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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
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THE

ARC

OF THE

ACADEMIC
RESEARCH
      CAREER

Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership

Summary of a Workshop

Beryl Lieff Benderly, Rapporteur


Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Policy and Global Affairs

              NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING, AND
                                                 INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE                 
                                              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. B2013-31 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-29896-4
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-29896-2

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Room 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON THE ARC OF THE ACADEMIC RESEARCH CAREER

RICHARD N. ZARE [NAS] (chair), Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor, Stanford University

DAVID DANIEL [NAE], President, The University of Texas at Dallas

DIANE E. GRIFFIN [NAS, IOM], Alfred and Jill Sommer Professor, Chair in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

SHIRLEY M. MALCOM [NAS] Head of the Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science

PERCY A. PIERRE [NAE], Vice President and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

E. ALBERT REECE [IOM], Vice President for Medical Affairs, Bowers Distinguished Professor and Dean, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore

Staff

KEVIN FINNERAN, Director

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Research Associate

NEERAJ GORKHALY, Research Associate

MARION RAMSEY, Administrative Associate (until October 2013)

Consultants

BERYL LIEFF BENDERLY, Consultant Writer and Rapporteur

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY

RICHARD N. ZARE [NAS] (chair), Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor, Stanford University

LINDA M. ABRIOLA [NAE], Dean of Engineering, Tufts University

SUSAN ATHEY [NAS], Professor, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University

MOSES H. W. CHAN [NAS], Evan Pugh Professor of Physics, Pennsylvania State University

RALPH J. CICERONE [NAS] (ex-officio), President, National Academy of Sciences

PAUL CITRON [NAE], Vice President (retired), Technology Policy and Academic Relations, Medtronic, Inc.

DAVID DANIEL [NAE], President, The University of Texas at Dallas

GORDON R. ENGLAND [NAE], President, E6 Partners LLC

HARVEY V. FINEBERG [IOM] (ex-officio), President, Institute of Medicine

DIANE E. GRIFFIN [NAS, IOM], Alfred and Jill Sommer Professor, Chair in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

JOHN G. HILDEBRAND [NAS], Regents Professor, Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona

DAVID KORN [IOM], Consultant in Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital; Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School

C. D. MOTE, JR. [NAE] (ex-officio), President, National Academy of Engineering

PERCY A. PIERRE [NAE], Vice President and Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University

E. ALBERT REECE [IOM], Vice President for Medical Affairs, Bowers Distinguished Professor and Dean, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore

MICHAEL S. TURNER [NAS], Rauner Distinguished Service Professor, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago

NANCY S. WEXLER [IOM], Higgins Professor of Neuropsychology, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University

PETER WOLYNES [NAS], D.R. Bullard-Welch Foundation Professor of Chemistry, Center for Theoretical Biological Physics-BCR, Rice University

Staff

KEVIN FINNERAN, Director

TOM ARRISON, Senior Program Officer

GURU MADHAVAN, Program Officer

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Research Associate

NEERAJ GORKHALY, Research Associate (until February 2014)

MARION RAMSEY, Administrative Associate (until October 2013)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

Reviewer Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan Carlson, University of California; Paul Citron, University of California-San Diego; Donna Ginther, Kansas University; Peter McPherson, Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities; and Henry Sauermann, Georgia Institute of Technology.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Arc of the Academic Research Career: Issues and Implications for U.S. Science and Engineering Leadership: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18627.
×
Page R10
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America's research universities have undergone striking change in recent decades, as have many aspects of the society that surrounds them. This change has important implications for the heart of every university: the faculty. To sustain their high level of intellectual excellence and their success in preparing young people for the various roles they will play in society, universities need to be aware of how evolving conditions affect their ability to attract the most qualified people and to maximize their effectiveness as teachers and researchers.

Gender roles, family life, the demographic makeup of the nation and the faculty, and the economic stability of higher education all have shifted dramatically over the past generation. In addition, strong current trends in technology, funding, and demographics suggest that change will continue and perhaps even accelerate in academe in the years to come. One central element of academic life has remained essentially unchanged for generations, however: the formal structure of the professorial career. Developed in the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to suit circumstances quite different from today's, and based on traditions going back even earlier, this customary career path is now a source of strain for both the individuals pursuing it and the institutions where they work.

The Arc of the Academic Research Career is the summary of a workshop convened by The Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy in September 2013 to examine major points of strain in academic research careers from the point of view of both the faculty members and the institutions. National experts from a variety of disciplines and institutions discussed practices and strategies already in use on various campuses and identified issues as yet not effectively addressed. This workshop summary addresses the challenges universities face, from nurturing the talent of future faculty members to managing their progress through all the stages of their careers to finding the best use of their skills as their work winds down.

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