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Emergency Medical Services for Children (1993)

Chapter: REFERENCES

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References AAAM (American Association of Automotive Medicine). The Abbreviated Injury Scale. Ar- lington Heights, Ill.: American Association of Automotive Medicine, 1980. AAAM. The Abbreviated Injury Scale-1985 Revision. Des Plaines, Ill.: American Associa- tion of Automotive Medicine, 1985. AACN (American Association of Critical Care Nurses). Core Curriculum for Critical Care Nursing. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: W.B. Saunders, 1990. AAOS (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons). Committee on Emergency Medical Services. Emergency Services Newsletter, page 5, November/December 1991. AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Committee on Hospital Care. Guidelines for Air and Ground Transport of Pediatric Patients. Pediatrics 78:943-950, 1986. AAP. Council on Child and Adolescent Health. Age Limits of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 81:736, 1988a. AAP. Provisional Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Pediatrician's Role in Emer- gency Medical Services for Children. Pediatrics 81:735, 1988b. AAP. Committee on School Health. Guidelines for Urgent Care in School. Pediatrics 86:999-1000, 1990a. AAP. Prehospital Care Committee. Pediatric Resources for Prehospital Care. 2nd ed. R.C. Luten and G. Foltin, eds. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1990b. AAP. Ad Hoc Task Force on Definition of the Medical Home. The Medical Home. In: Emergency Medical Services for Children: The Role of the Primary Care Provider. J. Singer and S. Ludwig, eds. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1992a. AAP. Committee on Adolescence. Firearms and Adolescents. Pediatrics 89:784-787, 1992b. AAP. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Firearm Injuries Affecting the Pediatric Population. Pediatrics 89:788-790, 1992c. AAP. Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Access to Emergency Medical Care. Pediatrics 90:648, 1992d. AAP. Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Emergency Medical Services for Chil 336

REFERENCES 337 dren: The Role of the Primary Care Provider. J. Singer and S. Ludwig, eds. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1992e. AAP. Committee on School Health. Basic Life Support Training in School. Pediatrics 91:158-159, 1993. AAP/ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1992. AAPlSCCM (Society of Critical Care Medicine). AAP? Committee on Hospital Care, and SUCH, Per So-. Guidelines for Pediatric Intensive Cam Units. Pedia - ~s 72:369-372, 1983. ABEM (American Board of Emergency Medicine). Guidelines for Combined Training in Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics Leading to Credentialing for American Board of Emergency Medicine and American Board of Pediatrics Examination. Annals of Emer- gency Medicine 20:98-100, 1991. ABEM. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowships. History. (Informational materials.) East Lansing, Mich.: American Board of Emergency Medicine, May 1992. ABP (American Board of Pediatrics). Guidelines for Combined Internal Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Training Programs. Pediatrics 84:190-193, 1989. ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians). A Report on Emergency Medical Ser- vices Week, May 12-18, 1991. Washington, D.C.: American College of Emergency Physicians, no date. ACEP. Emergency Medical Services: Problems, Programs and Policies. A Statement Pre- pared by the Committee on Public Policy of the American College of Emergency Physi- cians. JACEP (Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians and the Uni- versity Association for Emergency Medicine) 5:285-295, 1976. ACEP. Guidelines for Trauma Care Systems. Annals of Emergency Medicine 16:459-463, 1987a. ACEP. Quality Assurance Manualfor Emergency Medicine. N. Schneiderman and M. Wiseman, eds. Dallas, Tex.: American College of Emergency Physicians, 1987b. ACEP. Pediatric Supply and Equipment Guidelines for General Emergency Departments. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Section Newsletter 1 (3):August, 1990a. ACEP. Principles of Appropriate Patient Transfer. Annals of Emergency Medicine 19:337- 338, 1990b. ACEP. Providing Telephone Advice from the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 19:600, 1990c. ACEP. The Role of the Emergency Physician in the Care of Children. Annals of Emergency Medicine 19:435-436, 1990d. ACEP. Emergency Care Guidelines. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:1389-1395, 1991. ACEP. ACEP Policy Statement. Minimum Pediatric Prehospital Equipment Guidelines. ACEP News January (insert, pp. 1-4), 1992a. ACEP. HOME: Home Organizer for Medical Emergencies. Dallas, Tex.: American College of Emergency Physicians, 1992b. ACEP. Guidelines for Trauma Care Systems. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 1993 (forth- coming). ACS (American College of Surgeons). Committee on Trauma. Advanced Trauma Life Support Course for Physicians. Chicago, Ill.: American College of Surgeons, 1989. ACS. Committee on Trauma. Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient. Chicago, Ill.: American College of Surgeons, 1990. ACS. Fact Sheet. TR/ACS (tm): The National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. (Draft) Chicago, Ill.: American College of Surgeons, 1992. ACS/AAOS (American College of Surgeons and American Academy of Orthopaedic Sur- geons). Emergency Medical Services. Recommendations for an Approach to an Urgent

338 EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN National Problem. Proceedings of the Airlie Conference on Emergency Medical Ser- vices. Chicago, Ill.: ACS and AAOS, 1969. Ad Hoc Committee on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Statement of the Ad Hoc Committee on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation of the Division of Medical Sciences-National Research Council. Journal of the American Medical Association 198:372- 379, 1966. Agran, P., Castillo? D., and Winn. D. Childhood Motor Vehicle (:)ccupant Injuries. American Journal ~Diseases of £~1dren [44 653-662, 1990. AHA (American Heart Association). Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees. Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care, V: Pediat- ric Basic Life Support. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2251-2261, 1 992a. AHA. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees. Guidelines for Cardiopulmo- nary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care, VI: Pediatric Advanced Life Support. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2262-2275, 1992b. AHA. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees. Guidelines for Cardiopulmo- nary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care, IX: Ensuring Effectiveness of Communitywide Emergency Cardiac Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2289-2295, 1992c. AHA-ACEP-AMA. Third EMS Futures Conference. Report of an invitational conference sponsored by the American Hospital Association, American College of Emergency Physi- cians, and Commission on EMS of the American Medical Association. New York, N.Y., July 25-26, 1988. Altieri, M., Bellet, J., and Scott, H. Preparedness for Pediatric Emergencies Encountered in the Practitioner's Office. Pediatrics 85:710-714, 1990. AMA (American Medical Association). Commission on Emergency Medical Services. Guide- lines for Categorization of Hospital Emergency Capabilities. Chicago, Ill.: American Medical Association, 1989. AMA. Commission on Emergency Medical Services. Pediatric Emergencies. (An excerpt from "Guidelines for the Categorization of Hospital Emergency Capabilities.) Pediatrics 85:879-887, 1990. AMA. Caring for the Uninsured and Underinsured. A Compendium from JAMA and the Specialty Journals of the American Medical Association. Chicago, Ill.: American Medi- cal Association, 1991. AMA. Graduate Medical Education. Appendix II, Table 1. Journal of the American Medical Association 268: 1 17-1 171, 1992. American Hospital Association. American Hospital Association Hospital Statistics: 1991-92 Edition. Chicago, Ill.: American Hospital Association, 1991. American Red Cross. First Aid for Children Today (FACT) Program. Washington, D.C.: American Red Cross, 1992. Anderson, P.B. The Idaho Statewide EMS Communications Center. Services 10(4):7-13, 1981a. Emergency Medical Anderson, P.B. Medical Control in a Rural, Mountainous Western State EMS System. In: Medical Control in Emergency Medical Services Systems. National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1981b. Anderson, P.B., Neuman, K.J., and Trimble, G.R. Trauma in the Country: A Statewide Approach to Trauma Skills Training for Rural EMTs. JEMS: Journal of Emergency Medical Services 1 1 :61-64, 1986. Anderson, P.B., Bennett, R.S., Henderson, J.V., Hirschfeld, J.A., and Nichols, M.G. Interac tive Technology: EMS Training Goes Online in Idaho. JEMS: Journal of Emergency Medical Services 15:35-38, 1990.

REFERENCES 339 Andrews, P.J.D., Piper, I.R., Dearden, N.M., and Miller, J.D. Secondary Insults During Intrahospital Transport of Head-Injured Patients. Lancet 335:327-330, 1990. Andrulis, D.P., Kellermann, A., Hintz, E.A., Hackman, B.B., and Weslowski, V.B. Emergency Departments and Crowding in United States Teaching Hospitals. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:980-986, 1991. Anton, T.J. American Federalism and Public Policy. New York, N.Y.: Random House, 1989. APlIA (America Public lIcalth Association) Policy Statement 9112~ Lose Q£ E Codes in Hospital Discharge [data. Amerzearz Journal of Public He-c']th 82:~-83-484, I99~2. Aprahamian, C., Cattey, R.P. Walker, A.P., et al. Pediatric Trauma Score: Predictor of Hospital Resource Use? Archives of Surgery 125:1128-1131, 1990. Arkansas EMS-C Project. Improving Pediatric Emergency Medical Services in Arkansas. A Summary Report of the Arkansas Demonstration Project: Emergency Medical Services for Children. Little Rock, Ark.: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Depart- ment of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, 1991. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). ASTM Committee F30 on EMS: Project Report. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society for Testing and Materials, April 25, 1991. Averill, R.F., McGuire, T.E., Manning, B.E., et al. A Study of the Relationship Between Severity of illness and Hospital Cost in New Jersey Hospitals, Final Report. New Haven, Conn.: Health Systems International, 1989. Avner, J.R., Isaacman, D.J., Selbst, S.M., Seidel, J., and Quan, L. Controversies in Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Debate: Telephone Advice in the Pediatric Emergency Depart- ment. Report of a panel discussion held by the Emergency Medicine Special Interest Group of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association. May 5, 1992. Back, K.J. Critical Incident Stress Management for Care Providers in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Critical Care Nurse 12:78-83, 1992. Baker, D.W., Stevens, C.D., and Brook, R.H. Patients Who Leave a Public Hospital Emer- gency Department Without Being Seen by a Physician: Causes and Consequences. Jour- nal of the American Medical Association 266:1085-1090, 1991. Baker, M.D., and Ludwig, S. Pediatric Emergency Transport and the Private Practitioner. Pediatrics 88:691-695, 1991. Baker, M.D., Avner, J.R., and Bell, L.M. Failure of Infant Observation Scales in Detecting Serious Illness in Febrile, 4- to 8-Week-Old Infants. Pediatrics 85:1040-1043, 1990. Baker, S.P., and O'Neill, B. The Injury Severity Score: An Update. Journal of Trauma 16:882-885, 1976. Baker, S.P., and Walter, A.E. Childhood Injury: State-by-State Mortality Facts. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Injury Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, January 1989. Baker, S.P., O'Neill, B., Haddon, W., and Long, W.B. The Injury Severity Score: A Method for Describing Patients with Multiple Injuries and Evaluating Emergency Care. Journal of Trauma 14: 187-196, 1974. Baker, S.P., O'Neill, B., Ginsburg, My., and Li, G. The Injury Fact Book. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1992. Barlow, B. [Discussion] Pp. 15-17 in: Emergency Medical Services for Children. J.A. Halter, Jr., ed. Report of the 97th Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Columbus, Ohio: Ross Laboratories, May 1989. Barlow, B. Urban Trauma. In: Progress in Pediatric Trauma. 4th ed. B.H. Harris and J.L. Grosfeld, eds. Boston, Mass.: The Kiwanis Pediatric Trauma Institute, 1992. Barth, E.B., Parr, A.K., and Ginsburg, C.M. Emergency Office Supplies: A Survey of 80 General Pediatric Practice Sites in Dallas, Texas. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 8:400-401, 1989.

340 EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN Bass, J.L., Mehta, K.A., and Ostrovsky, M. Childhood Injury Prevention in a Suburban Mas- sachusetts Population. Public Health Reports 106:437-442, 1991. Baxt, W.G., Berry, C.C., Epperson, M.D., and Scalzitti, V. The Failure of Prehospital Trauma Prediction Rules to Classify Trauma Patients Accurately. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18:1-8, 1989. Baxt, W.G., Jones, G., and Fortlage, D. The Trauma Triage Rule: A New Resource Based Approach to the Prehosp~1 Ident~fi~cation of Ma~or Trauma Victims. Annals ~ Emer- gen~ lied icicle I 9: 1481 - ~ 4~, ~ Am. Belkin, L. Battling Contagions of Superstition and Ignorance. New York Times. August 11, 1992, pp. B1-B2. Bergman, A.B., and Rivara, F.P. Sweden's Experience in Reducing Childhood Injuries. Pedi- atrics 88:69-74, 1991. Bergner, M. Measurement of Health Status. Medical Care 23:696-704, 1985. Bern, A.I. Categorization. In: Management of Emergency Services. J.H. van de Leuv, ed. Rockville, Md.: Aspen Publishers, 1987. Berry, F., and Berry, W. State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis. American Political Science Review 84:395-415, June 1990. Bindman, A.B., Grumbach, K., Keane, D., Rauch, L., and Luce, J.M. Consequences of Queu- ing for Care at a Public Hospital Emergency Department. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:1091-1096, 1991. Blendon, R.J., Edwards, J.N., and Hyams, A.L. Making the Critical Choices. Journal of the American Medical Association 267:2509-2520, 1992. Blue Cross of California. Health Care in the 90s: Learning from Innovative State Programs. Symposium Proceedings, November 14-15, 1991. Woodland Hills, Calif.: Blue Cross of California, 1992. Bonalumi, N. Pediatric Emergencies Nurse Education Program. EMSC News 2(2):3, 1989. Border, J.R., Lewis, F.R., Aprahamian, C., et al. Panel: Prehospital Trauma Care Stabilize or Scoop and Run. Journal of Trauma 23:708-711, 1983. Boyd, D.R. The History of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in the United States of America. In: Systems Approach to Emergency Medical Care. D.R. Boyd, R.F. Edlich, and S.H. Micik, eds. Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1983. Boyd, C.R., Tolson, M.A., and Copes, W.S. Evaluating Trauma Care: The TRISS Method. Journal of Trauma 27:370-378, 1987. Braun, O., McCallion, R., and Fazackerley, J. Characteristics of Midsized Urban EMS Sys- tems. Annals of Emergency Medicine 19:536-546, 1990. Brennan, S.R., Rhodes, K.H., and Peterson, H.A. Infection After Farm Machine-Related Inju- ries. American Journal of Diseases of Children 144:710-713, 1990. Brent, D.A., Perper, I.A., Allman, C.J., et al. The Presence and Accessibility of Firearms in the Homes of Adolescent Suicides. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:2989- 2995,1991. Brewster, A.C., Karlin, B.G., Hyde, L.A., et al. MEDISGRPS: A Clinically Based Approach to Classifying Hospital Patients at Admission. Inquiry 22:377-387,1985. Brinegar, C.S. Department of Transportation Policy on Implementation of the Universal Emergency Telephone Number (911) Concept. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, Office of the Secretary, Order DOT 4540.1. November 23,1973. Brodsky, H. Emergency Medical Service Rescue Time in Fatal Road Accidents. Transporta- tion Research Record. No. 1270, Safety and Human Performance. Safety Research: Accident Studies, Enforcement, EMS, Management, and Simulation 1990. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 1990. Brodsky, H. Delay in Ambulance Dispatch to Road Accidents. American Journal of Public Health 82:873-875, 1992.

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342 EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN Champion, H.R., Sacco, W.J., and Hunt, T.K. Trauma Severity Scoring to Predict Mortality. World Journal of Surgery 7:4-11, 1983. Champion, H.R., Sacco, W.J., Copes, W.S., et al. A Revision of the Trauma Score. Journal of Trauma 29:623-629, 1989. Champion, H.R., Copes, W.S., Sacco, W.J., et al. A New Characterization of Injury Severity. Journal of Trauma 30:539-546, 1990a. Champion, H.R., Copes, W.S., Sacco, W.J. et al. The Major Trauma Outcome Study Estab- lishing National Aims ~r Trauma Care. Journal ~ Trauma 30: 1356-13S5~, I g9~36. Champion, H.R., Sacco, W.J., and Copes, W.S. Improvement in Outcome from Trauma Center Care. Archives of Surgery 127:333-338, 1992. Chassin, M.R., Park, R.W., Lohr, K.N., et al. Differences Among Hospitals in Medicare Patient Mortality. Health Services Research 24:1-3 1, 1989. Chessare, J.B. Utilization of Emergency Services Among Patients of a Pediatric Group Prac- tice. Pediatric Emergency Care 2:227-230, 1986. Children's Safety Network. A Data Book of Child and Adolescent Injury. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 1991. Children's Safety Network. Injury Prevention Professionals: A National Directory. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 1992. Civetta, J.M. Scoring Systems: Do We Need a Different Approach? Critical Care Medicine 19:1460-1461, 1991. Clancy, T.V., Rutherford, E.J., Walker, L.G., Jr., et al. The Road to Trauma Center Designa- tion for the Community Hospital. American College of Surgeons Bulletin 77:17-24, July 1992. Clawson, J.J., and Hauert, S.A. Dispatch Life Support: Establishing Standards That Work. JEMS: Journal of Emergency Medical Services 15:82-88, 1990. Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Shared Community Concern. DHHS Pub. No. (ACE) 92-30531. Revised version. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, March 1992. Clemmer, T.P., Orme, J.F., Thomas, F., and Brooks, K.A. Prospective Evaluation of the CRAMS Scale for Triaging Major Trauma. Journal of Trauma 25:188-191, 1985. Cline, D., Henneman, P., Van Ligten, P., et al. A Model Research Curriculum for Emergency Medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:184-192,1992 CNMC (Children's National Medical Center), Pediatric Emergency Education Research Cen- ter. Pediatric Emergency Nursing Program. Student Manual. Washington, D.C.: Children's National Medical Center, 1991. CNMC. Pediatric Emergency Nursing Education Program. (Brochure.) Washington, D.C.: Children's National Medical Center, 1992. Cobb, L.A., and Hallstrom, A.P. Community-Based Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: What Have We Learned? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 382:330-342,1982. Committee on Medical Aspects of Automotive Safety. Rating the Severity of Tissue Damage. I. The Abbreviated Scale. Journal of the American Medical Association 215:277-280, 1971. Commonwealth of Virginia. Virginia Department of Education Standards K-12. Richmond, Va.: Commonwealth of Virginia, 1989. Conlan, T. New Federalism: Intergovernmental Reform from Nixon to Reagan. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1988. Conlan, T. And the Beat Goes On: Intergovernmental Mandates and Preemption in an Era of Deregulation. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 21:43-57, 1991.

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How can we meet the special needs of children for emergency medical services (EMS) when today's EMS systems are often unprepared for the challenge? This comprehensive overview of EMS for children (EMS-C) provides an answer by presenting a vision for tomorrow's EMS-C system and practical recommendations for attaining it.

Drawing on many studies and examples, the volume explores why emergency care for children--from infants through adolescents--must differ from that for adults and describes what seriously ill or injured children generally experience in today's EMS systems.

The book points the way to integrating EMS-C into current emergency programs and into broader aspects of health care for children. It gives recommendations for ensuring access to emergency care through the 9-1-1 system; training health professionals, from paramedics to physicians; educating the public; providing proper equipment, protocols, and referral systems; improving communications among EMS-C providers; enhancing data resources and expanding research efforts; and stimulating and supporting leadership in EMS-C at the federal and state levels.

For those already deeply involved in EMS efforts, this volume is a convenient, up-to-date, and comprehensive source of information and ideas. More importantly, for anyone interested in improving the emergency services available to children--emergency care professionals from emergency medical technicians to nurses to physicians, hospital and EMS administrators, public officials, health educators, children's advocacy groups, concerned parents and other responsible adults--this timely volume provides a realistic plan for action to link EMS-C system components into a workable structure that will better serve all of the nation's children.

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