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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18800.
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Page 395
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18800.
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Page 396
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18800.
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Page 397
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2014. The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18800.
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Page 398

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Appendix C Acronyms ACAP Arctic Contaminants Action Program ACS American Community Service ADHS Arizona Department of Health Services AHO African Health Observatory AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIV avian influenza virus AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program ANOVA analysis of variance APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service AR antibiotic resistant BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BRT boosted regression tree BXW banana Xanthomonas wilt CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CAMRA Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHANS coupled human and natural systems CI confidence interval CLD causal loop diagram CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSO combined sewer overflow DALY disability-adjusted life year 395

396 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS DGMQ Division of Global Migration and Quarantine DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EIA enzyme immunoassay EID emerging infectious disease EIEC enteroinvasive E. coli EIP extrinsic incubation period EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPEC enteropathogenic E. coli EPPR Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response ETEC enterotoxigenic E. coli FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service GDP gross domestic product GEE general estimating equation GIDEON Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network HAB harmful algal bloom HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HIA health impact assessment HIV human immunodeficiency virus HP highly pathogenic HPS hantavirus pulmonary syndrome ICS International Circumpolar Surveillance IHR International Health Regulations IOM Institute of Medicine IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ITDS International Trade Data System IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature LEMIS law enforcement management information system LEO local environmental observer LPAI low-pathogenic avian influenza MBG model-based geostatistics MDG Millennium Development Goal MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome

APPENDIX C 397 MERS-CoV Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MSX multinucleated sphere X MTE metabolic theory of ecology NHP nonhuman primate NIH National Institutes of Health OIE World Organisation for Animal Health OR odds ratio OTIS online tuberculosis information system PAHO Pan American Health Organization PCR polymerase chain reaction PRISM Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model QMRA quantitative microbial risk assessment RELU rural economy and land use RF radiative forcing RNA ribonucleic acid RSV respiratory syncytial virus SAD sudden aspen decline SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome SCLB Southern corn leaf blight SD standard deviation SDWG Sustainable Development Working Group SFV simian foamy virus SIV simian immunodeficiency virus SNV sin nombre virus SPDC State Peace and Development Council STD sexually transmitted disease STI sexually transmitted infection TB tuberculosis TBE tick-borne encephalitis TDR training in tropical diseases UAE United Arab Emirates UN United Nations USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture

398 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS VBD vector-borne disease WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization WNV West Nile virus

Next: Appendix D: Glossary »
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The twentieth century witnessed an era of unprecedented, large-scale, anthropogenic changes to the natural environment. Understanding how environmental factors directly and indirectly affect the emergence and spread of infectious disease has assumed global importance for life on this planet. While the causal links between environmental change and disease emergence are complex, progress in understanding these links, as well as how their impacts may vary across space and time, will require transdisciplinary, transnational, collaborative research. This research may draw upon the expertise, tools, and approaches from a variety of disciplines. Such research may inform improvements in global readiness and capacity for surveillance, detection, and response to emerging microbial threats to plant, animal, and human health.

The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Microbial Threats in September 2013 to explore the scientific and policy implications of the impacts of global environmental change on infectious disease emergence, establishment, and spread. This report examines the observed and potential influence of environmental factors, acting both individually and in synergy, on infectious disease dynamics. The report considers a range of approaches to improve global readiness and capacity for surveillance, detection, and response to emerging microbial threats to plant, animal, and human health in the face of ongoing global environmental change.

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