 105, 135, 328, 383, 384 Bahamas, homicide mortality rate, 53 Blacks Baltimore, Md., violence rate studies, 134, alcohol use, 199 419 child abuse risks, 10, 235, 368 Barbiturates, 197 and community crime rates, 132, 133 Bartley-Fox Amendment (Massachusetts, community cultures, 16, 136 1974), 275 data collection and, 418, 422 Behavioral management intervention, development of violence potential in, 113, 384 357-358, 369, 380 Benzodiazepines, 121 firearm mortality rates, 18, 256, GABA/benzodiazepine receptor com- 257-259, 269, 279, 281-282n.1 plex blocking medication, 190, 206, gang activities, 199 333, 340 homicide victimization risks, 4, 14, 50, Beta-blockers, 120, 121, 340 51, 62, 63, 64, 65, 70, 130, 135-136 Bias crimes, 2-3 intervention programs and, 385, 389-390 in criminal law, 77-78, 91, 407-408 life expectancies, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 data collection, 3, 23, 78, 336, 408 middle class, 135 federal research funding, 349-350 offender-victim relationships, 77 intervention recommendations, 22, 329, in poverty, 132, 133, 369 334 proportion of arrestees, 71 research needs, 91 single-parent households, 222, 223 Biological factors, 102, 103, 115-116 social alienation, 138, 268 alcohol and drug influences, 182-183, socioeconomic status, 14, 130 191, 195 violent crime victimization risks, 4, 61, brain dysfunctions, 123-124 69-70, 90, 129, 146 in development of violence potential, violent offenders, 71, 137 295, 357, 360 young males, 4, 18, 61, 63, 64, 256, genetic influences, 11-12, 116-118 257-259, 269, 279, 418 hormonal mechanisms, 118-119 B'nai B'rith, 408 hypoglycemia and diet, 124-125 Boston, Mass. intervention recommendations, 22, 205, gang activities, 143-144 206, 328, 329, 330 gun crimes in, 269, 275, 277 in multicommunity longitudinal study, homicide victimization study, 130 156, 157-158, 160, 161

INDEX 443 Violence Prevention Curriculum, 108, Injury Control Division, xi 317-319 Charlotte, N.C., domestic violence exper- Brain dysfunctions, 13, 116, 122, iment, 311 123-124, 125, 163, 329, 339 Chicago, Ill. Brain imaging techniques, 123, 127-128, gun assaults, 262 161 homicides, 184 Brain trauma, 22, 115, 125, 328 poverty in, 134 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and robbery incidence, 85 Firearms (BATF), 260, 269-270, 273 Child abuse Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 46, 59, and adult violence, 239, 367-368 62, 93n.10, 264, 428n.8 age and victimization risk, 10, 235 Burglary, 377 antecedents of, 367, 368 antisocial tendency and, 360 data collection on, 45, 48, 49, 224, data collection, 55, 92n.4, 414 249n.5, 405-406 drug-use motivation in, 200, 201, 210, in day care centers, 235, 237 410 emotional abuse, 228-229 firearm self-defense in, 266, 267, ethnic status and victimization risk, 235 282-283n.7 family, 10, 48, 227-229, 234, 235-236 gun control laws and, 268, 276 gender and victimization risk, 10, 69, 235 reporting rates, 55 homicide, 10, 227-228, 234 sexual motivation in, 109 injuries from, 235-236 victimization risks, 62 neglect, 228, 368 violence risks in, 212n.3 parental depression and, 239 personality characteristics of offenders, C 367 California prevalence of, 226, 227-229, 235-236 Civil Addict Program, 209 preventive interventions, 11, 242-244, mandatory sentencing, 153 249-250n.9 Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation repeated offenses, 237 Project, 164n.4, 353n.2 research needs, 236 Canada sexual, 3, 8, 69, 109, 110, 111, 223, elder abuse survey, 229 228-229, 231, 235, 240 homicide rates, 54 sexual, and adult violence, 9, 110, 112, Native Americans in, 199 409 Special Committee on Pornography and sexual, consequences of, 236 Prostitution, 111 sexual, interventions, 113, 330 violent crime rates, 3, 53-54, 146-147 sexual, research needs, 126, 340 Cancer sibling assault, 221, 223, 230 as cause of death, 65, 67 social constructions of, 3, 221, 223, 406, research, 34-35, 345, 346 409 Capital punishment, 36 socioeconomic status and, 7, 10, 106, Cats, 125, 192 235-236, 366, 384, 385 Census Bureau, 46, 48, 248-249n.1, therapeutic services, 245, 248, 249n.8 249n.2, 426 Child Abuse and Prevention and Treat- Centers for Disease Control, 1, 337 ment Act (1988), 227 Center for Environmental Health and Child care, 135 Injury Control, 351

INDEX 444 Children. school violence, 1, 57, 370 See also Adolescents; sex-role socialization, 110-111, 164n.1 Child abuse in single-parent households, 222, 223 aggressiveness, antecedents of, 105-106, social learning, 104, 106, 302 108, 156, 358, 364, 365-366, 367, 369 social-level influences on, 136 aggressiveness, correlation with adult violence, intergenerational transmission, violence, 7, 35-36, 103-104, 196, 10-11, 239, 368 197, 358 violence toward parents, 230 aggressiveness, in development of vio- violence prevention interventions in, 13, lence potential, 358, 359, 360, 22, 114, 127, 149, 300, 307, 361-362, 363-364, 379-380 343-344,384-391 aggressiveness, genetic influences, 117 Chinese gangs, 143 aggressiveness, and peer rejection, 105, Cholesterol levels, 125 107, 369-370 Chromosomal syndromes, 9, 110, 117, 118 aggressiveness, preventive interven- Cirrhosis deaths, 209 tions, 8, 22, 107-109, 124, 125-126, Cities, 382. 163, 319, 328, 329-330, 384-394 See also individual cities aggressiveness, research needs, effects of violence on, 16, 135 380-381, 382 gang activities in, 139, 140, 143, 144 antisocial personality in, 359 homicide rates in, 3, 50, 51, 83, 305 brain dysfunctions, 12, 13, 22, 125 poverty in, 132, 134-135, 136 delinquency, 106, 116 riots in, ix development of violence potential, 101, victimization risks in, 61, 147-148 298, 302, 304, 305 violent crime rates in, 4, 17, 79, 81-83, drug-abuse preventive interventions, 84-88 205, 207 Clonidine, 120, 192, 206, 333 firearm deaths, 267 Cocaine use. foster care, 241, 243 See also Crack cocaine head injuries, 12, 13, 22, 102, 127, 304, abuse treatment, 208 328 behavioral effects, 197-198 hyperactivity, 124-125 and economic crimes, 201 lead poisoning, 12, 13, 124, 127, 329 emotional effects, 197 maternal substance abuse and, 13, 102, in family violence, 237 124, 127, 329 in homicide offenders, 188 multicommunity longitudinal study pro- illegal markets, 204, 305 posal, 156, 157, 158, 160, 162, 163 neurochemical effects, 120 parental rearing of, 106, 107, 157, 367 in pregnancy, 13, 124 pharmacological interventions, 127 and violent behavior, 13, 22, 182, 187, predictors of adult violence in, 7-8, 191, 194, 329 103-104, 105-106, 112 Cognitive-behavioral interventions, 8, 22, protective factors against violence, 7, 8, 125, 163, 328, 329-330, 384, 385-386 107, 365, 366, 372-373, 382 Cognitive-behavioral theories, 379-380 pubertal development, 118-119, 371-372 Cognitive deficits, 364-365 school failure, 12, 14, 105, 304, 358, Collective violence, ix, xii, 2, 36 370, 384 Community-level factors school-failure prevention, 125-126, 163, city size and violent crime, 79-88 330, 384, 390, 394 community transition, 14, 22, 329, 334

INDEX 445 cultural, 16, 136-138, 143-144, 145 genetic influences, 116-117 ethnic status and, 15, 133 measurements of, 2-3, 45-46 firearm policies, 270, 280-281 neurochemical influences, 121 gang activity, 137, 143-145 perinatal trauma and, 364, 365 illegal markets and, 15, 16, 137, 143, poverty and, 131 204-205 protective factors and, 372-373 influences on violent behavior, 14-15, records of sex offenders, 110 101-102, 133-134, 305-306, 357 research needs, 139, 337-338, 348-349 poverty, 15, 131-133 in schools, 155, 370 research needs, 139, 145, 157, 162-163, series victimizations, 46-47, 423-425 211-212, 338 social constructions of, 36, 43, 47 victimization risks, 147 social processes and, 129 violence prevention interventions, 206, and violent behavior, 106 209-210 violent offenders and, 359, 376, 381 Concentration, 7, 105, 358 weapon use in, 55-57 Conditional probabilities, 416-418 Crime, violent Conduct disorder, 13, 103, 359, 361, 366, alcohol use and, 185, 189 389 city size and, 79-88 Conflict Tactics Scale, 227 community characteristics and, 15, Connecticut 133-134, 162 bias crimes law, 407 community culture and, 16, 136-138, mandatory arrest law, 407 305-306 Convenience stores, 151, 315-317, 323n.10 costs of, 4-5, 59-61, 92 Costs in criminal careers, 5-6, 76, 373-378 of firearm violence, 256, 279 data collection on, 43-50, 90-92, 92nn.2 of research, 344, 345-346, 353n.4 and 4, 93n.8, 418-423, 426-427 social, 345-346, 348 drug market interventions and, 209-210, of violent crime, 4-5, 59-60, 90-91, 92, 333-334 345 drug use and, 185-187, 208, 410 Counseling programs, 333 economic violence, 201-202 Crack cocaine in families, 221, 407 and economic crimes, 201-202 firearm interventions and, 267-268, and gang violence, 17, 204 270-271, 275-280 and homicide rates, 187-188, 305 firearm self-defense in, 265-266, 276 illegal markets, 201-202, 204, 205 firearm use in, 255-256, 262, 265 research needs, 13, 207, 211 foster care placement and, 243 and violent behavior, 194, 204, 205, 333 gangs and, 16-17 Crime, nonviolent historical trends, 50-51 alcohol use and, 184 injuries from, 59, 60 attempted and completed, 55-57 international comparisons, 52-54 black-on-black, 138 interventions, evaluation of, 307-308 career criminals, 76 lethality of, 60-61 environmental interventions and, mass media and, xii, 42 148-149 measurements of, 2-3, 404-406, 411-414 firearms used in, 18-19, 260, 269, National Youth Survey reports, 344-345 282n.2, 331, 337-338 nonfatal, 4, 49, 53, 67-68 gangs and, 143

INDEX 446 offender demographics, 5, 71-76, national systems, 43-46, 49-50 414-416 recommendations, 88-92, 335-336 offender-victim relationships, 76-79 reverse-record checks, 48, 419-420, pornography and, xii-xiii 426, 427n.4 poverty and, 131-132, 133 subnational, 49 prison terms for, 6, 289, 291-296, 343 Date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 proportion of all crime, 3, 54 Day care centers, 235, 237 research needs, 57, 279-280 Death, 2 series victimizations, 423-425 accidental, 4 sexual, 8-9, 53, 55, 408-409 demographic mortality rates, 259 social constructions of, 2-3, 47, natural causes, 4 221-222, 406-410 violent behavior and, 125 social processes and, 14-17, 129 years of potential life lost, 65, 94n.14 socioeconomic structure and, 15-16 Death, violent, 1, 33. U.S. rates of, 3-4, 50, 52-55 See also Homicide victimization risks, 4, 67-71, 416-418 accidental, 64-65 Crime Control Theory Program, 313 alcohol abuse and, 199 Criminal justice system, 6 of children, 227-228, 267 data collection, 35, 37 costs of, 60, 353n.4 domestic violence interventions, 22-23, data collection on, 43 247, 329, 335 firearms and lethality, 18, 256, 259, 260, incarceration policies, 295 263, 268, 274, 279 research needs, 381 gender and victimization risk, 234-235 Criminal law, 36-37, 222, 406, 409, 418 guns in the home and, 267 Criminals. homicide as cause of, 64-65, 66 See also Offenders justifiable homicides, 67, 282n.6 brain abnormalities, 123 lethality of crimes, 60-61 career, 5-6, 76, 342, 373-378, 415-416 manslaughter, 32, 72, 73, 82 childhood sexual victimization, 112 military, 67, 94n.15, 135-136 children of, 368 mortality statistics, 43, 45, 46 in community culture, 16 motor vehicle accidents, 65, 66, 67, 209, deterrence and, 313 271 firearm use, 22, 264-265, 332 of police officers, 267 Criminology, 17, 145, 363 research needs, 24, 337 Cultural influences, 14, 143-144, 198-200, suicide as cause of, 64-65, 66, 267 303-304 unintentional, 36, 267 Custodian/ward violence, xii, 17, 24, 331, “Defensible space," 148 337, 341, 407 Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 119, 164n.3 D Deinstitutionalization, 241 Dallas, Tex., 85 Delinquency, 348-349. Data collection, 104-105 See also Adolescents costs of, 344 interventions and, 388 on development of violence potential, juvenile, 37, 345 381, 382 perinatal trauma and, 364 on family violence, 224, 405 poverty and, 131 limitations of, 36-37, 46-48, 129, protective factors, 372-373 404-405, 417 and violent behavior, 106, 381 multicommunity longitudinal study pro- posal, 157-160, 342-343, 344

INDEX 447 Denmark, 364 National Youth Survey reports, 345 Depression, 10-11, 197, 238-239, 362 in pregnancy, 13, 127, 158 Deterrence, 307, 322n.1 psychosocial links with violence, 195, of family violence, 313-314, 407 196, 197 incarceration and, 291, 293-294, 343 research needs, 206-207, 211-212 of spouse assault, 11, 244-245, 246 social-level links with violence, two-clerk ordinance and, 315-316, 317 197-198, 203-205, 304 Detroit, Mich. treatment interventions, 208-209, homicide rates, 188 211-212, 246, 248, 307, 334 poverty in, 134 urinalysis testing, 208, 212n.1 robbery incidence, 85 and victimization risks, 13, 191 Developmental interventions, 205, 207 and violent behavior, 11, 12, 13-14, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men- 332-333 tal Disorders (DSM-III-R), 103, 348 and violent crime, 185-187, 208, 410 Diet, 116, 124-125 Drug Enforcement Agency, xii Divorce, 135, 147, 223 Drug markets, illegal Domestic violence. See Family violence and economic crimes, 201-202, 410 Dopamine and gang violence, 17, 137, 143, 204 and aggressive behavior, 115, 119, 120, police intervention in, 22, 206, 209-210, 339 211-212, 328-329, 331, 334 receptor blocking drugs, 192, 194, 206, preventive interventions, 148 334, 340 violence in, xii, 14, 17, 18, 200, Drug abuse. 202-203, 205, 207, 333-334, 410 See also Pharmacological interventions Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, and aggressive behavior, 183, 191, 192, 184, 186, 188 193, 194, 195, 197 Due process rights, 294 animal studies of, 191, 192, 193, 195, 206 biological interventions, 205, 206-207, E 329, 333, 334 Earlscourt Social Skills Group Program, biological links with violence, 182-183, 386 191-195 Economic opportunity, 15-16, 134-135, blacks and, 138 144-145, 303, 305 developmental interventions, 205, 207, Economic violence, 201-202 332 Ecuador, homicide rates, 53 in development of violence potential, 363 Education Development Center, Inc., 318 dopamine receptor stimulation, 120, Eisenhower Commission, xii 192, 194 Elder abuse, 221, 229-230, 240 and economic crimes, 200-202 Electric shock therapies, 9, 113 emotional effects of, 197 Emergency medical treatment, 426-427 family influences of, 160, 197, 237 Emotional abuse, 228-229 federal policy, 182 Emotional trauma, 59, 60 federal research funding, 348, 350 Employment opportunity, 14, 15-16, 144, and homicide rates, 185, 187-188, 200, 244 201 Endocrine mechanisms, 183, 189-190, 363 incarceration interventions, 205-206, 208 Environmental influences, 117, 147-151, inhibition of aggression and violence, 305-306, 365, 379 13, 191, 192, 195

INDEX 448 "Environmental management," 149 socioeconomic conditions and, 106, Environmental toxins, 329 304, 384 Epilepsy, 9, 110, 122 urban exodus, 16 Ethnic status Family law, 222 and community disruption, 131, 133 Family violence. cultural norms, 143-144, 303 See also Child abuse; data collection on, 48, 90 Spouse assault and development of violence potential, alcohol and drug use and, 10-11, 14, 357, 369 197, 237, 332-333, 419 and gang violence, 143 assaults, 10, 228, 231-234, 249n.6 and homicide victimization risk, 4, 14, data collection, 23, 47, 48, 88, 92, 222, 50-51, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 129-130, 224, 225-230, 249n.7, 336, 419 132, 257-259 depression and, 10-11, 238-239 offender-victim relations, 77 elder abuse, 221, 229-230, 240 and poverty, 15-16, 132-133, 134, 144, emotional abuse, 228-229 369 explanations of, 239-242 and violence victimization risks, 4, 14, family income and, 235-236 68, 69-70, 90, 352 federal research support, 351, 352 of violent offenders, 5, 64, 71, 72, 77, firearm use in, 261-262, 267 93-94n.13, 338 homicides, 10, 226, 231, 234-235 Ethology, xii-xiii injuries in, 225, 235-236, 237-238 Eugenics, 127 intergenerational transmission of, 10-11, Evaluation research, 6-7, 19, 23-24, 289, 60, 239, 368, 369 296-298, 306-310, 319-322, 336 locations of, 249n.4 case studies, 310-319 preventive interventions, 11, 242-248, Evidentiary restrictions, 294 311-314, 315, 407 psychological consequences of, 10, 37, F 238-239 Families. racial differences in, 10, 235 See also Family violence recommendations, 22-23, 231, 236, 237, contribution to community characteris- 335, 336 tics, 132, 133, 135 repeated attacks, 223-224, 236-237, definitions of, 222, 248-249n.1 250n.13 and development of individual violence reporting of, 10, 47, 224-225, 229, potential, 10-11, 357, 358, 367-369, 249n.5, 249-250n.9 380-381 research needs, 225, 236, 237 and development of sex offenders, 110 sexual abuse, 10, 221, 223, 224, 229, income, 7-8, 107, 358, 372 231, 235, 236, 241 in multicommunity longitudinal study sibling assaults, 221, 223, 230 proposal, 160, 162 social constructions of, 47, 48, 221-223, in poverty, 14, 15-16 407 predictors of violence in, 7-8, 105, 358 social isolation and, 10, 241-242 preventive interventions in, 127, 384 social learning and, 240-241 protective factors, 8, 107, 372, 373 and suicide risks, 238 research needs, 380-381 victimization risks, 223, 230-237 responses to aggressive behavior, 117 women as victims of, 10, 225, 230, 231, single-parent households, 133-134, 135, 234-235, 237-238 222, 223 social learning of violence in, 101, 104, 106-107

INDEX 449 Federal agencies, research support, 25-26, prenatal care, 12, 307, 338, 365, 383, 394 345-352 testosterone levels and, 9, 118-119, 330 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and violence potential, 298, 330, 364-365 408, 412. Firearms, 17. See also Uniform Crime Reports See also Assault weapons; Federal Gun Control Act (1968), 271, Handguns 273, 277 availability and violence, 267-268, Felony murder, 268, 427n.1 278-279, 304 Females crack epidemics and, 305 adolescent development, 371-372 data collection on, 256, 263, 264, alcohol use, 196 265-266, 279 arrestee drug use, 186 in domestic disputes, 261-262, 267 child abuse victimization risks, 10, 235 in drug-trade violence, 410 drug use, 203 gun control laws, 255, 268, 269, elder abuse of, 230 271-274, 275, 278-279, 280 fetal development of, 118-119 homicide mortality risks, 256, 267 firearm self-defense, 264, 276 household ownership of, 53, 256, 264, homicide victimization risks, 10, 64, 65, 266-267, 268, 283n.8 69, 79, 234-235, 261 illegal markets, 18, 22, 203, 255, 269-270 life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 illegal markets, intervention in, 19, 22, male attitudes toward, 9-10, 110-111, 255, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 114, 164n.1, 240, 340 280-281, 328-329, 331 pregnancy, substance abuse in, 13, 102, lethality of injuries from, 18, 260-264, 124, 125, 158 277-278, 280, 332 pregnancy interventions, 127, 329, 365, mandatory sentencing laws, 275-276, 394 292-293, 314-315 prostitution, 186 recommendations, 22, 328-329 reporting of crimes, 47, 69, 85, 408, research needs, 279-281, 332, 337-338 409, 420, 421, 422-423 theft of, 18-19, 269 sexual abuse victimization risks, 10, 69, use in homicides, 255, 256-259, 260, 77, 203, 235, 240 268, 269, 277, 281-282n.1 social constructions of assault against, 3, use in self-defense, 263, 264-267, 276, 47, 303, 340, 407, 408-409, 420 279, 281, 282nn.5 and 6, 282-283n.7 spousal abuse of, 10, 47, 69, 225, 231, use in suicide, 24, 259, 267-268, 278, 337 234-235, 237-238, 244, 261, 369 use in violent crime, 18-19, 255-256, violence prevention interventions, 9-10, 260, 261, 262-263, 264-265, 266, 114, 245-246, 276, 330, 340, 389, 407 268, 269, 270, 276, 279, 282n.2 violent crime arrests, 72 violence prevention interventions, 19, violent victimization risks, 10, 68-69, 151, 255, 270-279, 328-329, 417 80, 231, 262 Firearms Control Act (Washington, D.C., Feminist theory, 240 1977), 274, 278 Fetal development, 115 "Flight or fight" syndrome, 120 damage-prevention interventions, 125, Florida, 316 163, 383-384, 394 mandatory sentencing law, 314-315 nervous system, 101, 298, 364-365 Food and Drug Administration, 306

INDEX 450 Forum on Youth Violence in Minority Glucocorticoids, 115, 339 Communities, 270, 280-281 Gun control laws, 255, 271, 273-274, Foster care, 241, 243 275-276, 278-279, 280, 307 Frustration-aggression theory, 378 H G Hallucinogens, 194-195, 197 Gainesville, Fla., 151 Handguns, 332. two-clerk ordinance, 315-317, 323n.10 See also Firearms Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) gun control laws and, 269, 274, 277, and aggressive behavior, 115, 119, 121, 278, 280 339 household ownership of, 53, 256 GABA/benzodiazepine receptor com- and mortality rates, 18, 53 plex blocking medication, 190, 206, use in homicides, 260, 269 333, 340 Hartford, Conn., environmental manage- receptors for alcohol, 121, 302 ment experiment, 148-149 Gangs Hate Crimes Statistics Act (1990), 78, 91, alcohol use, 199 408 and drug trade, 17, 137, 143, 204 Head injury and prison violence, 152 and aggressive behavior, 12, 13, and school violence, 155 123-124, 158 use of firearms, 264 preventive interventions, 22, 127, 160, violence prevention interventions, 22, 328 329, 334 risks for, 102, 304 violent behaviors, 16-17, 102, 129, Head Start, 108 139-145 Healthy People 2000, 351 Gender. Heart disease, 65, 67, 345 See also Females; Heart rates, 123, 339, 365-366 Males Heroin use, 187, 208 and alcohol and aggression, 190, 196, 211 and violent behavior, 191, 192 and development of violence potential, and violent crime, 201 357 withdrawal medications, 205, 206, 333 and homicide victimization risks, 50, Hispanics, 90, 385 64, 65, 66, 69, 77, 79, 234 community cultures, 16, 143, 144 of violent offenders, 5, 72, 77, 93-94n.13 gangs, 199 and violent victimization risks, 4, 68, 69 single-parent families, 222 General Accounting Office (GAO), 273 violent victimization risks, 4, 48-49, Genetic influences 69-70, 129 and alcoholism, 117, 191 Home nurse visitation, 243-244 and antisocial personality, 11, 116, 191, Homicide 207 age of offenders, 72, 73, 93-94n.13 chromosomal syndromes, 9, 110, 117, age and victimization risks, 62-63, 64, 118 94n.15, 256-257 and juvenile delinquency, 116 alcohol use and, 184, 185 and psychopathy, 360 Canadian rates of, 3, 54 research needs, 211 of children, 10, 227-228, 234 and sexual violence, 126 city size and, 82, 83 and violent behavior, 11-12, 115, in commission of other crimes, 61, 201, 116-118, 183 261, 416, 427n.1 Gentrification, 15, 134, 138 conditional probabilities and, 416-417

INDEX 451 in criminal careers, 375 years of potential life lost, 65, 94n.14 data collection, 43, 45, 46, 55, 60-61, Homosexuals, 110 226, 412, 413, 415 child molestation, 113 developmental factors and, 359, 362, 381 hate crimes against, 78 diversity of, 2, 31-32, 35, 411 Hormonal mechanisms drug interventions and, 210 aggression research on, 115, 118-119, drug-related, 185, 187-188, 194, 200, 372 201, 203, 410 biological markers, 160, 339 ethnic and socioeconomic status interac- interactions in violent behavior, 102, 363 tions, 70, 129-130, 131, 132 in sexual violence, 110, 119, 126 ethnic status of offenders, 71 Hospital emergency departments, 246 ethnic status and victimization risks, 4, Housing, risk factors for violence, 14, 14, 50-51, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 70, 132, 133, 147-148 129-130, 257-259 Houston, Tex., 85 in families, 10, 79, 226, 231, 234, 267 violent crime studies, 132 federal research support, 349-350, 352 Hyperactivity, 7, 105, 124-125, 361, firearms in commission of, 255, 364-365, 366-367 256-259, 260, 261, 267-268, Hypoglycemia, 116, 121, 124, 190 281-282n.1, 283n.8 firearms-interventions and, 18, 255, I 268, 269, 270-271, 275-276, 277, Illegal markets, 15 278-280, 417 contribution to violence, 14, 16, 18, 162, gender of offenders, 72 202 gender and victimization risks, 50, 64, drugs, and economic crimes, 201-202, 65, 66, 69, 77, 79, 234 410 historical trends, 50-51 drugs, and gang violence, 137, 143, 204 international rates of, 52-53 drugs, intervention in, 22, 148, 206, justifiable, 67, 282n.6 209-210, 211-212, 328-329, 331, 334 mandatory sentencing laws and, drugs, violence in, x, 14, 17, 18, 200, 314-315, 323n.8 202-203, 205, 207, 333-334, 410 military, 135-136 firearms, 18, 22, 203, 255, 269-270 occupational, 151 firearms, intervention in, 19, 22, 255, offender-victim relationships, 5, 77, 79, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 280-281, 80, 226, 415 328-329, 331 proportion of violent crime, 55, 61 in prisons, 152 psychopathy and, 112-113 Immigrants, 50, 143, 144, 199 serial murders, 5, 64, 261 Impulsivity, 7, 105, 357, 358, 364-365, in sexual violence, 23, 109, 112-113, 336 366-367 single victim-single offender, 64, 93n.12 Incapacitation, 291-294, 307, 323nn.3 and social structures and, 305 7 socioeconomic status and victimization Incarceration. risks, 14, 70, 129-130 See also Arrest; of spouses, 10, 69, 234-235, 368 Prisons U.S. rates of, 1, 3-4, 50, 52-53, 54, blacks and, 138 64-65, 83 and career criminals, 76 victim-precipitated, 142 of drug-using offenders, 205-206, 208 women's shelters and, 22-23, 329

INDEX 452 incapacitation and deterrence, 289, Kansas City, Mo., drug market interven- 291-294, 307, 323nn.3 and 7, 343 tion, 210 mandatory sentences, 152-153, 275-276, Kenesaw, Ga., gun-ownership require- 314-315, 323nn.3 and 7 ment, 276 and partner assault, 246 Kerner Commission, ix preemptive, 127 King County, Wash., gunshot deaths, 267 Incest, 221, 223 Knives, in violent crime, 260, 263, 264, 280 Income, 94n.17. Korean War, 67 See also Socioeconomic status and child abuse, 7-8, 10, 235-236 L and childhood aggression, 105, 107, Labor racketeering, xii 358, 372, 392 Larceny, 54, 55, 58, 62, 92n.4, 93n.6 gangs and, 142 Lawrence, Mass., drug market interven- and victimization risks, 70, 146 tion, 210 and violent crime, 14, 15 Lead poisoning, 12, 13, 124, 125, 127, 329 Indian Health Service, 70 Lee, Spike, 304 Industrial conflict, ix Lethality Infant birthweights, 22, 105, 135, 328, data collection, 60-61 383, 384 of firearm injuries, 260-263, 280 Infant mortality, 93-94n.13 reduction interventions, 149-151, Injuries, 59, 60. 277-278, 281, 332 See also Head injury research needs, 24, 332, 337 in assaults, 57, 58, 59, 62, 69, 422 Life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 in child abuse, 235-236 Life-skills training, 9, 113 and crime reporting, 422 Limbic system, 122, 123, 339, 366 in family violence, 225, 237-238 Lithium therapy, 121 firearms and, 18, 260-264, 277-278, Loan-sharking, 18, 202 280, 332 Los Angeles, Calif. Injury surveillance systems, 412 gangs in, 17, 144 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 208, 209 homicide rates in, 188 Intelligence quotient (IQ) robbery in, 85 and childhood aggression, 7, 8, 105, school-based drug intervention, 207 106, 107 Luteinizing hormone, 119 and development of violence potential, Lynn, Mass., 210 357, 358, 367, 372, 373 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 13, International Crime Victim Survey, 53 191, 194, 195 Intrapersonal violence, xii Irvine, Calif., 83 M MacArthur Foundation, 349, 350 J Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 123 Jail. See Incarceration; Prisons Males Jersey City, N.J., drug market interven- adolescent development, 118-119, tion, 210 371-372 Juvenile justice system, 37, 381 age and victimization, 64, 68-69 Juvenile violence, 362, 377 age and violent offending, 5, 72 alcohol and violence in, 190, 196, K 198-199

INDEX 453 attitudes toward women, 9-10, 110-111, Medication. See Pharmacological interven- 114, 164n.1, 240, 340 tions brain abnormalities in sex offenders, Men. See Males 122-123 Mental hospitals, 407 child abuse victimization, 10, 368 Mental illness, 112-113, 238, 345, 348, child molester therapy, 113 351, 352 development of violence potential in, Mental retardation, 9, 106, 110 357-358, 368, 372, 380 Methadone, 206, 334 domestic assaults by, 225, 231, 240 Methedrine, 197 domestic violence interventions and, Mexican immigrants, 144 244, 246 Miami, Fla. drug abuse in, 186 gangs in, 17 ethnic status and victimization, 62, 63, homicide rates in, 188 64, 65, 70, 77 Mice, 118, 194, 196 firearm victimization risks, 256, Michigan, mandatory sentencing law, 314 257-259, 262, 279, 281-282n.1 Middle class, 135 homicide victimization risks, 10, 62-63, Military deaths, 67, 94n.15, 135-136 64, 65, 69, 70, 79, 80, 234 Milwaukee, Wis. life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 domestic violence experiment, 237, 311, reporting of assaults, 421, 422 313 sexual abuse victims, 10, 94n.16 Minneapolis, Minn. sexual offenders, 24, 77, 111, 409 domestic violence experiment, 244, 308, sexual violence interventions, 113, 114, 311, 313, 407 340 robbery in, 17, 145 social constructions of, 420 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index, spousal homicide by, 69, 234, 368 367 spousal violence victims, 231 Minorities. See Ethnic status violence prevention interventions, 389, Monkeys, 118, 194, 196 409 Monoamine metabolism, 121 violent crime arrestees, 72 Monoamine oxidase (MAO), 121, 339 violent victimization risks, 61, 146 Montgomery County, Md., bias crimes in, young blacks, 4, 18, 61, 63, 64, 256, 78 257-259, 269, 279, 418 Motor vehicle deaths, 65, 66, 67, 209, 271 Mandatory arrest, 247, 407 Motor vehicle theft, 55, 62, 92n.4 Mandatory sentences, 152-153, 275-276, Multicommunity longitudinal research 314-315, 323nn.3 and 7 program, 21, 25, 40, 156-164, 327, Manslaughter, 32, 72, 73, 82 341-345 Marijuana, 13, 191, 194, 195, 207, 237 Murder. See Homicide Marital rape, 223, 407 Marital status, 68, 70, 222, 234 N Marital violence. See Spouse assault National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 1 Maryland, bias crimes law, 407 National Advisory Commission on Civil Massachusetts Disorders (Kerner Commission), ix gun control law, 275 National Association of Convenience homicide rates in, 83 Stores, 151, 316-317 Mass media, xii-xiii, 42, 62, 63, 104, 143, National Center for Child Abuse and 163 Neglect, 228 Mass murders, 64 National Center for Health Statistics Medical examiner's reports, 412 (NCHS), 2, 43, 45, 90, 412 Medical treatment, 37, 60, 92, 426-427

INDEX 454 National Commission on the Causes and Crime Control Theory Program, 313 Prevention of Violence (Eisenhower domestic violence experiments, 244, Commission), xii, 221 311, 313 National Commission on Law Observance Drug Market Analysis Program, 210 and Enforcement (Wickersham National Institute of Mental Health Commission), xii (NIMH), 229, 351-352 National Crime Survey (NCS) National Institute on Occupational Safety age limit, 2, 43, 45, 418 and Health (NIOSH), 151 assault counts, 45, 48, 55, 59, 68, 231, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 346 234, 249n.6, 413, 426 National Prisoner Statistics, 414 bias crimes counts, 78 National Research Council (NRC), xi, costs of data collection, 353n.4 207, 209 discrepancies with UCR data, 45, 46, Committee on National Urban Policy, 48, 54-55, 67-68, 93n.9, 413-414 134 ethnic status data, 48-49, 77, 90, 422 National Science Foundation (NSF), xi, 1, family violence counts, 10, 47, 48, 226, 345, 349, 350-351 231, 234, 236, 246, 335, 405, 419, 420 National Youth Survey (NYS), 187, firearm use data, 264, 265-266, 279, 344-345 282n.4 Native Americans, 129 injury data, 59, 91, 92-93n.5, 93n.10, 264 alcohol use and violence, 198-199 methodology, 2, 43, 44, 45, 46, 92nn.2 assault arrests, 71 and 4, 93n.9, 265, 412-413, 418-420, data collection on, 48-49, 90 423, 427-428n.7 homicide victimization risks, 4, 62-63, 70 offender data, 48, 414, 415 Nervous system, 302 recommendations, 90, 91, 246, 335 alcohol and, 190 robbery counts, 57, 59, 68, 155, 413 autonomic, 128, 161 series-victimization counts, 46-47, central, 190, 364-365 250n.13, 423-425 development of, 101, 102, 364-365 sexual violence counts, 47-48, 68, drug use and, 13, 191, 192, 193 92n.1, 94n.16, 409, 419, 427n.3 markers for violent behavior, 12, 123, 339 socioeconomic status measurements, 70, Netherlands, assault rates in, 53 94n.17 Neuroanatomical abnormalities, 115, violent crime counts, 3, 43-45, 54, 55, 121-122 56, 61-62, 67-68, 420 Neurobiologic processes National Gay and Lesbian Task Force alcohol and drug influences, 12, Policy Institute, 408 182-183, 190-191, 302 National Hospital Discharge Survey, 412 animal studies, 12-13, 128 National Incidence Survey (NIS), interactions in violent behavior, 11, 228-229, 235, 242 12-13, 101, 102, 304 National Incident Based Reporting Sys- markers for violent behavior, 12, 24, tem (NIBRS), 412, 413, 415 161, 337, 339 National Institute on Alcoholism and pharmacological interventions, 12, 340 Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA), 347 preventable abnormalities, 12, 115 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), research needs, 12, 24, 25, 211, 337, 347 339, 343 National Institute of Education (NIE), Neurochemical mechanisms, 12, 183, 194 155-156 Neuroendocrine functioning, 12, 158 National Institute of Justice (NIJ), xi, 1, 318, 337, 347, 349-350

INDEX 455 Neuropeptides, 115 criminal careers, 5, 76, 373-378 Neurophysiological processes, 12, 128 data collection on, 45, 48, 49, 71, 411, abnormalities, 110, 115, 122-123 414-416 markers for violent behavior, 123 demographic characteristics of, 61, 71-72 Neuropsychological deficits, 123 development of violence potential, Neuroticism, 367 359-360, 362, 366-367, 368, 370 Neurotoxins, 12, 102 ethnic status of, 5, 64, 71, 72, 77, Neurotransmitters and receptors, 115, 93-94n.13, 338 119-121, 128, 164n.2, 192, 339 family violence, 10, 223-224, 225, 237, Newark, N.J., 134 367 New Orleans, La., homicide victimization firearm use, 261, 262, 263 study, 130 gender of, 5, 72, 77, 93-94n.13 New York, N.Y. homicide, 64, 69, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 80 drug interventions in, 207, 210 incarceration and, 6 drug-related crime in, 200, 201, 202, 205 juvenile, 377 drug use in, 188 multiple offenders, 5, 45 gangs in, 17 perinatal trauma in, 364-365 gun control and handgun murders, 269, relationships with victims, 5, 48, 76-79, 277 80, 421 homicides in, 31-32, 188, 200, 201, 411 serial killers, 5, 64, 261 poverty in, 134 sexual, 9-10, 109-115, 126 robbery in, 85, 149 spouse abuse, 368-369 Victim Services Agency, 245 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin- New York Times, 31 quency Prevention, 349 Nicotine, 125 Office of Vital Statistics, 412 Noradrenergic receptors, 192 Ohio, homicide victimization study, 130 Norepinephrine Omaha, Neb., domestic violence experi- and aggressive and violent behavior, ment, 245, 311 115, 119, 120, 339 Operation Triggerlock, 276 receptor blocking drugs, 120, 192, 194, Operation Weed and Seed, 281 206, 334 Opiate use, 182 Norway, anti-bullying program, 391 inhibition of aggression, 13, 191, 192-193, 197 O in pregnancy, 124 Oakland, Calif. and violent victimization risk, 13 drug market intervention, 210 withdrawal medications, 22, 192, 329 school-failure reduction program, 108, Opioid peptides, 115, 192 390 Oregon State Hospital, 209 Offenders. See also Criminals Organized crime, xii, 305 age of, 72, 377, 393 Orlando, Fla., antirape program, 276 alcohol use, 198 arrest population and, 71 P behavioral treatment of, 9 "Paradoxical rage," 121 bias crimes, 77-78 Parent training, 108, 125, 329-330, 388-390 child abuse, 48, 368 Participate and Learn Skills project, 387 childhood personalities of, 7, 366-367 Partner assault. See Spouse assault co-offenders, 5, 75-76

INDEX 456 Peer rejection, 105, 107, 108, 119, 369-370 responses to spouse assault, 11, Pennsylvania 244-245, 247, 248, 335 bias crimes law, 407 sexual violence reports to, 85, 224, 421, mandatory sentencing law, 314 422-423 Peptides, 339 spouse assault reports to, 224, 420 Perpetrators. See Offenders UCR reports, 43, 45, 46, 47-48, 49, 54, Personality disorders, 112-113, 196, 197, 67-68, 413, 423 238, 366-367 use of excessive force, 350 antisocial personality disorder, 11, 113, violent crime reports to, 81, 413-414, 196, 333, 359 418-423, 426, 427n.5 Phallometric measurement, 109-110, 111 Police brutality, 138 Pharmaceutical industry, 306 Population density, 14, 132, 133-134, Pharmacological interventions, 127. 147-148 See also Drug abuse Population turnover, 14, 131, 136, 147 aggressive behavior, 120, 121, 205, 206, Pornography, xii-xiii, 101, 111-112, 126, 211, 329, 333, 340 307, 340 alcohol and drug abuse, 205, 206, 211, Positron emission tomography (PET), 333, 340 123, 366 sex drive, 126, 340 Poverty. violent behavior, 12, 24, 300, 337 See also Socioeconomic status Phencyclidine (PCP), 13, 182, 191, 195, and development of violence potential, 197-198 296, 304, 369 Philadelphia, Pa. ethnic status and, 15-16, 132-133, 134, drug market intervention, 210 144, 369 robbery in, 85 and gang activity, 137, 139, 143, 144, 145 social structures, 134, 135, 136 as risk factor for violence, 70-71, 129, Physiological index of arousal, 366 131-139, 296 Pittsburgh, Pa., drug market intervention, and violent victimization risks, 70-71, 210 129, 131-139 “Plan, the," 138 Predisposing factors, 20, 296, 297, 301-302 Police, xii, 17, 265, 341 Pregnancy bias crime reports, 334, 408 alcohol and drug use in, 13, 102, 124, blacks and, 138, 268 125, 158 bullet-proofing, 151 complications, 105, 364, 365, 381 child abuse reports to, 405 drug-abuse interventions, 127, 329 drug market interventions, 22, 206, hormonal development in, 118-119 209-210, 211-212, 255, 328-329, 410 prenatal care, 12, 338, 365, 383-384, 394 drug-related incident reporting, 200 Premature birth, 304, 365 family violence interventions, 311-314, Prenatal care, 12, 338, 365, 383-384, 394 407 Prenatal development. See Fetal develop- firearm market interventions, 22, ment 328-329, 337-338 Preventive interventions, 6, 39, 328 and household gun ownership, 19, 275, adolescent violence prevention curricu- 281 lum, 317-319 international reporting, 53 alcohol abuse, 22, 207, 329, 332, 333 killed by gunfire, 267 child abuse, 11, 242-244, 249-250n.9 NIBRS reports, 412 childhood aggression, 8, 22, 107-109, property crime reports to, 54-55, 421

INDEX 457 124, 125-126, 163, 319, 328, 329-330, population increases, and violent crime 384-394 rates, 6, 208, 289, 292, 295, 323n.3, children, violence in, 13, 22, 114, 127, 343 149, 300, 307, 343-344, 384-391 sex offender relapse prevention, 353n.2 community-level, 206, 209-210 violence in, 17, 102, 124, 152-155, 407 drug abuse, 205, 207, 211-212 violence prevention interventions, 22, drug markets, 22, 148, 206, 209-210, 328 211-212, 328-329, 331, 334 violence research needs, 23, 331, 336, drug-related violence, 205-206 341 environmental, 149-151 Program on Causes and Correlates of evaluation of, 6-7, 19, 23-24, 289, Delinquency, 349 296-298, 306-310, 319-322, 336 Program on Human Development and family violence, 11, 242-248, 311-314, Criminal Behavior, 349, 350 315, 407 Prohibition, xii, 202 fetal development, 125, 163, 383-384, Property crimes 394 alcohol and drug use and, 185, 186, firearms markets, 19, 22, 255, 270, 271, 201-202 274-275, 278, 280-281, 328-329, 331 in criminal careers, 5, 76 firearm violence, 19, 151, 255, 270-279, ethnic status and, 71 328-329, 417 reduction interventions, 149 gang violence, 22, 329, 334 reporting of, 54-55, 414, 421 head injury, 22, 127, 160, 328 victimization risks, 61 incarceration, 291-296 Prosocial behavior, 8, 22, 384-385, 394 multicommunity longitudinal study pro- Prostitution, 18, 186, 202, 203 posal, 25, 159, 163 Protective factors, 8, 107, 372-373, 381, parent training, 108, 125, 329-330, 382 388-390 Psychological consequences, 59, 60, 91, pharmacological, 24, 127, 300, 340 92, 351, 352 prison violence, 22, 328 Psychological trauma, 10, 37, 114 psychosocial, 8, 11, 22, 107-109, Psychopathology, 154, 155, 367 114-115, 125-126, 295, 328, 329-330 Psychopathy, 112-113, 123, 359-360 research needs, 21, 23-24, 352 Psychophysiological factors, 339, 360, 363 robbery, 149, 151, 210, 315-317, 323n.10 Psychosis, 192, 194, 195 school-based, 22, 23, 149, 317-319, 328, Psychosocial influences 390-391 aggression and violence, 7, 35, 103-107, school failure, 125-126, 330, 384, 390, 125 394 childhood sexual abuse, 112 sexual violence, 9, 114-115, 126, 330, and development of violence potential, 331 7, 101, 102, 295, 302-303 social-level, 334, 391 drug use and violence, 195-197 spouse assault, 22-23, 237, 244-248, and family violence, 10-11 329, 334-335 interactions with biological influences, Primates, 119, 128, 189-190, 192 102, 119 Prisons. See also Incarceration mental illness and personality disorders, construction costs, 344 112-113 drug-abuse treatment, 334 in multicommunity longitudinal study inmate studies of alcohol use, 184, 185 proposal, 103, 156, 157, 160

INDEX 458 pornography, 111-112 marital rape, 223, 407 preventive interventions, 8, 11, 22, offender-victim relationships, 5, 79 107-109, 114-115, 125-126, 295, reporting of, 47-48, 68, 85, 408, 414, 328, 329-330 419-420, 421, 422-423 protective factors, 8 research needs, 126, 340, 350 research needs, 12, 24, 337 in schools, 155 risk factors, 7-8, 20, 103, 105-106, 107, series victimizations, 424, 425, 428n.8 159, 296, 297, 300 sexual preferences and activities of sex-role socialization, 110-111 offenders, 111, 112 and sexual violence, 8-9, 24, 109-113 social construction of, 408 sexual violence interventions, 9-10, U.S. rates of, 3, 53, 54, 68, 69 113-115, 126, 340-341 victim interventions, 115 social learning, 104, 106 victimization risks, 69, 146 socioeconomic status and, 7 Rats, 189, 194, 196 treatment interventions, 113-114 Recidivism, 311-313, 314 Psychotherapy, 246, 369 Recommendations Puberty, 110, 371-372 alcohol and drug abuse, 22-23, 329, Public education, 271, 275, 281, 332 332-334 Public health system, 17, 38, 108, 145, bias crime intervention, 22, 329, 334 149, 150, 308, 351 biological and psychosocial develop- Public housing, 139, 147-148, 307 ment, 22, 205, 206, 328, 329-330 Public policy, 38 data collection, 21, 23-24, 88-92, data deficiencies and, 92 327-328, 335-336 and development of violence potential, family violence, 22-23, 231, 236, 237, 394 335, 336 drug abuse, 182 firearm violence, 22, 329, 332 evaluation of interventions, 306-307, gang activities, 22, 329, 334 309-310, 322 illegal market disruption, 22, 328-329, recommendations, 343-344 331 Public transportation, 146-147 multicommunity longitudinal study, 21, 25, 40, 103, 156-164, 327-328, R 341-345 Race. See Ethnic status problem-solving initiatives, 21-23, 327, Rape, 2. 328-329 See also Sexual violence research, 21, 24-27, 62, 236, 237, 327, age of offenders, 72, 73 337-345, 352 attempted and completed, 57, 58 robbery interventions, 22, 328, 331 city size and, 82, 83-85 sexual violence, 22, 23, 24, 328, 331, 336 co-offenders, 5, 75 spouse assault, 22-23, 237, 246-248, costs of, 4, 60, 345 329, 334-335 in criminal careers, 375 Recreational violence, 261 data collection, 43-45, 47-48, 55, 68, Relapse prevention therapy, 9, 113, 126, 92n.1, 265, 411, 419, 427n.3 340, 353n.2 date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 Research needs death in, 61 aggressive behavior, 125-126, 211, 344, ethnic status of offenders, 71 364, 366, 380-381, 382, 391, 392 firearm self-defense, 265, 276 alcohol use, 211, 332-333, 348 gender of offenders, 72, 94n.16 antisocial behavior, 25, 341, 348, 381, international rates of, 53, 54 392 male attitudes toward, 9, 164n.1, 240

INDEX 459 arrest policies, 22, 329, 335 age, 4, 68-69 assaults, 24, 279, 337, 338 for aggressive behavior, 7, 156, 299, assault weapons, 279, 280 329, 365, 366 bias crimes, 91 aggressiveness as, 103, 105-106 biological factors, 125, 127-129, alcohol use, 307, 330, 333 206-207, 339 for bias crime, 91 child abuse, 236 biological, 20, 159, 296, 297 child sexual abuse, 126, 340 biological markers of, 339 cocaine use, 13, 207, 211 community characteristics, 14-15, community-level factors, 139, 145, 157, 133-134, 146, 147 162-163, 211-212, 338 conditional probabilities, 416-417 costs of research, 344, 345-346, 353n.4 for custodian-ward violence, 341 criminal justice system, 381 drug use, 13, 191 custodian-ward violence, 24, 337, 341 environmental, 146-149 drug abuse, 206-207, 211-212 ethnic status, 4, 14, 50, 65, 66, 68, evaluation research, 306, 322 69-70, 90, 129-130, 132 family violence, 225, 236, 237, 369 gender, 4, 50, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69 federal funding, 25-26, 345-352 interventions in, 23-24, 146, 296-299, firearm violence, 279-281, 332, 337-338 306, 307, 319, 330-331, 344 genetic influences, 211 IQ, 372 lethality of weapons, 24, 332, 337 matrix of, 20, 296-299, 306 multicommunity longitudinal study, 21, poverty, 70-71, 129, 131-139, 296 25, 40, 103, 156-164, 327-328, predisposing factors, 20, 296, 297, 341-345 301-302 neurobiologic processes, 12, 24, 25, psychosocial, 7-8, 20, 103, 105-106, 211, 337, 339, 343 107, 159, 296, 297, 300 nonviolent crime, 139, 337-338, 348-349 research needs, 23-24, 159, 306, 336, 337 pharmacological restraint, 24, 340 school failure, 14, 105, 304, 358, 370, 384 prison violence, 23, 331, 336, 341 for sexual violence, 330 psychosocial influences, 12, 24, 337 situational elements, 20, 296, 297, risk factors, 24, 306, 337 300-301, 330-331 robbery, 24, 57, 279, 336, 337, 338 social-level, 14-15, 20, 296, 297, 300, sexual violence, 24, 112, 126-127, 301 340-341, 350 socioeconomic status, 14, 61, 68, 70-71, social-level influences, 12, 24, 145, 337, 129-130, 131, 132, 338 338 temperament, 7, 365, 366 spouse assault, 369 triggering events, 20, 296, 297, 299-300 victims, 57, 91-92, 225 Robbery, 2, 323n.4, 411 violence potential, 380-382 age of offenders, 72, 74 violent behavior, xii, 2, 327, 352, alcohol use and, 185 380-382, 391 attempted and completed, 57, 58 violent crime, 57, 279-280 of children, 57 violent death, 24, 337 city size and, 83, 85, 86 Residential mobility, 131, 132, 133 concentration by address, 145 Reverse-record check studies, 48, convenience store, 151, 315-317, 323n.10 419-420, 426, 427n.4 co-offenders, 75-76 Riots, ix costs of, 4, 60, 345 Risk factors, 39, 289, 343 in criminal careers, 375

INDEX 460 data collection, 23, 43-45, 47, 68, 88, aggression-reduction interventions in, 92, 315, 413 108, 125, 307, 329-330, 391 deaths in, 61, 92, 151, 263, 413, bullying in, 107, 370, 391 416-417, 427n.1 desegregation of, 156 development of violence potential and, and development of violence potential, 359, 371 357, 370, 371-372, 380-381 drug use and, 186-187, 200, 201-202, failure in, as risk factor, 12, 14, 105, 203-204, 210, 410 304, 358, 370, 384 ethnic status of offenders, 71, 72 failure-reduction interventions, 125-126, firearm interventions and, 268, 275, 163, 330, 384, 390, 394 276, 278, 283n.8, 417 as risk factor, 147-148 firearm self-defense in, 261, 266, substance-abuse prevention, 207, 282-283n.7 211-212 firearm use in, 261, 262, 263, 265, 267, violence prevention interventions, 22, 279, 315 23, 149, 317-319, 328, 390-391 gender of offenders, 72 violent crime in, 1, 57, 102, 152, injuries in, 58, 59, 370, 422 155-156, 331, 336, 341 intervention recommendations, 22, 328, Scientific Advisory Committee on Televi- 331 sion and Social Behavior, xi offender-victim relationships, 5, 79 Scottsdale, Ariz., 83 preventive interventions, 149, 151, 210, Seattle, Wash., homicides in, 268 315-317, 323n.10 Self-defense reporting of, 47, 68, 413, 414, 419-420, data collection on, 265-266, 282nn.5 421, 422 and 6, 282-283n.7 research needs, 24, 57, 279, 336, 337, 338 firearm use in, 261, 263, 264-267 risk of violence in, 17 research on, 275, 276, 279, 281, 338 in schools, 155, 370 risks of firearm use in, 266-267, 279 series victimizations, 424, 425 Self-esteem, 367 television violence and, 371 Self-mutilation, xii U.S. rates of, 3, 53, 54, 55 Serial homicides, 5, 64, 261 victimization risks, 69, 146 "Series victimizations," 46-47, 423-425 Rodents, 118, 125, 189-190, 192 Serotonergic system, 121, 330, 340 Ruiz v. Estelle (Texas, 1980), 153 alcohol use and, 190, 302 Serotonin S and aggressive and violent behavior, St. Vincent's General Hospital Accident 115, 119, 120-121, 127, 128, 158, 339 and Emergency Center (Sydney), receptor blocking medications, 120, 121 426-427 Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation San Antonio, Tex., school-failure reduc- Project (SOTEP), 164n.4, 353n.2 tion program, 108, 390 Sexual violence. See also Rape San Diego, Calif., 85 alcohol use and, 9, 110, 126, 189, 330, violent crime in, 88, 89 340 San Jose, Calif., 48 behavioral interventions, 9-10, 22, reverse-record check study, 419, 420, 426 113-114, 126, 164n.4, 328, 330, 340 Schizophrenia, 362 biological influences behind, 110 Schools brain abnormalities and, 122-123

INDEX 461 childhood victimization and develop- Skills training, 381 ment, 112, 236 Skyjacking, 149 child molestation, 10, 69, 109, 112, 223, Social capital, 136, 137, 303, 306 228-229, 231, 235 Social controls, 204-205 chromosomal syndromes, 9, 110, 118 Social costs, 345-346, 348 data collection, 23, 24, 92, 224, 231, Social environment, 148, 305-306 265, 336, 427n.3 Social information processing model, date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 379-380 defined, 8, 109 Social isolation, 10-11, 134-135, 241-242, development of individual potential for, 373 102, 330, 359 Social learning drug use and, 185, 186, 203 of aggression and violence, 7, 104, 106, in family violence, 224, 241 379, 384 gender and victimization risks, 69, 77, aggressiveness-reduction interventions, 94n.16, 235 8, 107-108, 384-385, 386 homicide in, 23, 109, 112-113, 336 and male-female roles, 240 hormonal mechanisms, 9, 118, 119 Social-level influences, 102 male attitudes and, 9, 110-111, 164n.1 in alcohol use and violence, 198-200 marital rape, 223, 407 community characteristics, 14-15, mental illness and personality disorders, 133-134 112-113 community cultures, 16, 136-138, motivation in other crimes, 109 143-144, 145 offenders, other criminal behavior, 110 and development of violence potential, pharmacological interventions, 126, 340 303-306 pornography and, 9, 111-112 in drug use and violence, 197-198, preventive interventions, 9, 114-115, 200-205 126, 330, 331 ethnic status and poverty, 14, 15, 129-130 in prison, 152, 154-155 gang violence, 16-17, 139-145 psychological consequences of, 37, in multicommunity longitudinal study 114-115, 236 proposal, 103, 156, 157, 342 psychosocial influences behind, 102, poverty and, 129-139, 145, 296 109-115 and protective factors, 372 recommendations, 22, 23, 24, 328, 336 research needs, 12, 24, 145, 337, 338 reporting of, 88-90, 94n. 16, 109, 409 risk factors, 14-15, 20, 296, 297, 300, 301 research needs, 24, 112, 126-127, socioeconomic structures, 15-16, 340-341 134-136, 144-145, 305-306 in schools, 155 violence prevention interventions, 334, self-defense in, 265 391 sexual preferences and, 9, 109-110, 111 Social relationships, victim-offender, 77 social constructions of, 8, 47, 407, Social services, 37-38 408-409 Social skills training, 8, 125, 329-330, U.S. rates of, 53, 55 384, 386-388, 389 Shoplifting, 360 Socioeconomic status (SES). Sibling violence, 221, 223, 230 See also Income; Single-parent households, 133-134, 135, Poverty 222, 223 Situational elements, 20, 296, 297, 300-301, 330-331

INDEX 462 and childhood aggression, 7, 106, 366, firearm use in, 24, 259, 267-268, 278, 337 384, 385 monoamine metabolism and, 121 and domestic violence, 244 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Ill- and gang activity, 141-142 nesses, 412 and homicide victimization risks, 14, Switzerland, gun ownership in, 53 70, 129-130 and violent victimization risks, 61, 68, T 70-71, 131, 132, 338 Taxation, alcohol, 206, 209, 333 Sociopathy, 196, 207 Teachers, 405 Southland Corporation, 316 Teacher training, 389 Spain, homicide rates, 53 Television Special Committee on Pornography and prosocial behavioral promotion, 8, Prostitution in Canada, 111 107-108, 125, 329-330, 384-385 Spouse assault violence, effects on children, 7-8, 101, arrest policies and, 11, 244-245, 246, 106, 371 247, 248 Temperament development of violence potential in and development of violence potential, offenders, 359, 360, 368-369 7, 105, 357, 358, 364, 365-366, 370 federal research support, 349-350 interventions in, 384, 394 gender and victimization risks, 10, 69, as protective factor, 7, 8, 107, 373 231, 234-235 research needs, 381 homicide, 10, 69, 234-235, 368 Testosterone levels injuries from, 225, 237-238 and aggressive behavior, 115, 119, marital rape, 223 189-190, 339, 372 prevalence of, 226, 227 alcohol use and, 118, 189-190 recommendations, 22-23, 237, 246-248, in fetal development, 9, 118, 330 329, 334-335 and sexual violence, 9, 118, 330 repeated offenses, 236-237 Texas, prison reform, 153, 154 reporting of, 69, 224, 225, 420 Theft, 54, 93n.6, 377 social constructions of, 36, 47, 221, 223, attempted and completed, 58 420 of firearms, 18-19, 269 social isolation and, 241 motor vehicle, 55, 62, 92n.4 women's shelters and, 244, 245-246, 369 Tobacco use, 13, 124, 125, 207 States, 406 Treatment interventions alcohol tax rates, 209 drug abuse, 208-209, 211-212, 246, 248, bias crimes laws, 407-408 307, 334 electric shock treatment prohibitions, 9, sexual violence, 113-114, 115 113 Triggering events, 20, 296, 297, 299-300 family laws, 222, 247 gun control laws, 274 U mandatory arrest laws, 407 Unemployment, 138, 146 rape laws, 409 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) "Stay 'N Out" program, 334 alcohol-use data, 184 Steroids, 339 assault counts, 45, 68, 92-93n.5, 427 Suicide, xii, 36 bias crimes counts, 3, 78, 91, 408 death rates from, 64-65, 67 costs of data collection, 353n.4 domestic violence and, 238 discrepancies with NCS data, 45, ethnic status and, 65

INDEX 463 46, 48, 54-55, 67-68, 93n.9, 413-414 U.S. Department of Justice, 281, 349-350, ethnic status data, 90 408 family violence data, 47, 48, 226, Office of Justice Programs, 345 249n.7, 250n.12, 405, 418, 419 Urinalysis, 208, 211-212, 212n.1, 237, 334 homicide counts, 43, 45, 46, 50, 54, 61, 83, 282n.6, 412 V incident-based reporting, 91, 92n.3, 226, Vancouver, B.C., gun control laws, 268 412, 419 Vandalism, 103-104 injury data, 92-93n.5, 427 Victims, 411 methodology, 2, 43, 44, 45-46, 92n.2, age of, 4, 68-69 412-413, 423 alcohol use in, 198 offender data, 49, 414-415 bias crimes, 77-78 rape counts, 47-48, 68, 83, 92n.1 children, 10, 242, 243, 409 recommendations, 90, 91, 226 conditional probabilities and, 416-417 robbery counts, 45, 68, 315 costs of violence to, 4-5, 59-60, 90-91, series-victimization counts, 47 351, 352 Supplementary Homicide Reports, 49, data collection on, 2, 23, 45, 46, 48-49, 64, 266, 282n.6, 413, 415, 427n.2 90, 93n.10, 336, 415 violent crime counts, 43-45, 49, 54, 55, environmental characteristics and, 147 56, 67-68, 79, 93n.8 ethnic status of, 5, 10, 14, 50, 69-70, 77, United Kingdom 129, 130 home nurse visitation, 243, 249n.8 family violence, 10, 11, 223-224, 225, violent victimization risks, 146-147 248, 420 women's shelters, 245 firearm homicide, 257-258 United States firearm violence, 262 causes of death in, 64-65 gender of, 5, 50, 69, 77, 80, 262 federal research funding, 25-26, 345-352 homicide, 10, 14, 50, 62-67, 130, 142, firearm mortality rates, 18, 255 368, 415 firearm ownership in, 256, 260 injuries, 59 homicide rates, 1, 3-4, 50, 52-53, 54, relationships with offenders, 5, 76-79, 80 64-65, 83 reporting of crimes, 2, 54-55, 225, 248, suicide rates, 238 413-414, 418-423, 425, 426-427, violent crime injury rates, 59 427n.5 violent crime rates, 3-4, 50, 52-55 research needs, 57, 91-92, 225 violent victimization risks, 33, 36, 117, risks of victimization, 61-71 147 self-defense, 266-267 women's shelters in, 245 series victimizations, 423-425 U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and sexual assault, 409, 422-423 Neglect, 227-228 as situational factor, 357 U.S. Attorney General's Commission on socioeconomic status of, 70-71, 130 Pornography, 111 tertiary prevention and, 151 U.S. Commission on Obscenity and women's shelters and, 245-246 Pornography, xi, 111 Vietnam War, 67 U.S. Conference of Mayors, 278 Violence U.S. Department of Health, Education, definition of, 2, 35, 36, 37 and Welfare, xi U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 26, 345

INDEX 464 matrix for understanding and control, violent crime victimization risks, 69-70, 20, 296-299, 306 146 measurements of, 2-3, 35, 42-43, Wickersham Commission, xii 335-336, 411 Women. See Females Violence potential, 357-358, 360, 361-363 Women's shelters, 22-23, 244, 245, 246, family influences, 367-369 307, 329 interventions, 383-394 World Health Organization, 52-53 life transitions and, 371-372 perinatal influences, 364-365 personality influences, 366-367 protective factors, 372-373 research needs, 380-382 school influences, 369-370 television violence and, 371 temperament and, 365-366 theories of, 378-380 Violence Prevention Curriculum for Ado- lescents (Prothrow-Stith), 317-319 Violent crime. See Crime, violent Violent death. See Death, violent W Washington, D.C. arrestee drug use, 186, 208 drug market intervention, 210 drug-related crime in, 201-202 gun control law, 269, 274, 277, 278 homicide rates in, 188, 269, 277, 278 reverse-record check study, 419 Weapons. See also Firearms; Knives, in violent crime availability of, 117 data collection on, 55-57 lethality of, 24, 149-151, 260-264, 337-338 Welfare programs, 307, 323n.5 West Germany, assaults in, 53 Whites arrest rates, 71 data collection on, 90 firearm homicide risks, 257-258 firearm ownership rates, 256 in gangs, 143 homicide victimization risks, 14, 50, 51, 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 130 labor-force dominance, 144 life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 offender-victim relationships, 77 in poverty, 132, 133 reporting of crimes, 422 single-parent families, 222 suicide risks, 65

Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 1 Get This Book
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By conservative estimates, more than 16,000 violent crimes are committed or attempted every day in the United States. Violence involves many factors and spurs many viewpoints, and this diversity impedes our efforts to make the nation safer.

Now a landmark volume from the National Research Council presents the first comprehensive, readable synthesis of America's experience of violence--offering a fresh, interdisciplinary approach to understanding and preventing interpersonal violence and its consequences. Understanding and Preventing Violence provides the most complete, up-to-date responses available to these fundamental questions:

  • How much violence occurs in America?
  • How do different processes--biological, psychosocial, situational, and social--interact to determine violence levels?
  • What preventive strategies are suggested by our current knowledge of violence?
  • What are the most critical research needs?

Understanding and Preventing Violence explores the complexity of violent behavior in our society and puts forth a new framework for analyzing risk factors for violent events. From this framework the authors identify a number of "triggering" events, situational elements, and predisposing factors to violence--as well as many promising approaches to intervention.

Leading authorities explore such diverse but related topics as crime statistics; biological influences on violent behavior; the prison population explosion; developmental and public health perspectives on violence; violence in families; and the relationship between violence and race, ethnicity, poverty, guns, alcohol, and drugs.

Using four case studies, the volume reports on the role of evaluation in violence prevention policy. It also assesses current federal support for violence research and offers specific science policy recommendations.

This breakthrough book will be a key resource for policymakers in criminal and juvenile justice, law enforcement authorities, criminologists, psychologists, sociologists, public health professionals, researchers, faculty, students, and anyone interested in understanding and preventing violence.

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