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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Appendix A

Committee Member Biographies

Sandro Galea (Chair) is Gelman Professor and chair of the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University. He is a physician and epidemiologist. Dr. Galea is interested in the social production of health in urban populations. His primary focus is on the causes of brain disorders, particularly common mood-anxiety disorders and substance abuse. He has long had an interest in the consequences of trauma and conflict worldwide, including trauma resulting from the September 11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Dr. Galea is an author of more than 450 journal articles, 50 chapters and commentaries, and 8 books. He is a past president of the Society for Epidemiologic Research and an elected member of the American Epidemiologic Society and of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He served as a member of the IOM Committee on the Assessment of Readjustment Needs of Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families. Dr. Galea received his DrPH from Columbia University, his MPH from Harvard University, and his MD from the University of Toronto.

Kathryn K. Basham is a professor, codirector of the PhD program, and editor of Smith College Studies in Social Work at the Smith College School for Social Work. Her research focuses on couple and family psychotherapy for service members, veterans, and their families and survivors of childhood trauma. Dr. Basham has served on the IOM committees that prepared Gulf War and Health: Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment-Related Stress and the Provision of Mental Health Counseling Services Under TRICARE. She recently served on the Steering Committee

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
×

cosponsored by the Council of Social Work Education to set standards for accredited curricula for graduate-level education in military social work. Other subjects of teaching and research include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gender, intimate partner violence, intercultural clinical practice, and pedagogy and diversity. In addition to her extensive record of publications and professional presentations, Dr. Basham has received the Distinguished Clinical Practitioner award from the National Academies of Practice. Dr. Basham received her PhD from Smith College.

Larry Culpepper is a professor of family medicine at Boston University School of Medicine. He has conducted federally funded studies of depression and anxiety and is a Primary Care Fellow of the federal Health Resources and Services Administration. He received the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Excellence in Education Award in 1991, the NAP-CRG-STFM Career Research Award in 1997, and the North American Primary Care Research Group Maurice Wood Lifetime Research Award in 2010. Dr. Culpepper is a member of the IOM. He received his MD from Baylor College of Medicine and his MPH from Boston University.

Jonathan R. Davidson is an emeritus professor of psychiatry and for 20 years served as director of the Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Program of Duke University Medical Center. He has researched and used psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and holistic approaches to treat people for mental illnesses. His contributions to research have been recognized with the Adolf Meyer Research Award of the American Psychiatric Association and appointments as fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, the American Psychopathological Association, and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Dr. Davidson has served on several advisory boards and committees, including the IOM Board on the Health of Select Populations, the National Institute of Mental Health study sections, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine advisory council, and the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV Work Group for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as cochair. He received his MD from University College Hospital Medical School, London.

Edna B. Foa is a professor of clinical psychology in psychiatry and the director of the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety of the University of Pennsylvania. She is an expert in the psychopathology of and treatment for anxiety disorders, specifically PTSD, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social phobias. Dr. Foa has been author of several books and several hundred journal publications. She was named 1 of the 100 most

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
×

influential people for 2010 by Time. She received her PhD in clinical psychology and personality from the University of Missouri, Columbia.

Kenneth W. Kizer is the director of the Institute for Population Health Improvement of the University of California, Davis, and Target of Excellence professor in the School of Medicine and Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing. His current research interests include health care quality improvement and patient safety, health care transformation, and veterans and military health issues. He served as the under secretary for health in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), where he was the chief architect of the transformation of the Veterans Health Administration in the late 1990s. He was the founding president and chief executive officer of the National Quality Forum and the director of the California Department of Health Services. Dr. Kizer is an IOM member and has served as a committee member on numerous studies during the past 25 years, including most recently the Committee on the Assessment of Readjustment Needs of Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families and the Committee on Smoking Cessation in Military and Veteran Populations. Dr. Kizer is an honors graduate of Stanford University and the University of California, Los Angeles, where he received his MD and MPH.

Karestan C. Koenen is an associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University. Her research focuses on the joint roles of genetic and environmental risk factors, especially in childhood, in the development and etiology of PTSD, using a developmental epidemiologic approach. Dr. Koenen is a co-investigator in the Army study to assess risk and resilience in service members, the largest study of mental health risk and resilience ever conducted among military personnel. The study is being conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health. In addition to her teaching and research, Dr. Koenen is an experienced clinician specializing in empirically validated short-term treatments for PTSD and was a Research Fellow in Psychiatric Epidemiology. In addition to her extensive publication record, she has received numerous awards for her work, including the Chaim Danieli Young Professional Award for Excellence in Service/Research in Traumatic Stress from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, the VA Special Contribution Award, and a Citation Award from the American Sociological Association for work on psychologic risks for U.S. veterans of Vietnam. Dr. Koenen earned her PhD in clinical and development psychology from Boston University.

Douglas L. Leslie is a health economist and professor of public health sciences and psychiatry at The Pennsylvania State University. In addition to his experience in health services, economics, and pharmacoeconomics, Dr. Les-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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lie has worked extensively with VA, in particular with data from its administrative claims database. The primary focus of his research is on the effects of managed care and other fiscal pressures on patterns of service use and costs for the mentally ill. His other research interests and expertise include the quality of mental health care, adherence to treatment guidelines, and the cost-effectiveness of antipsychotic medications. Dr. Leslie has published numerous scientific journal articles and has received several awards for his research, including an Excellence in Mental Health Policy and Economics Research Award from the International Center of Mental Health Policy and Economics. Dr. Leslie received his PhD in economics from Yale University.

Richard A. McCormick is a Senior Scholar of the Center for Health Care Research and Policy of Case Western Reserve University/MetroHealth Medical Center. He served as director of mental health services for VA facilities throughout Ohio and adjoining areas of other states, as a commissioner for the VA Capital Assets Realignment for Enhanced Services Commission, and as cochair of the Active Duty Sub-Committee of the Department of Defense Mental Health Task Force. He is a consultant and scientific board member for two studies of returning National Guard and reserve force members and has served as a national consultant for Disabled American Veterans. His research interests include war trauma and related stress reactions, adherence to treatment among the seriously mentally ill who have comorbid medical problems, alcohol misuse and abuse, and other disorders of impulse control, such as pathological gambling. Dr. McCormick received his PhD in clinical psychology from Case Western Reserve University.

Mohammed R. Milad is an associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry of Harvard Medical School, and research scientist and director of the Behavioral Neuroscience Program of the Department of Psychiatry of Massachusetts General Hospital. His research focuses on the neural mechanisms of fear inhibition in the human brain through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and includes the role of meditation in fear modulation, the potential use of transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the role of sleep in the consolidation of fear extinction. Dr. Milad is also conducting translational research in rodents and humans to examine the influence of estrogen and other gonadal hormones on the neural circuits of fear extinction. He has been awarded the Positive Neuroscience Award by the Templeton Foundation and named a Kavli Fellow by the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Milad was awarded his PhD summa cum laude in behavioral neuroscience from the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico.

William P. Nash is an assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego, and an adjunct assistant professor

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
×

of psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University. He retired from the Navy Medical Corps with the rank of captain in 2008 after 30 years of service. He serves as a consultant in military and veteran psychologic health promotion and as the medical director of Semper Fi Odyssey, a nonprofit wounded warrior program affiliated with the Marine Corps. During his service in the Navy, Dr. Nash directed two psychiatry residency programs and clinical operations on the hospital ship USNS MERCY and served as a far-forward Operational Stress Control and Readiness program psychiatrist with the 1st Marine Division in Iraq during the 2004 Battle of Fallujah, for which he was awarded the Bronze Star. He has participated in a number of studies of combat-related PTSD and its prevention and treatment and is an author of numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters on military and veteran psychological health promotion. Dr. Nash received his MD from the University of Illinois College of Medicine.

Elizabeth A. Phelps is the Julius Silver Professor of Psychology and Neural Science at New York University and a research scientist at the Nathan Kline Institute. Her laboratory examines how the human brain processes emotion, focusing on three primary questions: how fear or threat responses are acquired and can be controlled or eliminated when they are no longer adaptive, how memories are altered by the emotional qualities of events, and how choices are influenced by affective responses. Dr. Phelps is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Experimental Psychology, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She has served on the boards of directors of the Association for Psychological Science and the Society for Neuroeconomics and was a founding board member of the Society for Neuroethics. She has served as the president of the Society for Neuroeconomics and as the editor of the journal Emotion. She is the president of the Association for Psychological Science. Dr. Phelps received her PhD from Princeton University.

Elspeth Cameron Ritchie is the chief clinical officer in the Department of Behavioral Health of the District of Columbia. She retired from the Army in 2010 after holding numerous leadership positions, including the position of psychiatry consultant. She trained at Harvard University, George Washington University, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) and has completed fellowships in forensic psychiatry and preventive and disaster psychiatry. She is a professor of psychiatry at USUHS and Georgetown University. Dr. Ritchie is an expert in the management of disaster and combat mental health issues. Her assignments and other missions have taken her to Korea, Somalia, Iraq, and Cuba. She has more than 200 publications, mainly in forensics, disaster, suicide, ethics, military combat and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
×

operational psychiatry, and women’s health. Her major publications include the textbook Combat and Operational Behavioral Health,” “The Mental Health Response to the 9/11 Attack on the Pentagon, “Mental Health Interventions for Mass Violence and Disaster,” and the series in 2013 on the use of complementary and alternative medicines for the treatment of PTSD in military service members. She is currently the senior editor of the forthcoming Forensic and Ethical Issues in Military Mental Health and Women at War.

Albert Rizzo started the Virtual Reality Psychology and Social Neuroscience Laboratory at the University of Southern California (USC) in 1995 after practicing clinically for 9 years. He is associate director of the USC Institute for Creative Technologies and has research professor appointments with the USC Department of Psychiatry and the USC School of Gerontology. His research focuses on the design, development, and evaluation of virtual reality systems that target clinical assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. His projects have focused on the creation of a virtual-reality exposure therapy system (Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan) for combat-related PTSD in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom service members and veterans. He is also working with a team that is creating artificially intelligent virtual patients for training novice clinicians in the skills required for challenging clinical interviews and diagnostic assessments related to sexual assault, resistant patients, suicide lethality, and so on. Dr. Rizzo is editor of a number of cognition and computer science journals, including Presence, Media Psychology, and The International Journal of Virtual Reality and has published extensively on the topic of clinical uses of virtual reality. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from the State University of New York at Binghamton.

Barbara O. Rothbaum is a professor and the director of the Trauma and Anxiety Recovery Program and associate vice chair of clinical research in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of Emory University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on innovative cognitive behavioral treatments—including virtual reality, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy for PTSD and other anxiety disorders—and incorporates translational approaches and neurobiologic markers. She works with trauma survivors including war veterans, active-duty service members, rape survivors, and survivors of other civilian traumas. She treats chronic PTSD and intervenes in the emergency room in attempts to prevent the development of PTSD. Dr. Rothbaum has more than 200 publications, 8 books, and 2 patents and serves as an editorial board member and manuscript reviewer for more than a dozen journals. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America and is a past president of the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
×

International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. She received her PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Georgia.

Douglas F. Zatzick is a professor and associate vice chair for health services research in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science of the University of Washington, and serves on the research faculty of the Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, a level I trauma center. From 2009 to 2012, he served as chair of the National Institute of Mental Health Services in Non-specialty Settings Study Section. He has also served on the World Health Organization Stress Disorders Guideline Development Group. Over the past two decades, he has developed a public health approach to trauma-focused research that has emphasized clinical epidemiological, functional outcome, and early collaborative care intervention studies of PTSD and related comorbid conditions, including depression, alcohol and drug use problems, traumatic brain injury, and chronic medical conditions. Dr. Zatzick was formerly the chief resident in psychiatry at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, and completed a VA-sponsored Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco, in 1994–1996. He received his MD from the University of California, San Diego.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18724.
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the signature injuries of the U.S. conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, but it affects veterans of all eras. It is estimated that 7-20% of service members and veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom may have the disorder. PTSD is characterized by a combination of mental health symptoms - re-experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli, adverse alterations in thoughts and mood, and hyperarousal - that last at least 1 month and impair functioning. PTSD can be lifelong and pervade all aspects of a service member's or veteran's life, including mental and physical health, family and social relationships, and employment. It is often concurrent with other health problems, such as depression, traumatic brain injury, chronic pain, substance abuse disorder, and intimate partner violence.

The Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provide a spectrum of programs and services to screen for, diagnose, treat for, and rehabilitate service members and veterans who have or are at risk for PTSD. The 2010 National Defense Authorization Act asked the Institute of Medicine to assess those PTSD programs and services in two phases. The Phase 1 study, Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Initial Assessment, focused on data gathering. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations Final Assessment is the report of the second phase of the study. This report analyzes the data received in Phase 1 specifically to determine the rates of success for each program or method.

Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations Final Assessment considers what a successful PTSD management system is and whether and how such a system is being implemented by DoD and VA. This includes an assessment of what care is given and to whom, how effectiveness is measured, what types of mental health care providers are available, what influences whether a service member or veteran seeks care, and what are the costs associated with that care. This report focuses on the opportunities and challenges that DoD and VA face in developing, implementing, and evaluating services and programs in the context of achieving a high-performing system to care for service members and veterans who have PTSD. The report also identifies where gaps or new emphases might be addressed to improve prevention of, screening for, diagnosis of, and treatment and rehabilitation for the disorder. The findings and recommendations of Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Final Assessment will encourage DoD and VA to increase their efforts in moving toward a high-performing, comprehensive, integrated PTSD management strategy that addresses the needs of current and future service members, veterans, and their families.

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