National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 5 A Vision for Coastal Risk Reduction
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

References

Ackerman, F., and L. Heinzerling. 2002. Pricing the priceless: Cost-benefit analysis of environmental protection. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 150: 1553-1584.

Aerts, J.C. J. H., W. J. Wouter Bozen, H. de Moel, and M. Bowman. 2014. Cost Estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1294(1): 1-104. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12200.

Allen, F. R., A. R. Garlick, M. R. Hayns, and A. R. Taig. 1992. The Management of Risk to Society from Potential Accidents: The Main Report of the UKAEA Working Group on the Risks to Society from Potential Major Accidents: With an Executive Summary. London; New York: Elsevier Applied Science.

Arkema, K. K., G. Guannel, G. Verutes, S. A.Wood, A. Guerry, M. Ruckelshaus, P. Kareiva, M. Lacayo, and J. M. Silver. 2013. Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nature Climate Change 3: 913-918.

Arrow, K., and A. Fisher. 1974. Environmental preservation, uncertainty, and irreversibility. Quarterly Journal of Economics 88: 312-319.

Arrow, K. J., M. L. Cropper, G. C. Eads, R. W. Hahn, L. B. Lave, R. G. Noll, P. R. Portney, M. Russell, R. Schmalensee, V. K. Smith, and R. N. Stavins. 1996. Is there a role for benefit-cost analysis in environmental, health and safety regulation? Science 272: 221-222.

Arrow, K., M. Cropper, C. Gollier, B. Groom, G. Heal, R. Newell, W. Nordhaus, R. Pindyck, W. Pizer, P. Portney, T. Sterner, R. S. J. Tol, and M. Weitzman. 2013. Determining benefits and costs for future generations. Science 341: 349-350.

ASFPM (Association of State Floodplain Managers). 2007. Levees: The Double-Edged Sword. ASFMP White Paper. Available at http://www.floods.org/PDF/ASFPM_Levee_Policy_Challenges_White_Paper_021907.pdf.

ASFPM. 2013. Flood Insurance Affordability—Update. Available at http://www.floods.org/ace-files/documentlibrary/2012_NFIP_Reform/Flood_Insurance_Affordability_version_10222013.pdf.

ASFPM Foundation. 2004. Reducing Flood Losses: Is the 1% Chance Flood Standard Sufficient. Report of the 2004 Assembly of the Gilbert F. White National Flood Policy Forum. Madison, WI.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

ASFPM Foundation. 2010. Managing Flood Risks and Floodplain Resources, Report of the Third Assembly of the Gilbert F. White National Flood Policy Forum. Washington, DC: ASFPM Foundation.

ASFPM Foundation. 2013. Holistic Coasts: Adaptive Management of Changing Hazards, Risks, and Ecosystems. A Summary Report Based on the 4th Assembly of the Gilbert F. White National Flood Policy Forum. Available at http://www.asfpmfoundation.org/pdf_ppt/ASFPM-Foundation_HolisticCoasts_Forum2013_Web_Version.pdf.

Associated Press. 1984. Seawall prevents “damage” by Alicia. The Victoria Advocate. March 7, 1984.

Basco, D. R. 2006. Seawall impacts on adjacent beaches: Separating fact from fiction. Journal of Coastal Research SI39: 741-744.

Beachler, K. E., and D. W. Mann. 1996. Long range positive effects of the Delray beach nourishment program. Pp. 4613-4620 in Coastal Engineering 1996. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Bell, S. S., M. O. Hall, and M. L. Middlebrooks. 2014. The value of long-term assessment of restoration: Support from a seagrass investigation. Restoration Ecology. 22(3): 304-310.

Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. 2012. New Orleans East Land Bridge Study. Prepared for the Southeast Louisiana Flood Protection Authority—East, New Orleans, LA. Available at http://www.slfpae.com/presentations/2011-006-001%20-%20Feasibility%20study%20%20final.pdf.

Bender, M. A., T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya, J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. T. Garner, and I. M. Held. 2010. Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327: 454-458.

Berke, P., and D. Godschalk. 2009. Searching for the good plan: A meta-analysis of plan quality studies. Journal of Planning Literature 23(3): 227-240.

Berke, P., and W. Lyles. 2013. Public risks and the challenges to climate adaptation: A proposed framework for planning in the age of uncertainty. Cityscape: Journal of Policy Development and Research 15(1): 189-216.

Berke, P., D. Godschalk, and E. J. Kaiser. 2006. Urban Land Use Planning, Fifth Edition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Berke, P., G. Smith, and W. Lyles. 2012. Planning for resiliency: An evaluation of state hazard mitigation plans under the Disaster Mitigation Act. Natural Hazards Review 13(2): 139-149.

Berke, P., W. Lyles, and G. Smith. 2014. Impacts of federal and state hazard mitigation policies on local land use policy. Journal of Planning Education and Research. doi: 10.1177/0739456X13517004.

Bertness, M. D., and R. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 191-193.

Bilkovic, D., and M. Roggero. 2008. Effects of coastal development on nearshore estuarine nekton communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 358: 27-39.

Bilodeau, A. L., and R. P. Bourgeois. 2004. Impact of beach restoration on the deep-burrowing ghost shrimp Callichirus islagrande. Journal of Coastal Research 20: 931-936.

Bishop, M. J., C. H. Peterson, H. C. Summerson, H. S. Lenihan, and J. H. Grabowski. 2006. Deposition and long-shore transport of dredge spoils to nourish beaches: Impacts on benthic infauna of an ebb-tidal delta. Journal of Coastal Research 22: 530-546.

Blake, E. S., C. W. Landsea, and E. J. Gibney. 2011. The Deadliest, Costliest and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Bocamazo, L. M., W. G. Grosskopf, and F. S. Buonuiato. 2011. Beach nourishment, shoreline change, and dune growth at Westhampton Beach, New York, 1996-2009. Journal of Coastal Research SI59: 181-191.

Bouma, T. J., M. B. De Vries, G. Peralta, I.C. Tanczos, J. van de Koppel, and P. M. J. Herman. 2005. Trade-offs related to ecosystem engineering: A case study on stiffness of emerging macrophytes. Ecology 86: 2187-2199

Bouma, T. J., J. van Belzen, T. Balke, Z. Zhu, L. Airoldi, A. J. Blight, A. J. Davies, C. Galvan, S. J. Hawkins, S. P. G. Hoggart, J. L. Lara, I. J. Losada, M. Maza, B. Ondiviela, M. W. Skov, E. M. Strain, R. C. Thompson, S. Yang, B. Zanuttigh, L. Zhang, and P. M. J. Herman. 2014. Identifying knowledge gaps hampering application of intertidal habitats in coastal protection: Opportunities and steps to take. Coastal Engineering 87: 147-157.

Brody, S., and W. Highfield. 2013. Open space protection and flood mitigation: A national study. Land Use Policy 32: 89-95.

Brody, S., D. Godschalk, and R. Burby. 2003. Mandating citizen participation in plan making: Six strategic planning choices. Journal of the American Planning Association 69(3): 245-264.

Broekx, S., S. Smets, I. Liekens, D. Bulckaen, and L. De Nocker. 2011. Designing a long-term flood risk management plan for the Scheldt estuary using a risk-based approach. Natural Hazards 57: 245-266.

Brooks, R. A., C. N. Purdy, S. S. Bell, and K. J. Sulak. 2006. The benthic community of the eastern US continental shelf: A literature synopsis of benthic faunal resources. Continental Shelf Research 26: 804-818.

Brouwer, R., and D. Pearce (eds.). 2005. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Resource Management. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Browder, A. E., and R. G. Dean. 2000. Monitoring and comparison to predictive models of the Perdido Key beach nourishment project, Florida, USA. Coastal Engineering 30(2-4): 173-191.

Brown, J. T. 2012. FEMA’s Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service R42527. Available at https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42527.pdf.

Browne, M. A., and M. G. Chapman. 2011. Ecologically informed engineering reduces loss of intertidal biodiversity on artificial shores. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 8204-8207.

BSI (British Standards Institution). 2002. Risk Management: Vocabulary—Guidelines for Use in Standards. Published Document ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002.

Building Seismic Safety Council. 1995. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, Part 2—Commentary (FEMA 303), 1994 ed. FEMA 222A Report. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Bulleri, F., and M. G. Chapman. 2010. The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 26-35.

Burby, R. 2006. Hurricane Katrina and the paradoxes of government disaster policy: Bringing about wise governmental decisions for hazardous areas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604: 171-191.

Burby, R. J., and P. J. May. 1997. Making Governments Plan: State Experiments in Managing Land Use. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Burby, R., S. Bollens, E. Kaiser, D. Mullan, and J. Sheaffer. 1988. Cities Under Water: A Comparative Evaluation of Ten Cities’ Efforts to Manage Floodplain Land Use. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Burkett, V., and M. Davidson (eds.). 2013. Coastal Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerabilities: A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment. Available at http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/technicalinputreports/Burkett_Davidson_Coasts_Final_.pdf [accessed June 30, 2014].

Burt, J., A. Bartholemew, and P. Sale. 2011. Benthic development on large-scale engineered reefs: A comparison of communities among breakwaters of different age and natural reefs. Ecological Engineering 37: 191-198.

Callaway, R. M. 1995. Positive interactions among plants. Botanical Review 61: 306-349.

Camfield, F. E. 1993. Different views of beachfill performance. Shore and Beach 61(4): 4-8.

Carbognin, L., P. Teatini, A. Tomasin, and L. Tosi. 2010. Global change and relative sea level rise at Venice: What impact in term of flooding. Climate Dynamics 35: 1055-1063.

Carter, N. T. 2012. Federal Involvement in Flood Response and Flood Infrastructure Repair: Storm Sandy Recovery. Congressional Research Service R-42803. Available at http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42803.pdf.

Carter, N. T., and C. V. Stern. 2013. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities. Congressional Research Service R-41243. Available at http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41243.pdf.

CBO (Congressional Budget Office). 2007. Potential Cost Savings from the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program (September). Available at http://hazardmitigation.calema.ca.gov/docs/09-28-disaster.pdf.

CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality). 2013. Principles and Requirements for Federal Investment in Water Resources. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/final_principles_and_requirements_march_2013.pdf [accessed January 6, 2014].

Chapman, M. G., and A. J. Underwood. 2011. Evaluation of ecological engineering of “armored” shorelines to improve their value as habitat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400: 302-313.

Chen, Y., B. Liao, M. Li, B. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhong, H. Li, and W. Lin. 2012. Wind-attenuation effect of Sonneratia apetala and Kandelia obovata plantations. Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao 23(4): 959-964.

Christianen, M. J., J. van Belzen, P. M. Herman, M. van Katwijk, L. P. Lamers, P. J. van Leent, and T. J. Bouma. 2013. Low-canopy seagrass beds still provide important coastal protection services. PLoS ONE 8(5): e62413.

Cialone, M. A., and D. K. Stauble. 1998. Historical findings on ebb shoal mining. Journal of Coastal Research 14: 537-563.

Climate Central. 2012. Surging Seas, Sea Level Rise Analysis. Available at http://sealevel.climatecentral.org [accessed June 30, 2014].

CNRA (California Natural Resources Agency). 2009. 2009 California Climate Adaptation Strategy. Available at http://resources.ca.gov/climate_adaptation/docs/Statewide_Adaptation_Strategy.pdf [accessed June 30, 2014].

Coastal Research Center. 2013. Beach-Dune Performance Assessment of New Jersey Beach Profile Network (NJBPN) Sites at Northern Ocean County, New Jersey After Hurricane Sandy, Related to FEMA Disaster DR-NJ 4086. Unpublished report, Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey.

Comiskey, J. J. 2005. Overview of flood damages prevented by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers flood control reduction programs and activities. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 130(1): 13-19.

Convertino, M., J. F. Donoghue, M. L. Chu-Agor, G. A. Kiker, R. Muñoz-Carpena, R. A. Fischer, and I. Linkov. 2011. Anthropogenic renourishment feedback on shorebirds: A multispecies Bayesian perspective. Ecological Engineering 37: 1184-1194.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Corotis, R. B. 2011. Conceptual and analytical difference between resiliency and reliability for seismic hazards. Pp. 2010-2020 in Structures Congress 2011, edited by D. Ames, T. L. Droessler, and M. Hoit. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. CD-ROM.

Costanza, R., O. Pérez-Maqueo, M. L. Martinez, P. Sutton, S. J. Anderson, and K. Mulder. 2008. The value of coastal wetlands for hurricane protection. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 37(4): 241-248.

CPRA LA, 2012. Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. Coastal Protections and Restoration Authority Members.

Crain, A. D., A. B. Bolten, and K. A. Bjorndal. 1995. Effects of beach nourishment on sea turtles: Review and research initiatives. Restoration Ecology 3: 95-104.

Cutter, G. R., R. J. Diaz, J. A. Musick, J. Olney, Sr., D. M. Bilkovic, J. P.-Y. Maa, S.-C. Kim, C. S. Hardaway, Jr., D. A. Milligan, R. Brindley, and C. H. Hobbs III. 2000. Environmental Survey of Potential Sand Resource Sites Offshore Delaware and Maryland. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service. OCS Study 2000-055. Available at http://www.boem.gov/Non-Energy-Minerals/2000-055.aspx.

Dalton, J. 2013. Sandy Shows We Must Use Holistic Approach. Environmental Forum. Washington, DC: Environmental Law Institute.

Davis, A. B. 1961. The Galveston Sea Wall. Shore and Beach 29(2): 6-13.

Day, J. W., N. P. Psuty, and B. C. Perez. 2000. The role of pulsing events in the functioning of coastal barriers and wetlands: Implications for human impact, management and the response to sea level rise. In Concepts and Controversies in Salt Marsh Ecology, M. P. Weinstein and D. Dreeger, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Day, J. W., D. F. Boesch, E. J. Clairain, G. P. Kemp, S. B. Laska, W. J. Mitsch, K. Orth, H. Mashriqui, D. J. Reed, L. Shabman, C. A. Simenstad, B. J. Streever, R. R. Twilley, C. C. Watson, J. T. Wells, and D. F. Whingham. 2007. Restoration of the Mississippi River delta: Lessons from hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 315: 1679-1684.

De Lillis, M., L. Costanzo, P. M. Bianco, and A. Tinelli. 2004. Sustainability of sand dune restoration along the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of Coastal Conservation 10: 93-100.

Dean, R. G. 1986. Coastal armoring: Effects, principles and mitigation. Pp 1843-1857 in Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, edited by B. L. Edge. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Dean, R. G. 2002. Beach Nourishment: Theory and Practice. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Dean, R. G., and C. J. Bender. 2006. Static wave setup with emphasis on damping effects by vegetation and bottom friction. Coastal Engineering 53(2): 149-156.

Dean, R. G., and R. A. Dalrymple. 2002. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.

De Lillis M, Costanzo L, Bianco PM, Tinelli A. 2005. Sustainability of sand dune restoration along the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Journal of Coastal Conservation 10: 93-100.

Deltacommissie. 1962. Rapport Deltacommissie [Report of the Delta Committee]. Eindrappport en Interimadviezen [Final Report and Interim Advice] (in Dutch). The Hague: State Printing and Publishing Office.

Deltacommissie. 2008. Working Together with Water: A Living Land Builds for Its Future. Findings of the Deltacommissie 2008. English synopsis. Available at http://www.deltacommissie.com/doc/deltareport_full.pdf [accessed February 24, 2014].

Dennison, W. C. 1987. Effects of light on seagrass photosynthesis, growth and depth distribution. Aquatic Botany 27: 15-26.

DHS (U.S. Department of Homeland Security). 2007. Infrastructure Resiliency Guide: Reduce Your Vulnerabilities and Make Your Infrastructure Stronger, Version 1.0. Technical Report. Available at https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=4459.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

DHS. 2009a. Congressional Budget Justification: FY 2010. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs_congressional_budget_justification_fy2010.pdf.

DHS. 2009b. Budget-in-Brief Fiscal Year 2010. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/budget_bib_fy2010.pdf.

DHS. 2010a. Congressional Budget Justification: FY 2011. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs_congressional_budget_justification_fy2011.pdf.

DHS. 2010b. FY 2011 Budget in Brief. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/budget_bib_fy2011.pdf].

DHS. 2011a. Congressional Budget Justification: FY 2012. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-congressional-budget-justification-fy2012.pdf.

DHS. 2011b. FY 2012 Budget in Brief. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/budget-bib-fy2012.pdf.

DHS. 2012a. Survey of Hazard Mitigation Planning. Washington, DC: Office of Inspector General. Available at http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-109_Aug12.pdf.

DHS. 2012b. U.S. Department of Homeland Security Annual Performance Report: Fiscal Years 2011–2013. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/mgmt/cfo_apr_fy2011.pdf.

DHS. 2012c. FY 2013 Budget in Brief. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/mgmt/dhs-budget-in-brief-fy2013.pdf.

DHS. 2013a. Federal Emergency Management Agency Disaster Relief Fund. FY 2013, Congressional Justification. Available at http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/budget/11f_fema_disaster_relief_fund_dhs_fy13_cj.pdf.

DHS. 2013b. National Mitigation Framework. Available at http://www.fema.gov/nationalmitigation-framework.

DHS. 2013c. National Response Framework, 2nd Ed. Available at http://www.fema.gov/national-response-framework.

DHS. 2013d. U.S. Department of Homeland Security Annual Performance Report: Fiscal Years 2012 – 2014. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/images/DHS%20FY%202012-FY%202014%20Annual%20Performance%20Report.pdf.

DHS. 2013e. Budget-in-Brief Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/MGMT/FY%202014%20BIB%20-%20FINAL%20-508%20Formatted%20%284%29.pdf.

DHS. 2014a. U.S. Department of Homeland Security Annual Performance Report: Fiscal Years 2013–2015. Washington, DC. Available at https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/MGMT/DHS-FY-2013-FY-2015-APR.pdf.

DHS. 2014b. Budget-in-Brief Fiscal Year 2015. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/FY15BIB.pdf.

Diamond, P., and J. Hausman. 1994. Contingent valuation: Is some number better than no number? Journal of Economic Perspectives 8: 45-64.

Dijkman, J (ed.). 2007. A Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk Reduction and Landscape Stabilization: Second Interim Report to the U.S. Army. London: International Research Office of the U.S. Army.

Doody, J. P. 2001. Coastal conservation and management: An ecological perspective. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Douglass, S. L., and J. Krolak. 2008. Highways in the Coastal Environment. Publication FHWA-NHI-07-096. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Adminsitration. Available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/hydraulics/pubs/07096/07096.pdf.

Douglass, S. L., and B. H. Pickel. 1999. The tide doesn’t go out anymore—the effect of bulkheads on urban shorelines. Shore and Beach 67: 19-25.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Duarte, C. M., I. J. Losada, I. E. Hendriks, I. Mazarrasa, and N. Marbà, 2013. The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nature Climate Change 3: 961-968.

Dudley, S. E., and S. L. Hays. 2007. Updated Principles for Risk Analysis. Memorandum for the Heads of Departments and Executive Agencies. M-07-24. Office of Management and Budget, and Office of Technology Policy, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/memoranda/fy2007/m07-24.pdf

Dugan, J. E., and D. M. Hubbard. 2006. Ecological responses to coastal armoring on exposed sandy beaches. Shore and Beach 74(1): 10-16.

Dugan, J. E., D. M. Hubbard, I. F. Rodil, D. L. Revell, and S. Schroeter. 2008. Ecological effects of coastal armoring on sandy beaches. Marine Ecology 29: 160-170.

Eelkema, M., Z. B. Wang, A. Hibma, and M. J. Stive. 2013. Morphological effects of the Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier on the ebb-tidal delta. Coastal Engineering Journal 55(3): 1350010, doi:10.1142/S0578563413500101.

Emanuel, K. A. 2013. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301293110.

Environment Agency. 2007. Flood Risk Management Estimating Guide. Unit Cost Database 2007. Bristol, UK: Environment Agency.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/ Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants, 53 Fed. Reg. 28496.

EPA, Office of Air and Radiation. 2011. The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020. Washington, DC: USEPA.

Ericksen, N. J., P. R. Berke, J. L. Crawford, and J. E. Dixon. 2004. Plan-making for Sustainability: The New Zealand Experience. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Executive Office of the President. 1952. Reports and budget estimates relating to Federal programs and projects for conservation, development, or use of water and related land resources. Bureau of the Budget Circular A-47. December 31, 1952.

Executive Office of the President. 1977. Presidential Executive Order 11988 (Floodplain Management). Washington, DC.

Executive Office of the President. 2013. The President’s Climate Action Plan. June 2013. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf.

Ezer, T., L. P. Atkinson, W. B. Corlett, and J. L. Blanco. 2013. Gulf Stream’s induced sea level rise and variability along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. Journal of Geophysical Research 118(2): 685-697.

Feagin, R. A. 2005. Artificial dunes created to protect property on Galveston Island, Texas: The lessons learned. Ecological Restoration 23: 89-94.

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2000. Above the Flood: Elevating Your Floodprone Home. Report No. 347. Washington, DC: FEMA. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1443-20490-7815/fema347_complete.pdf.

FEMA. 2012. Community Rating System Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: FEMA. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/9998.

FEMA. 2013. National Flood Insurance Program Community Rating System Coordinator’s Manual. FIA-15/2013. Washington, DC: FEMA. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1557-20490-9922/crs_manual_508_ok_5_10_13_bookmarked.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Fenster, M. S., C. B. Knisley, and C. T. Reed. 2006. Habitat preference and the effects of beach nourishment on the federally threatened northeastern beach tiger beetle, Cicindela dorsalis: Western shore, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Journal of Coastal Research 22: 1111-1144.

Ferrario, F., M. W. Beck, C. D. Storlazzi, F. Micheli, C. C. Shepard, and L. Airoldi. 2014. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation. Nature Communications 5: 3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794.

Fewtrell, L., and J. Bartram (eds.). 2001. Water quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health. London: IWA Publishing.

FIFMTF (Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force). 1986. A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/201307261503-20490-9177/fema100.pdf.

FIFMTF. 1989. Conceptual Framework and Basic Strategies and Tools for Implementing a Unified National Program for Floodplain Management. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

FIFMTF. 1994. A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Available at http://www.fema.gov/medialibrary-data/20130726-1733-25045-0814/unp_floodplain_mgmt_1994.pdf.

FIFMTF. 2012. Guidance on “Unwise Use of Floodplains.” Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/201307261841-25045-7320/fifm_tf_signedunwiseuseguidance_3_26_12.pdf.

FIFMTF. 2013. FIFM Task Force Concensus Recommendations and Actions from a Federal Floodplain Management Policy Analysis. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/201307261905-25045-0495/fifm_tf_consensus_recommendations_signed.pdf.

Finkl, C. W. 1996. What might happen to America’s shorelines if artificial beach replenishment is curtailed: A prognosis for southeastern Florida and other sandy regions along regressive coasts. Journal of Coastal Research 12: iii-ix.

FitzGerald, D. M., M. S. Fenster, B. A. Argow, and I. V. Buynevich. 2008. Coastal impacts due to sea-level rise. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 36: 601-647.

Foderaro, L. 2013. Breach through Fire Island also divides opinions. New York Times. April 2, A13.

Fonseca, M. S., J. S. Fisher, J. C. Zieman, and G. W. Thayer. 1982. Influence of the seagrass, Zostera marina L., on current flow. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 15(4): 351-364.

Freeman, A. M. III. 2003. The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values: Theory and Methods. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Freestone, A. L., and K. F. Nordstrom. 2001. Early evolution of restored dune plant microhabitats on a nourished beach at Ocean City, New Jersey. Journal of Coastal Conservation 7: 105-116.

FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2002. Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report: Bogue Banks Shore Protection Project, Carteret County, NC. Raleigh, NC: Ecological Services Field Office, FWS.

Gall, M., K. A. Borden, C. T. Emrich, and S. L. Cutter. 2011. The unsustainable trend of natural hazard losses in the United States. Sustainability (3): 2157-2181.

Galloway, G. E., G. B. Baecher, D. Plasencia, K. G. Coulton, J. Louthain, M. Bagha, and A. R. Levy. 2006. Assessing the Adequacy of the National Flood Insurance Program’s 1 Percent Flood Standard. College Park, MD: Water Policy Collaborative, University of Maryland.

Gambi, M. C., A. Nowell, and P. A. Jumars. 1990. Flume observations on flow dynamics in Zostera marina (eelgrass) beds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 61(1-2): 159-169.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1976. Cost, Schedule, and Performance Problems of the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity, Louisiana, Hurricane Protection Project. PSAD-76-161. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). 2005. Hurricane Protection: Statutory and Regulatory Framework for Levee Maintenance and Emergency Response for the Lake Pontchartrain Project. GAO-06-322T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

GAO. 2007. Coastal Barrier Resources System: Status of Development That Has Occurred and Financial Assistance Provided by Federal Agencies. GAO-07-356. Washington, DC: GAO. Available at http://www.gao.gov/assets/260/257815.pdf.

GAO. 2013. Hurricane Sandy Relief: Improved Guidance on Designing Internal Control Plans Could Enhance Oversight of Disaster Funding. GAO-14-58. Washington, DC: GAO. Available at http://www.recovery.gov/Sandy/Documents/GAO%20Improved%20Guidance%20Sandy.pdf.

Gedan, K., and B. R. Silliman. 2009. Patterns of salt marsh loss within coastal regions of North America. Pp. 253-266 in Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective, edited by B. R. Silliman, T. Grosholz, and M. D. Bertness. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gedan, K. B., M. L. Kirwan, E. Wolanski, E. B. Barbier, and B. R. Silliman. 2011. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change 106: 7-29.

GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory). 2013. Global Warming and Hurricanes: An Overview of Current Research Results. Available at http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/globalwarming-and-hurricanes.

Godschalk, D., and W. Anderson. 2012. Sustaining Places: The Role of the Comprehensive Plan. Planning Advisory Service Report No. 567. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.

Godschalk, D., E. Kaiser, and P. Berke. 1998. Land Use Planning and Natural Hazard Mitigation. Pp. 85-118 in Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities, edited by R. Burby. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Godschalk, D., S. Brody, and R. Burby. 2003. Public Participation in natural hazard mitigation policy: Challenges in comprehensive planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 46(5): 733-754.

Godschalk, D., A. Rose, E. Mittler, K. Porter, and C. T. West. 2009. Estimating the value of foresight: Aggregate analysis of natural hazard mitigation benefits and costs. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52(6): 739-756.

Gorzelany, J. F., and W. G. Nelson. 1978. Biological effects of beach nourishment on a subtropical beach. Marine Environmental Research 21: 75-94.

Gouldby, B., and P. Samuels. 2005. Integrated Flood Risk Analysis and Management Methodologies: Language of Risk Project Definitions. Report No. T32-04-0. FLOODsite Consortium. Available at http://www.floodsite.net/html/partner_area/project_docs/floodsite_language_of_risk_v4_0_p1.pdf.

Grabowski, J. H, and C. H. Peterson. 2007. Restoring oyster reefs to recover ecosystem services. Pages 281-298 in K. Cuddington, J. E. Byers, W. G. Wilson, and A. Hastings, eds. Ecosystem Engineers: Plants to Protists. Elsevier.

Grafals-Soto, R. 2012. Effects of sand fences on coastal dune vegetation distribution. Geomorphology 145-146: 45-55.

Graham, H. E., and D. E. Nunn. 1959. Meteorological Considerations Pertinent to Standard Project Hurricane, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. National Hurricane Research Project Report No. 33. Washington, DC.: Weather Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Griggs, G.B., J. F. Tait, K. Scott, and N. Plant. 1991. Tbe Interaction of Seawalls and Beaches: Four Years of Field Monitoring. Monterey Bay, California. Proceedings Coastal Sediments, American Society of Civil Engineers.

Griggs, G.B., J. F. Tait, and W. Corona. 1994. The Interaction of Seawalls and Beaches: Seven Years of Monitoring. Monterey Bay, California.Shore and Beach 62(3): 21-28.

Grinsted, A., J. C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva. 2013. Projected Atlantic hurricane surge threat from rising temperatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 110: 5369-5373.

Haas, H. L., K. A. Rose, B. Fry, T. J. Minello, and L. P. Rozas. 2004. Brown shrimp on the edge: Linking habitat to survival using an individual-based simulation model. Ecological Applications 14(4): 1232-1247.

Hallegatte, S. 2012. Toward a world of larger disasters? Ideas for risk-management policies. VoxEU, Centre for Economic Policy Research. Available at http://www.voxeu.org/article/toward-world-larger-disasters-ideas-risk-management-policies.

Hallegatte, S., C. Green, R. J. Nicholls, and J. Corfee-Morlot. 2013. Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature climate change 3(9): 802-806.

Hammond, R. J. 1966. Convention and limitation in benefit-cost analysis. Natural Resources Journal 6: 195-222.

Hanemann, W. M. 1989. Information and the concept of option value. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 16: 23-37.

Hanemann, W. M. 1994. Contingent valuation and economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives 8: 19-44.

Hanson, S., R. Nicholls, N. Ranger, S. Hallegatte, J. Corfee-Morlot, C. Herweijer, and J. Chateau. 2011. A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Climatic Change 104(1): 89-111. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9977-4

Harrison, D., and D. Rubinfeld. 1978. Hedonic housing prices and the demand for clean air. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 5: 81-102.

Hawkins, S., H. F. Burcharth, B. Zanuttigh, and A. Lamberti. 2007. Environmental Design Guidelines for Low Crested Coastal Structures, 1st Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Hearon, G. E., W. G. McDougal, and P. D. Komar. 1996. Long-term beach response to shore stabilization structures on the Oregon coast. Pp. 2718-2731 in Coastal Engineering 1996. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Hess, J., J. McDowell, and G. Lube. 2012. Integrating climate change adaptation into public health practice: Using adaptive management to increase adaptive capacity and build resilience. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(2): 171-179.

Hettiarachchi, S. L., S. P. Samarawickrama, H. J. S. Fernando, A. Harsha, R. Ratnasooriya, N. A. Kithsiri Nandasena, and S. Bandara. 2013. Investigating the performance of coastal ecosystems for hazard mitigation. Pp. 57-81 in The Role of Ecosystems in Disaster Risk Reduction, edited by F. G. Renaud, K. Sudmeier-Rieux, and M. Estrella. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Hobbs, C. H. III. 2002. An investigation of potential consequences of marine mining in shallow water: An example from the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. Journal of Coastal Research 18: 94-101.

Holling, C. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. New York: Wiley. Houston, J. R. 1991. Beachfill performance. Shore and Beach 59(3): 15-24.

Houston, J. R. 1996. Engineering practice for beach-fill designs. Shore and Beach 64(3): 27-35. Houston, J. R. 2013. The value of Florida beaches. Shore and Beach 81(4): 4-11.

Howe, C. W. 1971. Benefit-Cost Analysis for Water System Planning. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.

HSE (Health and Safety Executive). 2001. Reducing Risks, Protecting People: HSE’s Decision-making Process. London: HSE Books, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Hunter, P. R., and L. Fewtrell. 2001. Acceptable risk. Pp. 207-227 in Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health, edited by L. Fewtrell and J. Bartram. London: IWA Publishing.

Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force. 2013. Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. August.

ICCATF (Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force). 2011. Federal Actions for a Climate Resilient Nation: A Progress Report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ceq/2011_adaptation_progress_report.pdf.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2013. Environmental Decisions in the Face of Uncertainty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Changes to the underlying scientific/technical assessment. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. A Special Report of Working Group I Contribution to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report. Available at https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/docs/review/P36Doc4_WGI-12_ChangesUnderlying-Assessment.pdf.

IPET (Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force). 2007. Performance Evaluation of the New Orleans and Southeast Louisiana Hurricane Protection System, Vol. 5: The Performance—Levees and Floodwalls. Final Report. Available at https://ipet.wes.army.mil/.

IPET. 2009. Performance Evaluation of the New Orleans and Southeast Louisiana Hurricane Protection System: Final Report. Available at https://ipet.wes.army.mil/ [accessed December 4, 2012].

Irish, J., P. Lynett, R. Weiss, S. Smallegan, and W. Chen. 2013. Buried relic seawall mitigates Hurricane Sandy’s impacts. Coastal Engineering 80: 79-82.

Jackson, N. L., K. F. Nordstrom, and D. R. Smith. 2002. Geomorphic-biotic interactions on beach foreshores in estuaries. Journal of Coastal Research SI36: 414-424.

Jackson, N. L., D. R. Smith, and K. F. Nordstrom. 2005. Comparison of sediment grain size characteristics on nourished and un-nourished estuarine beaches and impacts on horseshoe crab habitat, Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplementband 141: 31-45.

Jackson, N. L., D. R. Smith, R. Tiyarattanachi, and K. F. Nordstrom. 2007. Evaluation of a small beach nourishment project to enhance habitat suitability for horseshoe crabs. Geomorphology 89: 172-185.

Jackson, N. L., D. R. Smith, and K. F. Nordstrom. 2008. Physical and chemical changes in the foreshore of an estuarine beach: Implications for viability and development of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 355: 209-218.

Jackson, N. L., K. F. Nordstrom, S. Saini, and D. R. Smith. 2010. Effects of nourishment on the form and function of an estuarine beach. Ecological Engineering 36: 1709-1718.

Jiabi, X., P. Sayers, S. Dongya, and Z. Hanghui. 2013. Broad-scale reliability analysis of the flood defence infrastructure within the Taihu Basin, China. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6: 42-56.

Jones, H. P., D. G. Hole, and E. S. Zavaleta. 2012. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2: 504-509.

Jones, S. C., D. K. Tidwell, and S. B. Darby. 2009. Comprehensive Shoreline Mapping, Baldwin and Mobile Counties, Alabama: Phase 1. Open File Report 0921. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.

Jones, S. R., and W. R. Magnun. 2001. Beach nourishment and public policy after Hurricane Floyd: Where do we go from here? Ocean and Coastal Management 44: 207-220.

Jonkman, S., M. Kok, and J. Vrijling. 2008. Flood risk assessment in the Netherlands: A case study for Dike Ring South Holland. Risk Analysis 28(5): 1357-1373.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Jonkman, S., R. Jongejan, and B. Maaskan. 2011. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy—nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications. Risk Analysis 31(2): 282-300.

Jordan, L. K. B., K. W. Banks, and L. E. Fisher. 2010. Elevated sedimentation on coral reefs adjacent to a beach nourishment project. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 261-271.

Keeney, R., and H. Raiffa. 1993. Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kelley, S. W., J. S. Ramsey, and M. R. Byrnes. 2001. Numerical Modeling Evaluation of the Cumulative Physical Effects of Offshore Sand Dredging for Beach Nourishment. BOEM2001-098. Washington, DC: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.

Kelman, S. 1981. Cost-benefit analysis: An ethical critique. AEI Journal on Government and Society Regulation 5(January/February): 33-40.

Kind, J. M. 2013. Economically efficient flood protection standards for the Netherlands. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 7(2): 103-117.

King, R. O. 2013. The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. R42850.

Knutson, T. R., J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. Garner, M. Zhao, H.-S. Kim, M. Bender, R. E. Tuleya, I. M. Held, and G. Villarini. 2013. Dynamical downscaling projections of late twenty-first century Atlantic hurricane activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model-based scenarios. Journal of Climate 26: 6591-6617.

Kobayashi, N., A. W. Raichle, and T. Asano. 1993. Wave attenuation by vegetation. Journal of Waterways Port Coastal Ocean Engineering 119(1): 30-48.

Kraus, N. C. 1988. The effects of seawalls on the beach: An extended literature review. Journal of Coastal Research SI4: 1-29.

Kraus, N. C., and L. Lin. 2009. Hurricane Ike along the upper Texas coast: An introduction. Shore and Beach 77(2): 3-8.

Kraus, N. C., and W. G. McDougal. 1996. The effects of seawalls on the beach: Part I, An updated literature review. Journal of Coastal Research 12(3): 691-701.

Krauss, K. W., T. W. Doyle, T. J. Doyle, C. M. Swarzenski, A. S. From, R. H. Day, and W. H. Conner. 2009. Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida. Wetlands 29(1): 142-149.

Krupnick, A., A. Alberini, M. Cropper, N. Simon, B. O’Brien, R. Goeree, and M. Heintzelman. 2002. Age, health, and the willingness to pay for mortality risk reductions: A contingent valuation survey of Ontario residents. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 24(2): 161-186.

Kunreuther, H. 1996. Mitigating disaster losses through insurance. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 12: 171-187.

Kunreuther, H. 2006. Disaster mitigation and insurance: Learning from Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604: 208-227.

Kunreuther, H. 2008. Moral Hazard. Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment III. DOI: 10.1002/9780470061596.risk0655.

Landsea, C. W. 2007. Counting Atlantic tropical cyclones back to 1900. Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 88(18): 197-202.

Lavery, S., and B. Donovan. 2005. Flood risk management in the Thames Estuary looking ahead 100 years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 363(1831): 1455-1474.

Leatherman, S. 1989. National Assessment of Beach Nourishment Requirements Associated with Accelerated Sea Level Rise. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation.

Leewis, L., P. M. van Bodegom, J. Rozema, and G. M. Janssen. 2012. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 113: 172-181.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Lenihan, H.S. 1999. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: How habitat structure influences individual performance. Ecological Monographs 69(3): 251-275.

Lin, N., K. A. Emanuel, M. Oppenheimer, and E. Vanmarcke. 2012. Physically based assessment of hurricane surge threat under climate change. Nature Climate Change 2: 462-467.

Lindeman, K. C., and D. B. Snyder. 1999. Nearshore hardbottom fishes of southeast Florida and effects of habitat burial caused by dredging. Fishery Bulletin 97: 508-525.

Lindsay, B. R. 2014. FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund: Overview and Selected Issues. Congressional Research Service. Available at http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R43537.pdf.

Lindsay, B. R., and J. Murray. 2011. Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations. Congressional Research Service R40708.

Linham, M. M., C. H. Green, and R. J. Nicholls. 2010. Costs of Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in the World’s Large Port Cities. AVOID Report AV/WS2/D1/R14. Available at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/media/pdf/k/s/AVOID_WS2_D1_14_20100701.pdf.

London, J. B., C. S. Dyckman, J. S. Allen, C. C. St. John, I. L. Wood, and S. R. Jackson. 2009. An Assessment of Shoreline Management Options Along the South Carolina Coast. Clemson University Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs and South Carolina Water Resources Center. Available at http://www.scdhec.gov/environment/ocrm/docs/SCAC/Shoreline_Options_SC.pdf.

Lyles, W., P. Berke, and G. Smith. 2013. Do planners matter? Examining factors driving incorporation of land use approaches into hazard mitigation plans. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 57(5): 792-811.

Malanson, G. P. 2002. Extinction-debt trajectories and spatial patterns of habitat destruction. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92: 177-188.

Manning, L. M., C. H. Peterson, and S. R. Fegley. 2013. Degradation of surf-fish foraging habitat driven by persistent sedimentological modifications caused by beach nourishment. Bulletin of Marine Science 89: 83-106.

Marcomini, S. C., and R. A. López. 2006. Evolution of a beach nourishment project at Mar del Plata. Journal of Coastal Research SI39: 834-837.

Martínez, M. L., and J. G. García-Franco. 2004. Plant-plant interactions in coastal dunes. Pp. 205-220 in Coastal Dunes, Ecology and Conservation, edited by M. L. Martínez and N. P. Psuty. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Maslo, B., S. N. Handel, and T. Pover. 2011. Restoring beaches for Atlantic Coast piping plovers (Charadrius melodus): A classification and tree analysis of nest-site selection. Restoration Ecology 19: 194-203.

Maun, M. A. 2004. Burial of plants as a selective force in sand dunes. Pp. 119-135 in Coastal Dunes, Ecology and Conservation, edited by M. L. Martínez and N. P. Psuty. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Mauriello, M. N. 1991. Beach nourishment and dredging: New Jersey’s policies. Shore and Beach 59(3): 25-28.

May, P., R. Burby, N. Ericksen, J. Handmer, J. Dixon, S. Michaels, and D. I. Smith. 1996. Environmental Management and Governance: Intergovernmental Approaches to Hazards and Sustainability. London: Routledge Press.

Mazda, Y., M. Magi, Y. Ikeda, T. Kurokawa, and T. Asano. 2006. Wave reduction in a mangrove forest dominated by Sonneratia sp. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14(4): 365-378.

McBride, R. A., M. R. Byrnes, and H. W. Hiland. 1995. Geomorphic response-type model for barrier coastlines: A regional perspective. Marine Geology 126(1): 143-159.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

McIvor, A. L., T. Spencer, I. Möller, and M. Spalding. 2012. Storm Surge Reduction by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series, Report 2. Cambridge Coastal Research Unit Working Paper 41. The Nature Conservancy and Wetlands International. Available at http://coastalresilience.org/sites/default/files/resources/storm-surge-reduction-bymangroves-report.pdf.

Mcleod, E., G. L. Chmura, S. Bouillon, R. Salm, M. Björk, C. M. Duarte, C. E. Lovelock, W. H. Schlessinger, and B. R. Silliman. 2011. A blueprint for blue carbon: Toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(10): 552-560.

Melillo, J. M., T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe (eds.). 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. doi:10.7930/J0Z31WJ2.

Mendelssohn, I. A., M. W. Hester, F. J. Monteferrante, and F. Talbot. 1991. Experimental dune building and vegetative stabilization in a sand-deficient barrier island setting on the Louisiana coast, USA. Journal of Coastal Research 7: 137-149.

Michel, J., R. Nairn, C. H. Peterson, S. W. Ross, R. Weisberg, and R. Randall. 2007. Critical Technical Review and Evaluation of Site-Specific Studies Techniques for the MMS Marine Minerals Program. OCS Study MMS 2007-047. U.S. Department of the Interior, Marine Minerals Service. Available at http://www.boem.gov/Non-Energy-Minerals/2007-047.aspx.

Michel-Kerjan, E. 2010. Catastrophe economics: The National Flood Insurance Program. Journal of Economic Perspectives 24: 165-186.

Michel-Kerjan, E. O. 2013. Have We Entered an Ever-Growing Cycle on Government Disaster Relief? U.S. Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Washington, DC. Available at http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/risk/library/US-Senate-Small-BusinessCte_2013Mar14_MichelKerjan.pdf.

Mileti, D. 1999. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Minello, T. J., R. J. Zimmerman, and R. Medina. 1994. The importance of edge for natant macrofauna in a created salt-marsh. Wetlands 14(3): 184-198.

Minerals Management Service. 2001. Development and Design of Biological and Physical Monitoring Protocols to Evaluate the Long-Term Impacts of Offshore Dredging Operations on the Marine Environment. Final Report MMS 2001-089. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service. Available at http://www.boem.gov/Non-EnergyMinerals/2001-089.aspx.

Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat [Ministry of Transport]. 2007. Hydraulisch Randvoorwaardenboek 2006 [Hydraulic Conditions for Dune 2006 Flood] (in Dutch).

Mishan, E. 1971. Evaluation of life and limb. Journal of Political Economy 79(4): 687-705.

Moore, J. W., and D. P. Moore. 1989. The Army Corps of Engineers and the Evolution of Federal Flood Plain Management Policy. Boulder Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Morang, A. 2007. Hurricane Barriers in New England and New Jersey—History and Status After Four Decades. ERDC/CHL TR-07-11. U.S. Army Engineer District, New Orleans. Available at http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a473784.pdf.

Moschella, P. S., M. Abbiati, P. Aberg, L. Airoldi, J. M. Anderson, F. Bacchiocchi, F. Bulleri, G. E. Dinesen, M. Frost, E. Gacia, L. Granhag, P. R. Jonsson, M. P. Satta, A. Sundelöf, R. C. Thompson, and S. J. Hawkins. 2005. Low-crested coastal defense structures as artificial habitats for marine life: Using ecological criteria in design. Coastal Engineering 52: 1053-1071.

Mrozek, J., and L. O. Taylor. 2002. What determines the value of life? A meta-analysis. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21(2): 253-270.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Murray, C., and D. R. Marmorek. 2004. Adaptive management: A science-based approach to managing ecosystems in the face of uncertainty. In Making Ecosystem-Based Management Work: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, Victoria, British Columbia, edited by N. W. P. Munro, T. B. Herman, K. Beazley, and P. Dearden. Wolfville, Nova Scotia: Science and Management of Protected Areas Association.

Nagelkerken, I., S. Bouillon, P. Green, and M. Haywood. 2008.The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review. Aquatic Botany 89(2): 155-185.

Nelson, A. C., and S. P. French. 2002. Plan Quality and Mitigating Damage from Natural Disasters: A Case Study of the Northridge Earthquake with Planning Policy Considerations. Journal of the American Planning Association 68: 194-207.

Nelson, W. G. 1989. Beach nourishment and hard bottom habitats: The case for caution. Pp. 109-116 in Proceedings of the 1989 National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology. Tallahassee: Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association.

Nelson, W.G. 1993. Beach restoration in the southeastern US: Environmental effects and biological monitoring. Ocean and Coastal Management 19: 157-182.

Nepf, H.M., 1999. Drag, turbulence, and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation. Water Resources Research (35) 2: 479-489.

New Orleans City Planning Commission. 1999. New Century New Orleans, 1999 Land Use Plan, City of New Orleans. New Orleans City Planning Commission.

Newell, R. C., L. J. Seiderer, N. M. Simpson, and J. E. Robinson. 2004. Impacts of marine aggregate dredging on benthic macrofauna of the south coast of the United Kingdom. Journal of Coastal Research 20: 115-125.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).1979. Meteorological criteria for standard project hurricane and probable maximum hurricane windfields, gulf and east coasts of the United States. NOAA Technical Report.

NOAA. 2007. Beach Noursihment: A Guide for Local Government Officials. Available at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/beachnourishment/html/human/law/sec404.htm.

NOAA. 2013. FY2014 Budget Summary. Available at http://www.corporateservices.noaa.gov/nbo/fy14_bluebook/FINALnoaaBlueBook_2014_Web_Full.pdf.

Nordhaus, W. D. 2007. A review of the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change. Journal of Economic Literature 45: 686-702.

Nordstrom, K. F. 2005. Beach nourishment and coastal habitats: Research needs for improving compatibility. Restoration Ecology 13: 215-222.

Nordstrom, K. F. 2008. Beach and Dune Restoration. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Nordstrom, K. F. In press. Living with shore protection structures: A review. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2013.11.003.

Nordstrom, K. F., R. Lampe, and L. M. Vandemark. 2000. Re-establishing naturally-functioning dunes on developed coasts. Environmental Management 25: 37-51.

Nordstrom, K. F., N. L. Jackson, N. C. Kraus, T. W. Kana, R. Bearce, L. M. Bocamazo, D. R. Young, and H. A. DeButts. 2011. Enhancing geomorphic and biologic functions and values on backshores and dunes of developed shores: A review of opportunities and constraints. Environmental Conservation 38: 288-302.

Nordstrom, K. F., N. L. Jackson, A. L. Freestone, K. H. Korotky and J. A. Puleo. 2012. Effects of beach raking and sand fences on dune dimensions and morphology. Geomorphology 179: 106-115.

NPCC (New York City Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate Risk Information 2013: Observations, Climate Change Projections, and Maps. C. Rosenzweig and W. Solecki (eds.). Prepared for use by the City of New York Special Initiative on Rebuilding and Resilency, New York.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1995. Beach Nourishment and Protection. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society, edited by P. Stern and H. Fineberg. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999. New Directions in Water Resources Planning for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001. Building Community Disaster resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2004a. Adaptive Management for Water Resources Project Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2004b. Analytical Methods and Approaches for Water Resources Project Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007. Migitating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009. Mapping the Zone: Improving Flood Map Accuracy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010. Private-Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Resilience: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 2011a. Assessing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters: The Perspective from the Gulf Cost of Louisiana and Mississippi: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2011b. National Water Resources Challenges Facing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2012a. Corps of Engineers Water Resources Infrastructure: Deterioration, Investment, or Divestment? Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 2012b. Disaster Resilience A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2012c. Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington: Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2013. Levees and the National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies and Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NSW-DSC (New South Wales Government, Dams Safety Committee). 2006. Risk Management Policy Framework for Dam Safety. Parramatta: New South Wales Government, Dams Safety Committee.

NYC (New York City). 2013. A Stronger More Resilient New York. Available at http://www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/html/report/report.shtml.

OMB (Office of Management and Budget). 2003. Regulatory Analysis. Circular A-4. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and the Budget, Washington, DC.

OMB. 2010. Report to Congress on the Benefits and Costs of Federal Regulations and Unfunded Mandates on State, Local, and Tribal Entities. Washington, DC: Office of Management and the Budget, and Office of Technology Policy.

Olshansky, R. B. 2001. Land Use Planning for Seismic Safety: The Los Angeles County Experience, 1971-1994. Journal of the American Planning Association 67: 173-185.

Ostrom, E., 2010, Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 20: 550-557.

Ousley, J. D., E. Kromhout, and M. H. Schrader. 2012. Southeast Florida Sediment Assessment and Needs Determinations (SAND) Study. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Ozeren, Y., and D. G. Wren. 2010. Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation. Pp. 45-56 in Coastal Hazards, edited by W. Huang, K.-H. Wang, and Q. J. Chen. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Painter, W., and J. T. Brown. 2013. FY2013 Supplemental Funding for Disaster Relief. Congressional Research Service R42869.

Peterson, C. H., and M. J. Bishop. 2005. Assessing the environmental impacts of beach nourishment. Bioscience 55: 887-896.

Peterson, C. H., M. J. Bishop, G. A. Johnson, L. M. D’Anna, and L. M. Manning. 2006. Exploiting beach filling as an unaffordable experiment: Benthic intertidal impacts propagating up to shorebirds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 338: 205-221.

Peterson, C. H., M. J. Bishop, L. M. D’Anna, and G. A. Johnson. 2014. Multi-year persistence of beach habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments. Science of the Total Environment 487: 481-492.

Pezzuto, P. R., C. Resgalla, Jr., J. G. N. Abreu, and J. T. Menezes. 2006. Environmental impacts of the nourishment of Balneário Camboriú beach, SC, Brazil. Journal of Coastal Research SI39: 863-868.

Pielke, R. A., Jr., J. Gratz, C. W. Landsea, D. Collins, M. A. Saunders, and R. Musulin. 2008. Normalized hurricane damages in the United States: 1900-2005. Natural Hazards Review 9(1): 29-42.

Pilkey, O. H. 1992. Another view of beachfill performance. Shore and Beach 60(2): 20-25.

Pilkey, O. H., and H. L. Wright. 1988. Seawalls versus beaches. Journal of Coastal Research SI4: 41-66.

Pimm, S. L., and P. Raven. 2000. Extinction by numbers. Nature 403: 843-845.

Plant, N. G., and G. B. Griggs. 1992. Interactions between nearshore processes and beach morphology near a seawall. Journal of Coastal Research 8:183-200.

Platt, R. H., D. Salvesen, and G. H. Baldwin. 2002. Rebuilding the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Fran: Did public regulations matter? Coastal Management 30: 249-269.

Polasky, S., and S. Binder. 2012. Valuing the environment for decision-making. Issues in Science and Technology 28(4): 53-62.

Porter, K. 2002. Life safety risk criteria in seismic decisions. Pp. 135-159 in Acceptable Risk Processes: Lifelines and Natural Hazards, edited by C. Taylor and E. H. VanMarcke. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Posey, M., and T. Alphin. 2002. Resilience and stability in an offshore benthic community: Responses to sediment borrow activities and hurricane disturbance. Journal of Coastal Research 18: 685-697.

Powers, S. P., and K. E. Boyer. 2014. Marine restoration ecology. Chapter 22 in Marine Community Ecology and Conservation, edited by M. D. Bertness, J. F. Bruno, B. R. Silliman, and J. J. Stachowicz. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Powers, S. P., C. H. Peterson, J. H. Grabowski, and H. S. Lenihan. 2009. Evaluating the success of constructed oyster reefs in no-harvest sanctuaries: Implications for restoration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 389: 159-170.

Quartel, S., A. Kroon, P. Augustinus, P. Van Santen, and N. H. Tri. 2007. Wave attenuation in coastal mangroves in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29(4): 576-584.

Quay, R. 2010. Anticipatory Governance: A Tool for Climate Change Adaptation. Journal of the American Planning Association 76(4): 496-511.

Rakocinski, C. F., R. W. Heard, S. E. LeCroy, J. A. McLelland, and T. Simons. 1996. Responses by macrobenthic assemblages to extensive beach restoration at Perdido Key, Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research 12: 326-353.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

RAND Corp. 2012. Financing the Operation and Maintenance Costs of Hurricane Protection Infrastructure: Options for the State of Louisiana. TR-1223-OCPR. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp. Available at http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2012/RAND_TR1223.pdf.

RECOVER (Restoration Coordination & Verification). 2011. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Adaptive Management Integration Guide. Restoration Coordination and Verification. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District, and South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL.

Reilly, F. J., and V. J. Bellis. 1983. The ecological impact of beach nourishment with dredged materials on the intertidal zone at Bogue Banks, North Carolina. Miscellaneous Report 83-3. Ft. Belvoir, VA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center.

Renaud, F. G., K. Sudmeier-Rieux, and M. Estrella (eds). 2013. The Role of Ecosystems in Disaster Risk Reduction. New York: United Nations University Press.

Resio, D. T., and J. J. Westerink. 2008. Modeling the physics of storm surges. Physics Today 61: 33-38.

Robinson, M. F. 2004. History of the 1% Chance Flood Standard. Pp. 2-8 in Reducing Flood Losses: Is the 1% Chance (100-Year) Flood Standard Sufficient? Assembly of the Gilbert F. White National Flood Policy Forum. Available at ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/Economics/Technotes/ASFFM-1in100Chance-FPpapers.pdf [accessed June 18, 2014].

Rodriguez, A. B., F. J. Fodrie, J. T. Ridge, N. L. Lindquist, E. J. Theuerkauf, S. E. Coleman, J. H. Grabowski, M. C. Brodeur, R. K. Gittman, D. A. Keller, and M. D. Kenworthy. 2014. Oyster reefs can outpace sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 4: 493-497.

Rogers, S. M. 2007. Beach nourishment for hurricane protection: North Carolina project performance in Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd. Shore and Beach 75(1).

Roscoe, K. L., and F. Diermanse. 2011. Effect of surge uncertainty on probabilistically computed dune erosion. Coastal Engineering 58(11): 1023-1033.

Rose, A., K. Porter, N. Dash, J. Bouabid, C. Huyck, J. Whitehead, D. Shaw, R. Eguchi, C. Taylor, T. McLane L. T.Tobin, P. T. Ganderton, D. Godschalk, A/S. Kiremidjian, K. Tierney, and C. T. West. 2007. Benefit-cost analysis of FEMA hazard mitigation grants. Natural Hazards Review 8(4): 97-111.

Saeijs, H. L. F., and A. J. M. Geurts van Kessel. 2005. The Oosterschelde, a changing ecosystem after completion of the delta works. Pp 317-334 in Flooding and Environmental Challenges for Venice and Its Lagoon: State of Knowledge, edited by C. A. Fletcher and T. Spencer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sallenger, A. H. 2000. Storm impact scale for barrier islands. Journal of Coastal Research 16: 890-895.

Sallenger, A. H., Jr., K. S. Doran, and P. A. Howd. 2012. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2: 884-888.

Salvesen, D. 2005. The Coastal Barrier Resources Act: Has it discouraged coastal development? Coastal Management 33: 181-195.

Sagoff, M. 1988. The economy of the Earth: Philosophy, law, and the environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Schlacher, T. A., J. Dugan, D. S. Schoeman, M. Lastra, A. Jones, F. Scapini, A. McLachlan, and O. Defeo. 2007. Sandy beaches at the brink. Diversity and Distributions 13: 556-560.

Schlacher, T. A., R. Noriega, A. Jones, and T. Dye. 2012. The effects of beach nourishment on benthic invertebrates in eastern Australia: Impacts and variable recovery. Science of the Total Environment 435: 411-417.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Schupp, C. A., N. T. Winn, T. L. Pearl, J. P. Kumer, T. J. B. Carruthers, and C. S. Zimmerman. 2013. Restoration of overwash processes creates piping plover (Charadrius melodus) habitat on a barrier island (Assateague Island, Maryland). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 116: 11-20.

Scyphers, S. B., S. P. Powers, K. L. Heck, Jr., and D. Byron. 2011. Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries. PLoS ONE 6: e22396.

Seabloom, E. W., A. P. Dobson, and D. M. Stoms. 2002. Extinction rates under nonrandom patterns of habitat loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 11229-11234.

SFRCCC (Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact). 2012. A Region Responds to a Changing Climate: Southeast Florida Regional Climate Action Plan. Available at http://southeastfloridaclimatecompact.org/pdf/Regional Climate Action Plan FINAL ADA Compliant.pdf.

Sheng, Y. P., A. Lapetina, and G. Ma. In press. The reduction of storm surge by vegetation canopies: Three-dimensional simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL053577.

Shepard, C., C. M. Crain, and M. W. Beck. 2011. The protective role of coastal marshes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27374.

Shipman, H. 2001. Beach nourishment on Puget Sound: A review of existing projects and potential applications. In Puget Sound Research 2001. Olympia, WA: Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team.

Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236: 280-285.

Slovic, P. 2000. The Perception of Risk. Florence, KY: Routledge.

Smith, V. K., and J.-C. Huang. 1995. Can markets value air quality? A meta-analysis of hedonic property value models. Journal of Political Economy 103: 209-227.

Smith, A. B., and R. W. Katz. 2013. U.S. billion-dollar weather and climate disasters: Data sources, trends, accuracy and biases. Natural Hazards 67(2): 387-410.

Sobocinski, K. L., J. R. Cordell, and C. A. Simenstad. 2010. Effects of shoreline modifications on supratidal macroinvertebrate fauna on Puget Sound, Washington beaches. Estuaries and Coasts 33: 699-711.

Speybroeck, J., D. Bonte, W. Courtens, T. Gheskiere, P. Grootaert, J.-P. Maelfait, M. Mathys, S. Provoost, K. Sabbe, E. W. M. Steinen, V. van Lancker, M. Vincx, and S. Degraer. 2006. Beach nourishment: An ecologically sound coastal defense alternative? A review. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 16: 419-435.

Starr, C. 1969. Social benefit versus technological risk. Science 165: 1232-1238.

Staszak, L. A., and A. R. Armitage. 2012. Evaluating salt marsh restoration success with an Index of Ecosystem Integrity. Journal of Coastal Research 29(2): 410-418.

Stauble, D. K., W. C. Seabergh, and L. Z. Hales. 1991. Effects of Hurricane Hugo on the South Carolina coast. Journal of Coastal Research SI8: 129-162.

Stern, N. 2007. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stern, N. 2008. The economics of climate change. American Economic Review 98(2): 1-37.

Sweet, W., C. Zervas, S. Gill, and J. Park. 2013. Hurricane Sandy inundation probabilities today and tomorrow. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(9): S17-S20.

Sylves, R., and Z. I. Buzas. 2007. Presidential disaster declaration decisions, 1953-2003: What influences the odds? State and Local Government Review 39(1): 3-15.

Tanaka, K. 2008. Effectiveness and limitation of the coastal vegetation for storm surge disaster mitigation. Pp. 60-73 in Investigation Report on the Storm Surge Disaster by Cyclone Sidr in 2007, Bangladesh. Investigation Team of Japan Society of Civil Engineering. Available at http://www.jsce.or.jp/report/46/files/Bangladesh_Investigation.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Teal, J., and S. Peterson. 2009. The use of science in the restoration of northeastern U.S. salt marshes. Pp. 267-284 in Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective, edited by B. R. Silliman, E. Grosholz, and M. D. Bertness. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Temmerman, S., P. Meire, T. J. Bouma, P. M. J. Herman, T. Ysebaert, and H. J. De Vriend. 2013. Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. Nature 504: 79-83.

Thieler, E. R., and R. S. Young. 1991. Quantitative evaluation of coastal geomorphological changes in South Carolina after Hurricane Hugo. Journal of Coastal Research SI8: 187-200.

Tierney, K., and M. Bruneau. 2007. Conceptualizing and measuring resilience: A key to disaster loss reduction. TR News 250(May-June): 14-18.

Tierney, K., M. Lindell, and R. Perry. 2001. Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Titus, J. G., K. E. Anderson, D. R. Cahoon, D. B. Gesch, S. K. Gill, B. T. Gutierrez, E. R. Thieler, and S. J. Williams. 2009. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available at http://downloads.globalchange.gov/sap/sap4-1/sap4-1-finalreport-all.pdf.

UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2009. Terminology. Available at http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology [accessed July 2, 2014].

UNISDR. 2014. Disaster Resilience Scorecard for Cities. Geneva: UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.

USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 1962. Coastal Storm of 6-7 March 1962 Post Flood Report. USACE Philadelphia District.

USACE 1963. Report on Operation Five-High: March 1962 Storm. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Division.

USACE. 1965. Interim Hurricane Study of Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity, Louisiana. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

USACE. 1981.Galveston’s Bulkwark Against the Sea: History of the Galveston Seawall. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Galveston District.

USACE. 1996. Final Report: An Analysis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Shore Protection Program. IWR Report 96-PS-1. Alexandria, VA Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Support Center. Available at http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/Portals/70/docs/iwrreports/96-PS-1.pdf.

USACE. 2000a. Hurricane Fran Effects on Communities with and Without Shore Protection: A Case Study at Six North Carolina Beaches. IWR Report 00-R-6.

USACE. 2000b. Planning Guidance Notebook. ER 1105-2-100, April 22, 2000. Available at http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/ERs/entire.pdf [accessed February 11, 2014].

USACE. 2001. The New York District’s Biological Monitoring Program for the Atlantic Coast of New Jersey, Asbury Park to Manasquan Section Beach Erosion Control Project. Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

USACE. 2009. Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP), Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, Mississippi: Comprehensive Plan and Integrated Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Main Report. Available at http://www.sam.usace.army.mil/Portals/46/docs/program_management/mscip/docs/MSCIP%20Main%20Report%20062209-Errata.pdf.

USACE. 2011a. Coastal Storm Risk Management: National Economic Development Manual. IWR Report 2011-R-09. Available at http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/Portals/70/docs/iwrreports/2011-R-09.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

USACE. 2011b. Sea Level Change Considerations for Civil Works Programs. EC 1165-2-212. Available at http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/ECs/EC11652212Nov2011.pdf.

USACE. 2012a. Hurricane Sandy aftermath: Hurricane barriers managed by Corps engineers in New England prevent $29.7 million in damages. Press Release, November 21. Available at http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/Media/NewsReleases/tabid/11736/Article/10404/hurricane-sandy-aftermath-hurricane-barriers-managed-by-corps-engineers-in-new.aspx.

USACE. 2012b. Greater New Orleans Hurricane Storm Damage Risk Reduction System: Facts and Figures. August 2012. Available at: http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/Portals/56/docs/PAO/Brochures/FactsFiguresAugust2012.pdf.

USACE. 2013a. Coastal Risk Reduction and Resilience. CWTS 2013-3. Washington, DC: Directorate of Civil Works, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

USACE. 2013b. Greater New Orleans Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction System: Facts and Figures. June 2013. Available at http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/Portals/56/docs/HSDRRS/Facts-Figures2013.pdf.

USACE. 2013c. Hurricane Issac With and Without 2012 100-Year HSDRSS Evaluation. Final Report. Available at http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/Portals/56/docs/PAO/20130208HurrIsaacW-WO2012HSDRRS.pdf.

USACE. 2013d. Hurricane Sandy Coastal Projects Performance Evaluation Study: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2013. Available at http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/Portals/37/docs/civilworks/SandyFiles/USACE_Post-Sandy_Coastal_Projects_Performance_Evaluation_Study.pdf.

USACE. 2013e. Incorporating Sea Level Change in Civil Works Programs. Engineering Regulation 1100-2-8162. Washington, DC: Department of the Army.

USACE. 2013f. North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study: Resilient Adaptation to Increasing Risk—HQ Review Draft. December 20. Brooklyn, NY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Division.

USACE. 2013g. Corps of Engineers Civil Works Direct Program Budget Development Guidance, Fiscal Year 2015. EC 11-2-204.

USACE. 2014. Flagler County, Florida: Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project, Draft Integrated Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacsonville District. Available at http://www.saj.usace.army.mil/Portals/44/docs/Planning/EnvironmentalBranch/EnvironmentalDocs/FlaglerCoSPP_MainJan2014.pdf.

USBR (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation). 2003. Guidelines for Achieving Public Protection in Dam Safety Decision Making. Denver: USBR. Available at http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/damsafety/Risk/ppg2003.pdf.

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. 2004. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century: Final Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. Available at http://www.opc.ca.gov/webmaster/ftp/pdf/docs/Documents_Page/Reports/U.S.%20Ocean%20Comm%20Report/FinalReport.pdf.

U.S. Inter-Agency River Basin Committee Subcommittee on Benefits and Costs. 1950. Report to the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee: Proposed Practices for Economic Analysis of River Basin Projects. Washington, DC.

van der Most, H., and M. Wehrung. 2005. Dealing with uncertainty in flood risk assessment of dike rings in the Netherlands. Natural Hazards 36: 191-206.

van der Wal, D. 1998. The impact of the grain-size distribution of nourishment sand on aeolian sand transport. Journal of Coastal Research 14: 620-631.

Van Tomme, J., S. Vanden Eede, J. Speybroeck, S. Degraer, and M. Vincx. 2012. Macrofaunal sediment selectivity considerations for beach nourishment programmes. Marine Environmental Research 84: 10-16.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Vecchi, G. A., and T. R. Knutson. 2011. Estimating Annual Numbers of Atlantic Hurricanes Missing from the HURDAT Database (1878-1965) Using Ship Track Density. Journal of Climate 24: 1736-1746.

VIMS (Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences). 2013. Recurrent Flooding Study for Tidewater Virginia. Available at http://ccrm.vims.edu/recurrent_flooding/Recurrent_Flooding_Study_web.pdf.

Viola, S., J. E. Dugan, D. M. Hubbard, and N. K. Schooler. In press. Burrowing inhibition by fine-textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.

Viscusi, W. K. 2004. The value of life: Estimates with risks by occupation and industry. Economic Inquiry 42(1): 29-48.

Viscusi, W. K., and J. E. Aldy. 2003. The value of a statistical life: A critical review of market estimates throughout the world. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 27(1): 5-76.

Vose, F. E. and S. S. Bell. 1994. Resident fishes and macrobenthos in mangrove rimmed habitats: evaluation of habitat restoration by hydrologic modification. Estuaries 17:585-596.

Vrijling, J. K., W. van Hengel, and R. J. Houben. 1995. A framework for risk evaluation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 43(3): 245-261.

Vrijling, J., W. van Hengel, and R. Houben. 1998. Acceptable risk as a basis for design. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 59: 141-150.

Walsh, M. J. 2012. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Feasibility Study Program Execution and Delivery. Memorandum for Major Subordinate Commands, February 8. Available at http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/MemosandLetters/USACE_CW_FeasibilityStudyProgramExecutionDelivery.pdf.

Walsh, S., and R. Miskewitz. 2013. Impact of sea level rise on tide gate function. Journal of Environmental, Science and Health, Part A 48: 453-463.

Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan.

Wamsley, T. V., M. A. Cialone, J. M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, and J. D. Rosati. 2010. The potential of wetlands in reducing storm surge. Ocean Engineering 37(1): 59-68.

Wang, P., K. E. Brutsche, T. M. Beck, J. D. Rosati, and L. S. Lillycrop. 2013. Initial Morphological Evolution of Perdido Key Berm Nourishment, Florida. Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-89. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory. Available at http://chl.erdc.usace.army.mil/library/publications/chetn/pdf/chetn-xiv-?.pdf.

Weggel, J. R. 1988. Seawalls: The need for research, dimensional considerations and a suggested classification. Journal of Coastal Research SI4: 29-40.

Weitzman, M. L. 2001. Gamma Discounting. American Economic Review 91(1): 260-271.

Wiegel, R. L., and T. Saville. 1996. History of Coastal Engineering in the US. Pp. 513-600 in History and Heritage of Coastal Engineering, edited by N. C. Kraus. American Society of Civil Engineers.

Williams, S. J. 1986. Sand and gravel deposits within the United States exclusive economic zone: Resource assessment and uses. Pp. 377-386 in Proceedings of the 18th Offshore Technology Conference. Houston, TX: Offshore Technology Conference.

Williams, S. J., and M. K. Foley. 2007. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, Including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR—2007/075. Boston, MA: National Park Service. Available at http://www.nps.gov/fiis/naturescience/upload/2007_BreachManagementRecommendations_FIIS%20NRTR-2007-075.pdf.

Williams, S. J., J. Flocks, C. Jenkins, S. Khalil, and J. Moya. 2012. Offshore sediment character and sand resource assessment of the northern Gulf of Mexico, Florida to Texas. Journal of Coastal Research: SI60:30-44.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

Woodhouse, W. W., Jr., E. D. Seneca, and S. W. Broome. 1977. Effect of species on dune grass growth. International Journal of Biometeorology 21: 256-266.

Woolley, D., and L. Shabman. 2008. Decision-Making Chronology for the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Hurricane Protection Project. Final Report for the Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Available at http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/katrina/hpdc/Final_HPDC_Apr3_2008.pdf.

WRC (U.S. Water Resources Council). 1973. Water and related land resources: Establishment of principles and standards for planning. Federal Register 38: 24778. Available at http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/Guidance/water_relatedladres.pdf.

WRC. 1983. Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Implementation Studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at http://planning.usace.army.mil/toolbox/library/Guidance/Principles_Guidelines.pdf.

Wright, J. M. 2000. The Nation’s Responses to Flood Disasters: A Historical Account. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers. Available at http://www.floods.org/PDF/hist_fpm.pdf.

Younger, M., H. R. Morrow-Almeida, S. M. Vindigni, and A. L. Dannenberg. 2008. The built environment, climate change, and health: opportunities for co-benefits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35:517-526.

Zelo, I., H. Shipman, and Brennan. 2000. Alternative bank protection methods for Puget Sound shorelines. Ecology Publication No. 00-06-012. Olympia: Washington Department of Ecology.

Zhang, K. Q., H. Liu, Y. Li, X. Hongzhou, S. Jian, J. Rhome, and T. J. Smith III. 2012. The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 102: 11-23.

Zu Ermgassen, P. S. E., M. D. Spalding, B. Blake, L. D. Coen, B. Dumbauld, S. Geiger, J. H. Grabowski, R. Grizzle, M. Luckenbach, K. McGraw, W. Rodney, J. L. Ruesink, S. P. Powers, and R. Brumbaugh. 2012. Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0313.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18811.
×
Page 174
Next: Appendix A: Major U.S. Coastal Storms Since 1900 »
Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00 Buy Ebook | $43.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss?

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, Reducing Coastal Risk states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources.

Reducing Coastal Risk recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!