National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System (2015)

Chapter: Appendix C: Acronyms

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
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Appendix C

Acronyms

ACA Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
AR antibiotic resistance
b. lbs billion pounds
BCA benefit–cost analysis
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BMI body mass index
CAFO concentrated animal feeding operation
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CEA cost-effectiveness analysis
CHD coronary heart disease
CO carbon monoxide
CPI Consumer Price Index
CVD cardiovascular disease
CWA Clean Water Act
DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans
DGAC Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee
DNDC Denitrification/Decomposition
DRI Dietary Reference Intake
EIA environmental impact assessment
EISA Energy Independence and Security Act
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
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ERS Economic Research Service
EU European Union
FAFH food away from home
FAH food at home
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FFV flex fuel vehicle
FSMA Food Safety Modernization Act
GDP gross domestic product
GFSI Global Food Security Index
GHG greenhouse gas
GMO genetically modified organism
H2S hydrogen sulfite
HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
HIA health impact assessment
IOM Institute of Medicine
ISO International Organization for Standardization
LCA life cycle assessment
LEAP Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance Partnership
MTHFR methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
NH3 ammonia
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
NORS National Outbreak Reporting System
NPS non-point source pollution
NRC National Research Council
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service
O3 ozone
PM particulate matter
QALY quality-adjusted life year
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
×
RCT randomized controlled trial
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance
RFS Renewable Fuel Standard
SES socioeconomic status
SLP School Lunch Program
SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
SO2 sulfur dioxide
STEC Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
SWF social welfare function
TFP Thrifty Food Plan
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
VOC volatile organic compound
WDR waste discharge requirement
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
×
Page 420
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
×
Page 421
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18846.
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Page 422
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How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address.

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources.

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

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