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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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INDEX 501 Index (Page numbers in bold refer to characteristics of, 104 figures) evaluating effectiveness of, 120-121 in phosphorus management, 310 plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423 A riparian forest, 212, 425-426, 427-428 role of, 103, 104-106 Acidification of soil, 232-234 Bureau of the Census, 137 AGNPS model, 345 Agricultural Conservation Program, 140-141 C Agricultural Water Quality Protection Program, 140 Carbon dioxide emission, soil degradation Agriculture nonpoint source model, 135 and, 25 Agroforestry, 392 Alfalfa nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257 as nitrogen source in corn rotation, 60-62, 65, 267 Aluminum, 287, 290 American Farmland Trust, 125 ANSWERS model, 345 B Bennett, Hugh Hammond, 150, 343 Biological processes algal, phosphorus in, 284, 287-288 for desalinization of drainage water, 392-393 microbial attenuation of nonpoint source pollution, 423-425 nitrogen fixation, 242 for pest control, 88 for pesticide degradation, 317 plant uptake dynamics, 422-423 salinity effects on, 361 salinization effects on, 372-377 in soil degradation, 234-236 timing of fertilizer applications and, 66-68, 273, 279-280 trace element effects on, 381-387 Boron, 366 Buffer zones, 417 basic concepts, 7-8

INDEX 502 Case examples salinization effects, 376-377 Coon Creek, Wisconsin, soil conserva- setting goals for, 64, 272-273 tion, 32-33 soil compaction effects, 227 dibromochloropropane transport, soil degradation effects, 193-194, 195 323-325, 334 Cropping systems Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo water- cover crops in, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311 shed, 164-166 encouraging diversity in, 154-156 nitrogen management program, 169-170 models of, 123-124 systems approach in dairy farm man- in nitrogen management, 90-91, 280-281 agement, 116-117 in phosphorus management, 311 Chemical degradation, 230-234 price support programs and, 154-156 Chesapeake Bay Program, 176 to reduce erosion/runoff, 100-101 Clean Air Act, 2, 38 to reduce input use, 58-59 Clean Water Act, 2 research needs, 11, 93-95 Coastal Zone Management Act Reautho- saline seeps and, 365 rization Amendments, 26, 118, 121, 139 Colorado River, 368 D Salinity Control Act, 366 Denitrification, microbial processes in, Compaction. see Soil compaction 423-425 Companion planting, 94 Department of Agriculture, 8, 9, 10, 11 Conservation Compliance program, 14, 118 conservation programs, 23-24t Conservation Reserve Program, 22, 141, conservation spending, 139-143 152, 172, 427 Cooperative Extension Service, 169 recommendations for, 174-175 early conservation policy, 150 Coon Creek, Wisconsin, 32-33 integrated farming system approach in, Cooperative Extension Service, 169 113, 118, 119 Corn in measurement of soil quality, 49 nitrogen consumption, 60, 65, 67, 275-279 nitrogen management research, 68 phosphorus consumption, 292 yield response to soil compaction, 229-230 Cotton, integrated pest management for, 84-85 Cover crops, 93 in nitrogen management, 280-281 in phosphorus management, 311 role of, 94-95, 355 CREAMS model, 343-344, 345, 421 Crop rotation in integrated pest management, 84-86 nitrogen uptake in three corn scenarios, 275-276, 277 Crop yields in commodity support programs, 153, 155, 156 compaction effects on corn, 229-230 erosion effects, 42 nitrogen management and, 63-64, 270-271, 272-273, 275-279 phosphorus management and, 303-304, 307

INDEX 503 policy-relevant research in, 163-167 market-based incentives in programs of, in program targeting, 128-129, 131 171 research programs, 14-15 in measurement of soil quality, 49 in systems approach, 137-139 in point source manure control, 410, Desalinization techniques, 392-394 411, 412 Design standards, 121-122 policy-relevant research in, 163-167 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 83-84, in program targeting, 128-129, 131 314, 323-325, 334 research programs, 14-15 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in systems approach, 137-139 313, 333-334 Equilibrium phosphorus concentration, 297-299 Erosion/runoff, 97, 219-221 E assessment programs, 200-201 Easements, 16 channel management, 355-358 implementing program of, 174-175 related to commodity price, 158-159 recommendations, 172-175 in conservation program spending, 141 role of, 171-172, 174 control techniques, 6 EC. see Electrical conductivity Coon Creek, Wisconsin, demonstration Economic factors project, 32-33 agriculture income support program, cropping systems to reduce, 93, 94, 150, 152 100-101 cost of sedimentation, 25, 45 early policy actions on, 150 in efficient use of farm resources, 6 effects of, 21-22, 22, 36, 45, 95-96, 97, government conservation program fund- 98, 198, 222-226 ing, 139-143 estimating cost of, 195 in implementing integrated farming sys- extent of, 22, 25, 48 tem, 9-10, 115, 116-117 forms of, 22, 43 incentives for conservation compliance, identifying problem areas, 118 15-16 in input management, 91-92 long-term easements, 16 losses in erosion, 42 managing irrigation by water pricing, 396-397 in manure management, 79-81, 404, 414 in nitrogen management, 274-279 nutrient value of manure, 77 in policy deliberation, 3-4 soil degradation in cost of production, 195 see also Price support/supply control programs Economic Research Service, 135-136, 137 EGEM model, 345 Electrical conductivity, 369-370, 371, 372 Environmental Easement Program, 139, 141 Environmental Protection Agency, 8, 9, 10, 11, 48 conservation programs, 23-24t conservation spending, 140-143 integrated farming system approach in, 113, 118

INDEX 504 losses to, 42, 193, 200, 221-222, 338 intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54 management goals, 97-98 irrigation source management, 389 management strategies, 99-103 irrigation techniques, 390, 391-396 modeling of, 119-120, 214, 339-341, linkages in management systems, 343-345, 348 107-108 in pesticide management, 331-332 long-term management strategies, 47-48 pesticide models, 325, 328 management tools for, 10-13 of pesticides, 319, 323 managing salt-affected land, 390-391 in phosphorous management program, manure application, 257 309-311 manure management in, 78-80, 410-415 phosphorus loss in, 70, 71, 73, 301 nitrogen application, 271, 273 in program targeting, 129-130 nitrogen management in, 59-69, 273-274 as part of soil management strategy, nonincremental reform of, 156-159 47-48 on-farm record keeping, 10-11, 124 storm events and, 7, 98-99, 101-102 organic carbon losses from, 236 surface sealing effects and, 348 pesticide management in, 84-88 time lag of effects from management of, 96-97 weather patterns in, 101-102 see also Sediments/sedimentation Eutrophication, 406 phosphorus in, 283 Evaporation ponds, 394-395 F Farm Practices Inventory, 133 Farming practices advantages of systems approach, 108-109, 111-113 assessment of, 113, 130-134 channel erosion management, 355-358 commodity support programs and, 153-155, 158-159 cover cropping, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311, 355 crop diversity in, 154-156 deacidification of soil, 233-234 diversity in, 33-34, 36-38 ecosystem threats from, 30 environmental trade-offs in, 35 estimating nitrogen needs, 270-273 geographic diversity in, 133-134 groundwater quality and, 27 herbicide use, 86 identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118 implementing integrated systems, 9-10 improving manure management, 80-81 improving nitrogen management, 68-69 incremental reform of, 14, 155-156 individual differences in, 32-34, 146 input efficiency in, 6, 57-59, 89-95, 119 integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333

INDEX 505 in pesticide transport, 321-322 G phosphorus management in, 73, 76-77 as phosphorus source, 285-286 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, policy-relevant research, 162-167 157 pollution prevention in, 33 Geographic diversity private-sector information sources, farm systems approach and, 111-113 15-16, 125, 126t policy-making and, 110 producer decision-making in, 30-31, 31, Geographic information systems, 135, 136 133-134, 145-146, 147-148t , GRASSF model, 421 160-162, 163-164 Groundwater agricultural pollutants in, 27 in program targeting, 130-134 realistic yield goals in, 272-273 irrigation drainage water disposal in, recommendations for research, 14-15 395-396 in redesign of commodity support pol- microbial denitrification of, 424 icy, 155-156, 158 nitrogen loss to, 264-266 pesticide path to, 83-84 to reduce erosion effects, 6-7, 99-103, 351-355 pesticide properties in contamination of, 317, 321 to reduce nitrogen losses, 266-270 to reduce pesticide pollution, 329-333, pesticides commonly found in, 317-319 phosphorus leaching to, 299-300 334 to reduce pesticide use in, 82-83 site conditions in pesticide contamina- tion of, 320-321 to reduce phosphorus loss, 302-311 to reduce salt/trace element accumula- tion, 387-397 H sediment effects, 337-338 soil compaction from, 226-227, 228 Herbicides soil quality assessment, 51-55 banding, 86, 133 surface water quality and, 26-27 reducing use of, 86 sustainable, 203-204 timing of fertilizer applications, 66-68, 273, 279-280 water quality and, 44-46 see also Systems approach Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 26, 38, 118, 139 Feed grains, 155 Fertilizers agroecosystem pathways, 55-56, 56 economically, vs. environmentally, optimal application, 91-92 input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 89-95 input/output mass balance, 55-59 input related to commodity price, 158, 159 losses in erosion, 42, 193 manures as, 77, 399-402 in permit program, 171 synthetic, recommendations, 63 taxes on, 142 see also Nitrogen; Phosphorus Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 13, 26, 28t, 139, 153, 155 Food Security Act, 13, 22, 25, 152, 153

INDEX 506 I drainage water disposal, 89, 364-365, 394-396 Imperial Valley, 369 drainage water reuse, 391-392 Incentives drainage water treatment, 392-394 for crop diversity, 155-156 drainage water volume, reducing, 89 easement program, 172-175 land retirement, 396 in farm decision-making, 13, 30-31, 31, market-based management incentives, 133-134, 146 396-397 historical development of income sup- nitrogen in, 259-260 ports, 150, 152 as pollution pathway, 57 in irrigation management, 396-397 regional management authorities, 397 in manure management, 414 salinity problems in, 361, 362, 363-364, market-based, 170-171, 396-397 368-369 as obstacles to conservation policy, scheduling, 390 153-155 source management, 389 pace of policy reform on, 155, 156-158 Isomorphic substitution, 378 recommendations on, 159-160 Information management assessing farm practices, 131-133 K at farm level, 54-55 identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118 Kesterson Reservoir, 366, 381, 394-395 intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54, KINEROS model, 345 217 national assessment of soil resources, L 200-201 National Resources Inventory, 50 Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 90 for nitrogen management, 273-274 Landowners rights/responsibilities, 17, on-farm, 124 180-183 producers' access to information, 160 recommendations, 10-13, 50-51, 134-137 technical assistance programs, 15-16, 115, 124-127, 160-162, 169-170, 414 see also Measurement Integrated farming system case example, 116-117 cost-sharing program, 115, 116-117 developing capacity for, 124-127 development of planning standards for, 118-121 implementing, 108-109, 113-118 inventory of resources in, 108-109 on-farm record keeping in, 10-11, 124 performance standards, 121-124 private-sector role in, 125-127 role of, 115-116 soil quality thresholds in, 53 Integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333 International Ground Water Modeling Center, 329 Irrigation application systems, 390 challenges in, 88, 368

INDEX 507 Landscape management phosphorus in, 71, 79, 285-286, implementing, 426-428 292-293, 300, 406-407 microbial processes in, 423-425 point source management, 410, 411-413 models for, 421 as pollution source, 67 plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423 processor responsibility for, 179-180 process-place interactions, 425-426 regional use patterns, 61t, 72t, 77 role of, 417-418 role of, 399-400 sediment trapping, 418-421 supply of, 401-402 in systems approach, 8 as waste, 400, 402-403 see also Buffer zones as water pollutant, 7 Laterization, 218 Mass balances Legal issues assumptions in calculating, 444-447 landowner rights/responsibilities, 17, basic equation, 431-432 180-183 data sources, 433 see also Regulatory action estimation of inputs in, 433-441 Lime, 233-234 estimation of outputs in, 441-444 Livestock management implications of, 447 in encouraging crop diversity, 156 limitations of models, 123 manure management in, 78-79, 81, national nutrient distribution, 111 407-409 nitrogen, 60-63, 240-242 phosphorus loss in, 285-286 pesticide, 83-84, 322-325 see also Manures phosphorus, 70-73, 291-293, 294-296t Lysimeter, 372 regional differences in, 292, 294-296t role of, 57, 431, 432 Measurement M of erosion losses, 221-222, 222-226 Management Systems Evaluation, 119 Manhantango Creek, 2 Manures alternative uses of, 415 application practices, 257 benefits of, 400-401 challenges in management of, 78-80, 404-410 in concentrated livestock production, 407-409 cost of management techniques, 97-80 economic value of, 401-402 environmental threats from, 402-403 estimating nutrient values of, 404-405 from grazing, vs. confined, animals, 401-402 handling/storage of, 404, 410 livestock concentrations and distribution of, 78-79 management strategies, 80-81 mass balance calculations for, 434-437 national production of, 77 nitrogen in, 66, 79, 242, 257-258, 405-407 nonpoint source management, 410-411, 413-415 nutrient values, 77

INDEX 508 farm system evaluation standards, 11-13 nitrogen levels, 269-270 of field nitrogen, 270 pesticide applications, 87 frequency of, in soil quality assessment, in program targeting, 128-134 216-217 soil quality, 204-206, 49-51 of manure nutrient values, 404-405 of manure supply, 401-402 national assessment of soil resources, N 200-201 Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo water- of nitrogen content, 273-274 shed, 164-166 of nitrogen fixation, 242, 256-257 National Agriculture Statistics Service, of nitrogen sources, 64-66 135-136, 137 of pesticide sorption, 317 National Resources Inventory, 50, 134, 201 of phosphorus threshold levels, 75-77 erosion loss estimates, 222 of phosphorus uptake in algae, 287-288 Nitrates, 22, 59, 240, 259, 266 presidedress soil nitrate test, 274 formation of, 239 sedimentation, 102-103 in groundwater, 27 of soil organic carbon, 208-209 in microbial denitrification, 423-425 of soil pH, 211 nitrification inhibitors, 66 of soil quality, 49-51, 51-55, 202-203 reduction techniques, efficacy of, 90-91 soil quality minimum data set, 49-50, Nitrification 206-207 inhibitors, 66 of soil salinity, 369-370 process, 239 of soil structure, 210 Nitrite, 240 see also Monitoring formation of, 239 Minimum data set, 49-50, 206-207 Modeling techniques effect of soil management on water qual- ity, 214 erosion, 103, 119-120, 135, 214, 339-341, 343-345 geographic information systems, 135, 136 nitrogen input/output balance, 261-263 nitrogen needs, 69, 271-272 nonpoint source pollution, 123-124 pesticide transport, 325-329 phosphorus, 303 price support/supply control programs in, 158-159 role of, 122-123 sediment transport, 345-350 soil productivity, 213-214 for soil quality research, 49-50, 51-53 vegetative filter strips, 421 water-holding attribute of soils, 209-210 Monitoring buffer zone effectiveness, 120-121 for design standard compliance, 121-122 of erosion, national, 200-201 frequency of, for soil quality, 216-217 harmful farming practices, 131-134 in integrated farming system, 115, 118-124 management tools, 10-13

INDEX 509 Nitrogen, 22 see also Fertilizers agroecosystem pathways, 237-240 Nonpoint source pollution application of, 63, 64-66, 66-68, 131, design/performance standard approach 271, 273, 279-286 and, 121-122 balances, scenarios for, 261-263 implementing landscape controls in, in crop residue, 258, 261 426-428 crop yield goals and, 63-64 landscape approach to, 417-418 cropping systems in management of, landscape plant uptake in controlling, 280-281 422-423 in denitrification, 240 manure as, 410-411, 413-415 estimating crop needs, 270-272 microbial attenuation of, 423-425 in fertilizers, 243, 256 models of, 123-124 fixation, 242, 256-257, 267 off-field control practices, 417 groundwater losses of, 264-266 process-place interactions in manage- in harvested crops, 261 ment of, 425-426 in immobilization processes, 239 sediment trapping of, 418-421 input estimates in mass balance calcula- sources of, 29 tions, 433-441, 444-447 state programs for controlling, 139 input management in controlling, 90-92 of surface waters, 29 interactive processes in cycle of, 240 Nutrients. see Fertilizers; in irrigation water, 259-260 Nitrogen; losses in erosion, 42, 193 Phosphorus management approaches in case exam- ple, 164-166 management tools, 273-274 O in manure, 66, 77, 257-258, 404, 405-407 Obstacles to conservation programs, 35-36 mass balance, 60-63, 111, 240-242, geographical diversity as, 110 244-255t informational needs, 3 mineralization, 239, 260 resistance to policy targeting, 8 mobile forms of, 59 Organic carbon, 208-209, 236 in natural environments, 241 losses in erosion, 223-226 in nitrification processes, 66, 239 obstacles to better management of, 274-281 output estimates in mass balance calcula- tions, 433, 441-444 overapplication of, 64-66, 131 processes for loss of, 240-241, 242, 260-261, 263-266 in rainfall, 258-259 recommendations, 59 reducing losses of, 266-270 regional consumption data, 60-62, 61t research needs, 68-69 residual, reduction of, 59 soil buildup, 79 soil testing for, 270 sources of, 59, 60, 237, 241-242, 243 in synthetic fertilizers, recommenda- tions for, 63 technical assistance management pro- gram, in case example, 169-170 timing of application, 66-68, 273, 279-280

INDEX 510 P input estimates in mass balance calcula- tions, 433-441, 444-447 Pedotransfer functions, 211, 212t losses in erosion, 42, 193 Performance standards, 121, 122, 177-179 management strategies, 73 Pesticides in manure, 77, 292-293, 300, 404 agroecosystem pathways, 56, 56-57, mass balance, 70-73, 111, 291-299 83-85 output, 293 alternative technologies, 88 output estimates in mass balance calcula- application technique, 86-87, 330-331 tions, 433, 441-444 commonly found in groundwater, point sources of, 284-285 317-319 as pollutant, 283 controlling erosion in management of, soil buildup, 71-75, 79, 293-299, 406-407 331-332 soil type in movement of, 299-300, 303 degradation of, 317 sources of, 71, 292-293 development of, 313-314 surface water effects, 283-284 extent of water pollution from, 314 in synthetic fertilizers, 71 in groundwater, 27, 317-319 threshold levels, recommendations for, improving characteristics of, 86 75-77 input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 82-83 transport processes, 299-302 in integrated pest management, 84-86, weather as loss factor, 310-311 332-333 see also Fertilizers knowledge base, 333-334 Policy-making management practices, 321-322, 329-333 agriculture private-sector in, 32-34 mass balance, 55-59, 83-84, 322-325 conservation programs, 22, 23t modeling of, 325-329 obstacles to policymaking, 82 in permit program, 171 persistence classes, 317, 318-319t proper use of, 334-335 properties of, 315-319 selection criteria, 87 site factors in transport of, 320-321, 322 soil properties in transport of, 320, 322 sorption properties, 317 spray drift, 323 in surface waters, 26-27, 319 taxes on, 142 transport processes, 314-315 Petiole tests, 274 pH of soil, 211, 232-234 pesticide action and, 320 Phosphorus agricultural consumption of, 71 agricultural sources of, 285-286 agroecosystem pathways, 69-70, 289-291 buffer strips in management of, 309 cropping systems in management of, 311 enrichment ratio, 301-302 equilibrium concentration, 297-299 erosion control in management of, 309-311 establishing threshold levels for, 302-307 forms of, 286-289

INDEX 511 defining soil quality for, 190, 201-202 in developing integrated farming sys- economic factors in, 3-4 tems, 125-127 factors influencing, 30-31, 31 in policy-making, 32-34 farming practice and, 159 structure of agricultural business, 179 forms of government assistance, 169-170 technical assistance from, 15-16, 125, government conservation spending, 126t 139-143 Problem areas, identifying historical development, 150-152 for regulatory action, 177-179 as impediment to conservation, 153-155 Problem regions, identifying, 8-9, 118, implementation, recommendations for, 128-132 14-17 see also Targeting incremental reform approach, 14, Processors of agriculture products, 179-180 155-156 Public opinion, 21, 38-39 for integrated farming systems imple- mentation, 125 interagency coordination in, 8-9, 137-139 R landowner/land user responsibilities in, Regional differences 17, 180-183 adapting national policies to, 133-134 at local/state level, 32, 109-110, 139, in cover cropping practices, 93 173-174 data collection, 133-137 long-term objectives, 146-150 in erosion losses, 222 nonincremental reform approach, farming systems approach and, 110-113 156-159 implications for policy-making, 36-38 nonvoluntary approaches, 175-180 nitrogen inputs/outputs, 60-62, 61t obstacles to, 3, 8, 35-36, 110 nitrogen mass balance, 111, 244-255t on pesticides, obstacles to, 82 price support/supply control programs, 13-14, 159-160 program linkages in, 108-110 recommendations, 4, 36-38 research agenda in, 162-167 role of monitoring systems in, 204 short-term goals in, 3-4, 11-13, 122, 167-169 soil quality in, 48 see also Regulatory action Potassium losses in erosion, 42, 193 in manure, 404 Poultry processors, 179-180 Presidedress soil nitrate test, 274 Preventive interventions, recommenda- tions for, 3 Price support/supply control programs base acreage structure in, 156 conservation practices related to, 158-159 development of, 150, 152 elimination of, 157, 158-159 as obstacles to conservation, 153-155 recommendations, 13-14, 155-156, 159-160 set-asides, 172, 173 Private-sector

INDEX 512 phosphorus mass balance, 71, 72t, 111, Resource Management System, 116-118 292, 294-296t Rill erosion, 22, 25 phosphorus soil buildup, 73-75, 74t, Riparian buffer zone, 8, 105-106, 121, 303, 305t 417, 421, 425-426, 427-428 in reliance on private-sector technical Rodale Institute Research Center, 190 assistance, 127 soil pH, 234 use of manures, 61t, 72t, 77 S wetlands classification, 359 Saline seeps, 365 Regulatory action, 162 Salinization, 22, 230-232 clarifying landowner responsibilities/ agroforestry in management of, 392 rights, 17, 180-183 assessment of, 369-370 in erosion management, 99-100 crops sensitive to, 376 implementing systems approach, 10, 11 effects of, 361, 366, 368-369, 370-377 in irrigation management, 397 extent, 22, 26t, 48, 231-232, 361-362 at local/state level, 8, 109-110, 139, farming practices in management of, 176-177, 178, 412 387-397 in manure management, 80-81 irrigation source management to reduce, market-based incentives in, 15-16, 389-391 170-171 process, 363-364 need for, 175-176, 177 sodification and, 230, 372 objections to, 177 sources of, 365, 370 for off-site salinization effects, 366 participation in integrated farming sys- tem, 115-118 performance standards in, 121, 177-179 recommendations, 16-17, 177-179 through agricultural processors, 179-180 voluntary approach to change, 15, 17, 167-170 Research needs alternative pest control technologies, 88 biochemical treatment of selenium, 393-394 buffer zones, 105 cropping systems, 11, 93-95 data collection, 134-137 in developing performance standards, 122 in estimating sedimentation, 102-103 identifying soil quality indicators, 49-51 in integrated pest management, 86 long-term phosphorus uptake, 76 market-based incentives, 16, 171 national data, 3 new farming technologies, 164-166 nitrogen management, 68-69 on producer decision-making processes, 133-134, 163-164 recommendations, 10, 14-15, 162-167 storm probability models, 7, 101-102 in water erosion prediction technology, 346-351 Residue management, 6, 99-100 Resource Conservation Act, 50-51

INDEX 513 in surface water pollution, 27 price support/supply control programs Salton Sea, 369 and, 14 San Joaquin Valley, 88, 362, 391, 392, processes, 218, 218-219, 219 394-395, 396, 397 see also Erosion/runoff; selenium in, 380-385 Salinization SAR. see Sodium absorption ration Soil productivity Sediment trapping, 418-421 basic concepts, 5 Sediments/sedimentation effects of soil degradation, 193-196 agriculture contribution to, 337-338 erosion and, 222, 226, 338 depositions of, 339 indicators of, 213-214 effects of, 337-338, 341-342 soil quality and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192 estimating, 102-103, 342-345 Soil quality farming practices to control, 351-355 in assessing farming system implementa- modeling transport of, 345-350 tion, 119 processes, 338-342 assessment of, 49-51, 216-217 time lag of effects from erosion man- basic concepts, 1-3 agement, 96-97 benefits of manure for, 400-401 upland processes in, 349 buffering capacity indicators, 215-216 in waterways, 25, 45, 341-342 as common good, 181 wetlands and, 358-359 cover cropping effects on, 94 Selenium, 27, 362, 366, 377, 380-385, defining, 40-41, 190-191, 201-202 393-394, 394-395, 396 early policy action on, 150, 152 Set-asides, 172, 173 elements of, 189 Sheet erosion, 22, 25 erosion effects on, 222-226 Sludge, 381, 385-387 global climate and, 46-47, 199 Sodbuster program, 14 indicators of, 53, 202-203, 205-211 Sodification, 26t, 48, 195, 230, 372 intrafield differences, 53-54, 217 Sodium absorption ratio (SAR), 371, 372 irrigation effects, 89 Soil, Water and Related Resources Con- labile carbon in, 209 servation Act, 201 long-term management goals, 47-48, Soil compaction, 47 199-200 causes of, 226-227 corn yield and, 229-230 deep tillage effects on, 228-229 effects of, 48, 229-230 extent of, 22, 48 losses to, 230 measurement of, 210 subsoil compaction, 227-230 surface soil, 227 Soil Conservation Service, 53, 116, 118, 135-136, 137, 141, 201 founding of, 150 Soil degradation acidification, 232-234 biological processes in, 234-236 effects of, 21-22, 36, 42, 193-196 elements of, 2, 22-25, 192 extent of, 2 indirect effects, 198 interactive processes in, 42, 219, 219 microbial processes, 236 organic carbon loss as, 236

INDEX 514 minimum data set for, 49-50, 206-207 see also Integrated farming system monitoring system, 204-205 national assessment of, 200-201 in national resource inventory, 50 T nitrogen buildup, 79 Targeting nutrient availability assessment, 207-208 data collection needs, 135-137 organic carbon in, 208-209, 236 definition, 127 pedotransfer functions in, 211, 212t of farming practices, 130-134 in pesticide transport, 320, 322 in farming systems approach, 110-112 pH, 211 informational needs in, 127-128 phosphorus buildup, 79 recommendations, 8-9 phosphorus leaching and, 299-300 role of, 127 as policy goal, 48, 145 soil/water monitoring and, 128-130 policy recommendations, 1-6 Taxes, 142 program targeting assessment, 129-130 Technical assistance, 15-16 public interest in, 38-39 from Cooperative Extension Service, 169 quantifying, 211-213 delivery of, 115 in repeated manure applications, 405-407 role of, 38-39, 189, 191-192 rooting depth as factor in, 210 sampling procedures in assessing, 217 soil maps, 54 soil productivity and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192 structure as attribute of, 210 as sustainability criteria, 203-204 texture as element of, 209 water-holding capacity in, 209 water quality linkage to, 5-6, 44-46, 196-199 see also Soil degradation Soil Science Society of America, 40, 190 Soybeans, nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257 Storm events, 7, 98-99, 101-102, 310-311 Stubble mulch tillage system, 52 Surface water agricultural pollutants, 26-27 irrigation drainage water discharge to, 394 modeling pesticide transport to, 328 nitrogen loss to, 264 pesticide contaminants of, 319 phosphorus loss to, 300-302 phosphorus pollution of, 70, 283-286 types of nonpoint pollution, 29 Sustainable practices, 30, 153 developing framework for, 203-204 SWRRB model, 345 Systems approach advantages of, 110-113 components of, 187 in dairy farm, case example of, 116-117 farm evaluation standards, 11-12, 113 implementation, 8-13

INDEX 515 example of program for change, 169-170 modeling soil management effects, 214 in integrated farming system, 124-127 phosphorus effects on, 283-284 in manure control practices, 414 price support/supply control programs private-sector as source of, 15-16, and, 14 125-127, 126t in program targeting, 129-130 role of, 160-162 soil quality linkages to, 5-6, 44-46, sources of, 125-7, 126t 196-199 Technology surface water, 26-27 digitized soil surveys, 54-55 threats to, 25-27 erosion modeling, 343-345 Water Quality Incentives Program, 116, manure management, 81 117 for nitrogen management, 273-274 Waterlogged land policy-relevant research, 162-167 management of, 390-391 producers' access to information on, 160 in soil salinization, 361-362 sediment transport modeling, 345-350 Weather water application systems, 390 global, soil quality and, 46-47, 199 TIGER system, 137 nitrogen in rainfall, 258-259 Tillage systems in nutrient management, 64 conservation techniques in, 99-100 in phosphorus loss, 310-311 effects of, 353, 354t rainfall dynamics, 339 for mitigating compaction effects, seasonal erosion risk, 352 228-229 storm events in soil erosion, 7, 98-99, no-till drill, 352 101-102 to reduce erosion/runoff, 99-100 Weed control. see Herbicides to reduce phosphorus erosion loss, 309 WEPP model, 344, 345, 346 stubble mulch, 52 types of, 352, 353t use of, 355 Trace elements, 22, 362, 366 effects of, 368, 380-387 examples of, 378 management practices, 368-369, 387, 397 maximum concentrations, 385, 386-387t nature of, 377-378 sources of, 368, 378 transport of, 379-380 treating contaminated water, 392-393 U United Nations, 217 V Vegetative filter strips, 8, 105, 120, 418-421, 426 W Water Erosion Prediction Project, 214 Water quality as common good, 181 manure and, 78

INDEX 516 WEQ model, 349-350 WERM model, 350 Wetland Reserve Program, 139, 141 Wetlands as buffer zones, 8 sedimentation processes in, 358-359 Whitman County, Washington, 37 Wind erosion, 48, 222, 338 modeling of, 344, 349-350

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Get This Book
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How can the United States meet demands for agricultural production while solving the broader range of environmental problems attributed to farming practices? National policymakers who try to answer this question confront difficult trade-offs.

This book offers four specific strategies that can serve as the basis for a national policy to protect soil and water quality while maintaining U.S. agricultural productivity and competitiveness. Timely and comprehensive, the volume has important implications for the Clean Air Act and the 1995 farm bill.

Advocating a systems approach, the committee recommends specific farm practices and new approaches to prevention of soil degradation and water pollution for environmental agencies.

The volume details methods of evaluating soil management systems and offers a wealth of information on improved management of nitrogen, phosphorus, manure, pesticides, sediments, salt, and trace elements. Landscape analysis of nonpoint source pollution is also detailed.

Drawing together research findings, survey results, and case examples, the volume will be of interest to federal, state, and local policymakers; state and local environmental and agricultural officials and other environmental and agricultural specialists; scientists involved in soil and water issues; researchers; and agricultural producers.

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