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The broad topics selected for inclusion in Making a World of Difference: Engineering Ideas into Realityâcomputers and computing power; communications, Internet, and World Wide Web; health care; energy and sustainabilityâare intended to illustrate the myriad ways engineering is essential to the quality of individual life and to the prosperity and security of the country. Given this diversity of subject matter, the National Academy of Engineering benefited greatly from the variety and range of expertise of the following individuals during the preparation of the book. MAKING A WORLD WANDA AUSTIN CALESTOUS JUMA ROBERT F. SPROULL President and Chief Executive Officer Professor of the Practice of International Retired Vice President and Director The Aerospace Corporation Development Oracle Labs Harvard University OF DIFFERENCE THOMAS BUDINGER ARNOLD F. STANCELL Professor in the Graduate School ROBERT S. LANGER Retired Vice President University of California, Berkeley David H. Koch Institute Professor Mobil Oil and Massachusetts Institute of Technology Turner Professor of Chemical Engineering, Emeritus PAUL CITRON Georgia Institute of Technology Engineering Ideas into Reality Retired, Vice President, Technology Policy and Academic Relations RICHARD A. MESERVE President J. CRAIG VENTER Medtronic, Inc. Carnegie Institution for Science Chairman and President The J. Craig Venter Institute G. WAYNE CLOUGH DAVID MESSERSCHMITT Secretary Roger A. Strauch Professor Emeritus of JOHN C. WALL 2 Letter from the President Smithsonian Institution Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Vice President and Chief Technical Officer University of California, Berkeley Cummins, Inc. DAVID E. DANIEL 1964 President The University of Texas at Dallas CHERRY MURRAY Dean, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences JAMES C. WILLIAMS Honda Professor of Materials, Emeritus 4 Dawn of the Digital Age PAUL R. GRAY Harvard University Department of Materials Science and Engineering The Ohio State University Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, Emeritus VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI University of California, Berkeley Benjamin Peirce Professor of 1989 Technology and Public Policy The Shrinking Globe WESLEY L. HARRIS Harvard University NAE Officers 18 Charles Stark Draper Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Associate Provost ROBERT M. NEREM C. D. Mote, Jr. President Massachusetts Institute of Technology Parker H. Petit Professor Emeritus National Academy of Engineering 2O14 W. DANIEL HILLIS Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience Georgia Institute of Technology Lance A. Davis A Healthier, Cleaner, More Connected World Chairman and Co-founder 29 Applied Minds, LLC JULIA M. PHILLIPS Vice President and Chief Technology Officer Executive Officer National Academy of Engineering CHARLES O. HOLLIDAY, JR. Sandia National Laboratories The Next 50 Years Retired Chairman of the Board and CEO E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company C. PAUL ROBINSON Editorial Staff Making a World of Difference 44 LOOKING TO The Future LEAH JAMIESON John A. Edwardson Dean of Engineering President, Emeritus Sandia National Laboratories Project Editor: Roberta Conlan Design: Tina Taylor and Ransburg Distinguished Professor of ROBERT H. SOCOLOW Writing: John Carey, Stephen G. Hyslop, Steve Ristow Electrical and Computer Engineering Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Photos: Jane Martin 56 References Purdue University Princeton Environmental Institute Princeton University Copyediting: Lise Sajewski 60 Photo Credits Copyright Â© 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved. COVER Photo Credits: (top) agsandrew/Shutterstock, (bottom, left to right) Wikipedia/Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, Cedric Weber/Shutterstock, gui jun peng/Shutterstock, oticki/Shutterstock, kubais/Shutterstock. Printed on Recycled Paper