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Appendix E Speaker Biographies Caitilyn Allen, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She earned a Ph.D. in plant pathology from Virginia Tech and did postdoctoral study in Lyon, France. Her lab studies the mechanisms of virulence and fitness in plant pathogenic bacteria, with a particular focus on the select agent pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Her second area of expertise is tropical plant pathology, especially current and historical epidemic crop diseases in the tropics. Dr. Allen has research collaborations in France, Germany, Guate- mala, Uganda, and China. Her teaching on molecular plantâmicrobe interactions and on tropical plant pathology has garnered national awards. She is a Chevalier de lâOrdre des Palmes AcadÃ©miques, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society. Sonia Altizer, Ph.D., is an associate professor and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia. She received her B.S. in biology from Duke University in 1992, and completed her Ph.D. in ecology at the University of Minnesota in 1998, followed by postdoctoral work at Princeton and Cornell University. Dr. Altizer has been at the University of Georgia since 2005. Her research interests center on infectious disease ecology and its interface with animal behavior, anthropogenic change, and evolution. In her work, Dr. Altizer uses a combination of field studies, experiments, compara- tive analyses, and modeling to study the ecological and evolutionary interactions between hosts and pathogens in natural populations. A major focus has been to understand the consequences of long-distance migration for animalâpathogen interactions, using monarch butterflies and a protozoan parasite as a global case 411
412 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS study. She also collaborates on studies looking at how factors such as seasonality, anthropogenic change, and contact behavior influence the dynamics of pathogens affecting passerine birds, bats, primates, and rodents. Chris Beyrer, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor in the Departments of Epidemiology, International Health, and Health, Behavior and Society at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He serves as director of the Universityâs Center for Public Health and Human Rights, associate director of the Centers for AIDS Research and of Global Health, and as Director of the Johns Hopkins Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program. He is the President- Elect of the International AIDS Society, the largest body of HIV professionals worldwide. Dr. Beyrerâs research interests focus on the burden of HIV and other infectious diseases and the association with human rights, with specific interests in epidemiology among high-risk or marginalized populations, prevention re- search, and molecular epidemiology. He currently has research and/or training activities in Thailand, China, Burma, Malawi, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Brazil, Russia, Kazakhstan, and the United States. He is the co-editor of the books Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches as well as Public Health Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Epidemiol- ogy, Prevention and Care and is the author of the 1998 book War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. Dr. Beyrer has published extensively on HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention research, HIV vaccine research, and public health and human rights and is the author of numerous articles and scien- tific papers. Currently, he is a consultant to the World Bank Institute, a member of the Technical Advisory Group of the Independent Commission on AIDS & the Law, and a Scientific Advisor of the International Centre for Science in Drug Policy, and has served as a consultant for the World Bank Thailand Office, The Office for AIDS Research of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, The Levi Strauss Foundation, The U.S. Military HIV Research Program, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, The Open Soci- ety Institute, The Royal Thai Army, and numerous other organizations. Nita Bharti, Ph.D., is a Research Associate at Penn State and a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University. Dr. Bhartiâs research focuses on the interactions between social and biological processes as underlying determinants of human health. She is interested in detecting and measuring movement and mobility of populations and how they influence the transmission and spread of infectious diseases in humans. She is also working on linking behavior and health by using remote measures for estimating changes in settlements and land use, and the potential impact these could have on species interactions and the risk of disease transmis- sion. She received her Ph.D. in biology and M.A. in anthropology from Penn State University.
APPENDIX E 413 Martin Cetron, M.D., is currently the Director for the Division of Global Mi- gration and Quarantine (DGMQ) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The DGMQ mission is to prevent introduction and spread of infectious diseases in the United States and to prevent morbidity and mortality among immigrants, refugees, migrant workers, and international travelers. Dr. Cetronâs program is responsible for providing medical screening and disease prevention programs to 1.2 million immigrants and 80,000 refugees prior to U.S. resettlement each year. Dr. Cetron has authored or co-authored more than 150 publications and received numerous awards for his work. In 2009, Dr. Cetron was honored with the Public Health Hero Award by Research America. In 2010, Dr. Cetron received the Deanâs Award by the Tufts Medical Alumni Association for Distinguished Contributions to Medicine 25 years post-graduation. In 2014, Dr. Cetron was honored by Dartmouth College with the Lester B. Granger Lifetime Achievement Award as part of the Martin Luther King Awards for a lifetime of work dedicated to social justice and combating health disparities. Dr. Cetron holds faculty appointments in the Division of Infectious Disease at the Emory University School of Medicine and the Department of Epidemiol- ogy at Rollins School of Public Health. His primary research interests are global health and migration with a focus on health disparities, emerging infections, tropical diseases, and vaccine-preventable diseases particularly in mobile popula- tions. Dr. Cetron teaches and lectures worldwide and is frequently quoted in the media. Dr. Cetron serves as an expert on several intergovernmental and inter- national committees. He is a graduate and adviser to the National Preparedness Leadership Institute at the Harvard School of Public Health and the Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Cetron has worked at the CDC since 1992 where he has led several domestic and international outbreak investigations, conducted epidemiologic research, and been involved in domestic and international emergency responses. He has played a leadership role in the CDC responses to intentional and naturally- acquired emerging infectious disease outbreaks, including the Anthrax Bioterror- ism (2001), Global SARS epidemic (2003), U.S. Monkeypox Outbreak (2003), Pandemic Influenza H1N1 (2009), Haiti Earthquake and Cholera (2010), Japan Tsunami and Radiation Response (2011), and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syn- drome (MERS) Coronavirus Response (2013). Dr. Cetron is part of the CDC Pandemic Influenza Planning and Prepared- ness Team. He leads the CDCâs preparedness for international border responses and community mitigation strategies. Dr. Cetron is also part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza Pandemic Task Force, WHO Director Generalâs International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of Experts for Influenza and MERS Coronavirus. Dr. Cetron received his B.A. in biochemistry summa cum laude from Dart- mouth College in 1981 and his M.D. from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1985. He trained in internal medicine at the University of Virginia (1985â1988)
414 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS and infectious diseases at the University of Washington (1989â1992) before join- ing the CDCâs Epidemic Intelligence Service and becoming a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service (1992âpresent). Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is President of EcoHealth Alliance, a U.S.-based organiza- tion that conducts research and outreach programs on global health, conservation, and international development. Dr. Daszakâs research has been instrumental in identifying and predicting the impact of emerging diseases across the globe. His achievements include identifying the bat origin of SARS, identifying the causes of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, producing the first ever global emerging disease âhot spotsâ map, identifying the first case of a species extinction due to disease, coining the term pathogen pollution, and the discovery of the disease chytridiomycosis as the cause global amphibian declines. Dr. Daszak is a member of the Institute of Medicineâs (IOMâs) Forum on Microbial Threats, and served on the IOM Committee on global surveillance for emerging zoonoses, the Na- tional Reserch Committee committee on the future of veterinary research, the International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity Coopera- tive Research Centre, and he has advised the Director for Medical Preparedness Policy on the White House National Security Staff on global health issues. Dr. Daszak won the 2000 CSIRO medal for collaborative research on the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis and is Editor-in-Chief of the journal EcoHealth. He has authored more than 200 scientific papers, and his work has been the focus of extensive media coverage, ranging from popular press articles to television appearances. Andrew Dobson, D.Phil., is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Princeton University. He first developed a fascination with natural history during childhood afternoons roaming the Scottish hillside. Those rambles led him to study zoology and applied entomology at Imperial College London as an undergraduate. He then spent 2 years researching para- sites at Kingâs College London. Dobson marvels at parasitesâ domination of the natural worldââat least half of the biodiversity on the planet is parasitic on the other half,â he says. âThe more we look the more parasitic diversity we see.â His next stop was the University of Oxford where he earned a D.Phil. for developing mathematical models of climate changeâs impact on bird populations. Enthralled with the power of modeling, he explored the dynamics of parasite infections of wild animal populations at Imperial College, Princeton, and the University of Rochester, before finally landing at Princeton University, where he has remained since 1990 as a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biol- ogy. Dobson has written and edited 4 books and around 200 scientific papers; his current research focuses on understanding the multiple roles that pathogens play in natural ecosystems, the population ecology of infectious disease, and the double-edged role that pathogens play in conservation biology. His research is
APPENDIX E 415 sponsored by NIH, National Science Foundation, and the McDonnell Foundation. Heâs been involved in projects to conserve elephants in East Africa, carnivores in the Serengeti and Yellowstone, and finches in the backyards of New England. Heâs particularly interested in parasites and food webs, climate change and disease dynamics in the Arctic, and how pathogens rapidly evolve in order to increase, or in some cases, decrease their virulence. He served as Chair of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences âDiversitasâ Committee and is an Elected Fellows of AAAS. Joseph Eisenberg, M.P.H., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. Dr. Eisenberg received his Ph.D. in bioengineering in the joint University of California, Berkeley/Uni- versity of California, San Francisco, program, and an M.P.H. from the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley. He is an expert in water- and vector-borne transmission modeling, infectious disease epidemiology, and microbial risk assessment. A continual theme in Dr. Eisenbergâs work is the use of a systems-level perspective to understand dynamic infection and disease pro- cesses across scales, as they interact through the molecular, individual, commu- nity, and regional scales. To inform processes at each of these scales he initiated a systems platform in Ecuador (funded by NIH and NSF) that enables primary data collection at multiple scales over time. Methodologically, Dr. Eisenberg has made substantial contributions to transmission modeling, explicitly incorporat- ing environmental processes into the model structure. This work has influenced agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to consider these environmentally mediated transmission models in their regulatory process. Sub- stantively, Dr. Eisenbergâs research has focused on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) where he has made major contributions to our understanding of the interdependency of transmission pathways. Neil Ferguson, Ph.D., is founding director of the Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling at Imperial College London. He uses mathematical and statistical models to investigate the processes shaping infectious disease pathogenesis, evolution, and transmission. In addition to basic theoretical work, Professor Ferguson has applied models to study the transmis- sion and control of influenza, SARS, BSE/vCJD, HIV, dengue, foot-and-mouth disease, and bioterrorist threats. He was educated at Oxford University where he also undertook postdoctoral research, then held a readership at the University of Nottingham before moving to Imperial College. Professor Ferguson is a Senior Investigator of the National Institute for Health Research, a Fellow of the U.K. Academy of Medical Sciences, and received the U.K. honour of Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for his work on the 2001 U.K. foot- and-mouth disease epidemic. His recent work has focused on the use of models as contingency planning tools for emerging human infections (notably pandemic
416 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS influenza), bioterrorist threats, and livestock outbreaks, though he also undertakes research on the dynamics and control of vector-borne diseases (dengue, yellow fever, and malaria) and pathogen evolution. Professor Ferguson advises the U.K. and U.S. governments, the World Health Organization, and the European Union on emerging infections and infectious disease modelling. John Galgiani, M.D., joined the faculty of the University of Arizona in 1978, and currently he is Professor of Medicine. He received his B.A. from Stanford University, his M.D. from Northwestern University, and a fellowship in infec- tious diseases from Stanford. Dr. Galgiani has focused his career primarily on the special problems of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) and its impact on the general population and special groups such as organ transplant recipients and patients with AIDS. For 19 years, he was project director of an NIH-sponsored coccidioidomycosis clinical trials group. Dr. Galgianiâs laboratory has collabo- rated in efforts to develop vaccines to prevent valley fever. For the past 9 years, Dr. Galgiani has led a development program for nikkomycin Z, a possible cure for valley fever, now in clinical trials. In 1996, Dr. Galgiani founded the Valley Fever Center for Excellence to disseminate information about valley fever, help patients with the severest complications of this disease, and to encourage research into the biology and diseases of its etiologic agent. Uriel Kitron, Ph.D., M.P.H., is the Goodrich C. White Professor and Chair of the Environmental Sciences department at Emory University. Dr. Kitronâs re- search and teaching programs center around the eco-epidemiology of infectious diseases, with an emphasis on tropical and emerging diseases and their environ- mental risk factors. In his global health research he emphasizes anthropogenic changes, including issues of climate, urbanization, agricultural practices, and con- servation. For diseases such as dengue, malaria, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and West Nile virus, Dr. Kitronâs group studies transmission dynamics and the ecology of insect vectors and mammalian or avian reservoir hosts, incorporating a strong field component (trapping vertebrates, collecting insects, identifying environmental features), spatial analysis, and laboratory work. Dr. Kitron applies geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing to gather and manage environmental data that can help explain the spatial distribution of disease and vectors, and assess transmission risk. Following quantitative spatial analysis, Dr. Kitronâs group produces maps and models to target further research efforts, and help support surveillance and control efforts by public health agencies. Current research efforts funded by NIH, NSF, and the CDC include large-scale collab- orative international studies of malaria and schistosomiasis in Kenya; Chagas disease in Argentina; dengue in Peru, Brazil, and Australia; and West Nile virus and eco-epidemiology of disease emergence in urban areas of the United States.
APPENDIX E 417 Albert Ko, M.D., is an infectious disease physician, Professor and Chair of the Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases at Yale School of Public Health, and Collaborating Researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil- ian Ministry of Health. His research focuses on the health problems that have emerged as a consequence of rapid urbanization and social inequity. Dr. Ko co- ordinates an NIH-supported research and training program on urban slum health in Brazil, where his group is conducting long-term prospective studies on urban health problems, which include dengue, meningitis, and respiratory infections, as well as noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension and violence. His work is particularly interested in understanding the natural history of leptospirosis, which is a model for an infectious disease that has emerged in slum settlements due to the interaction of climate, urban ecology, and social marginalization. His research combines field epidemiology and translational research approaches to identify prevention and control strategies that can be implemented in slum communities. Stephen Luby, M.D., is Professor of Medicine with the Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine; Deputy Director for Research at the Center for Global Health Innovation; Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute; and Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford Uni- versity. Prior to his current appointment, Dr. Luby served for 8 years at the Inter- national Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), where he directed the Centre for Communicable Diseases. Dr. Luby was secunded from the CDC and was the Country Director for CDC in Bangladesh. From 1993 to 1998, Dr. Luby directed the Epidemiology Unit of the Community Health Sci- ences Department at the Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan; and from 1998 to 2004 worked as a medical epidemiologist in the Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch of the CDC in Atlanta. Dr. Lubyâs research has addressed a num- ber of public health issues. In Bangladesh he led a research group that explored the epidemiology of Nipah virus including studies of villagersâ perspective on and response to the outbreaks and studies of virus circulation in its bat reservoir and spillover into domestic animals and humans. He has authored more than 200 scientific manuscripts. Nina Marano, D.V.M., M.P.H., Dipl.ACVPM, is a native New Yorker trained in veterinary medicine at the University of Georgia and in public health at Emory University. Since 1998, Dr. Marano has been a medical epidemiologist at the CDC where she has worked on antimicrobial resistance of food-borne pathogens, anthrax bioterrorism, and SARS investigations, and forged new partnerships with the veterinary medical community to prevent zoonotic diseases. In 2006, Dr. Marano joined the CDC Division of Global Migration and Quarantine as the Branch Chief for the Travelersâ Health and Animal Importation Branch. In 2009 she became the Branch Chief for the Quarantine and Border Health Services
418 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS Branch where she worked on national policy, regulations, and research to mitigate translocation of pathogens via travel and transportation. Under her leadership, the Branch responded to the 2009 influenza A H1N1, earthquake and cholera in Haiti, and nuclear radiation leakage in Japan. In June 2012, Dr. Marano was appointed Director of the Africa Refugee Health Program at the CDC Kenya office in Nai- robi. As Director of the program, she and her team are responsible for overseeing the implementation of guidelines for disease screening and treatment, tracking and reporting disease, responding to disease outbreaks, and advising partners on health care for refugees and immigrants from Africa. Jane Messina, Ph.D., is a medical geographer whose interests lie primarily in the spatial epidemiology of infectious diseases. She concentrates particularly on the application of GISs and spatial statistical analysis to public health ques- tions, having completed her undergraduate and graduate degrees in geography. She received her Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2011, where she conducted spatial epidemiological research about HIV, malaria, and anemia in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Now a Senior Postdoctoral Epidemiologist in the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford, Dr. Messina works as part of the Spatial Ecology & Epidemiology Group, coordinat- ing their contribution to the International Research Consortium on Dengue Risk Assessment, Management and Surveillance. Her work focuses on the changes in the landscape and epidemiology of dengue resulting from factors such as urbanization, climate change, and economic shifts. Dr. Messina also studies the spatial ecology and risk of other vector-borne diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis, underlining the importance of car- tography in understanding the current distribution and future spread of these and other infectious diseases. Alan Parkinson, Ph.D., is currently Deputy Director of the CDCâs Arctic Inves- tigations Program, a field station within the Division of Preparedness and Emerg- ing Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, located in Anchorage, Alaska. Dr. Parkinson earned his Ph.D. degree in microbi- ology in 1976 from Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, and undertook a postdoctoral fellowship at the Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center. He joined the CDC in 1984. Dr. Parkinson has been instrumental in establishing the International Circumpolar Surveillance system, a U.S.-led Arctic Council, Sus- tainable Development Working Group project for monitoring emerging infectious diseases in the Arctic. Jonathan Patz, M.D., M.P.H., is professor and Director of the Global Health Institute at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. He co-chaired the health expert panel of the U.S. National Assessment on Climate Change and was a convening lead author for the United Nations/World Bank Millennium Ecosystem
APPENDIX E 419 Assessment. For the past 15 years, Dr. Patz has been a lead author for the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (or IPCC)âthe organization that shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore. Dr. Patz has written more than 90 peer-reviewed scientific papers, a textbook addressing the health effects of global environmental change, and most recently, co-edited the five-volume Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (2011). He has been invited to brief both houses of Congress, served on several scientific committees of the National Academy of Sciences, and federal agency science advisory boards for both the CDC and EPA. From 2006 to 2010, Dr. Patz served as Founding President of the International Association for Ecology and Health. In addition to sharing the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize, Dr. Patz received an Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellows Award in 2005, shared the Zayed International Prize for the Environment in 2006, and earned the distinction of becoming a University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Romnes Faculty Fellow in 2009. Aside from directing the university-wide UW Global Health Institute, Pro- fessor Patz has faculty appointments in the Nelson Institute, Center for Sustain- ability & the Global Environment, and the Department of Population Health Sciences. He also directs the NSF-sponsored Certificate on Humans and the Global Environment. Dr. Patz earned medical board certification in both occupational/environ- mental medicine and family medicine and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University (1987) and his master of public health degree (1992) from Johns Hopkins University. Marco Pautasso, Ph.D., is working at the European Food Safety Authority in the plant health team. He was previously a postdoctoral researcher at ETH Zu- rich, the Centre for Evolutionary and Functional Ecology of the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Montpellier, France (2011â2013), the Univer- sity of Cambridge (2011), the London Metropolitan University (2010), Imperial College London (2006â2009), and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (2002â2005, 2013â2014). His Ph.D. (2005) was in macroecology at the Univer- sity of Sheffield (United Kingdom). His interests are in network epidemiology, landscape pathology, conservation biogeography, and scientometrics. He has peer-reviewed manuscripts for about 60 journals and published about 25 literature reviews on topics such as networks in plant epidemiology; European ash dieback as a conservation biology challenge; the geographical genetics of forest trees; plant health and global change; and peer-reviewing interdisciplinary papers. His research has dealt with epidemic development in small-size directed networks; the scale dependence of the spatial correlation between human population and biodiversity; geographical patterns of the species richness of the living collections of the worldâs botanic gardens; and the temporal development of the file-drawer problem. He was selected by the European Commission in 2012 to participate in
420 GLOBAL CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE DYNAMICS âVoice of Researchers,â a network of 25 researchers that aims to act as a bridge between European Union policy makers and researchers. Joan Rose, Ph.D., is currently a professor at Michigan State University in the De- partments of Fisheries & Wildlife and Plant, Soil, and Microbiological Science, holds the Homer Nowlin Chair in Water Research, and serves as the Co-Director of the Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment. Dr. Rose earned her B.Sc. and Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Arizona, Tucson. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Rose is a recipient of the Clarke Water Prize, the Singapore Public Service Medal, and the International Water Association Hei-jin Woo Award for Achievements of Women in the Water Profession. Dr. Rose is an international expert in water microbiology, water quality, and public health safety, and has published more than 300 manuscripts. She has been involved in the in- vestigation of numerous waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Her work addresses the use of new molecular tools for surveying and mapping water pollution for recreational and drinking water; assessment of innovative water treatment tech- nology for the developed and developing world; and use of quantitative microbial risk assessment.