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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

References

1. Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act. Public Law 112-90, 2011.

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8. Environment Canada; Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Natural Resources Canada, Properties, Composition and Marine Spill Behavior, Fate and Transport of Two Diluted Bitumen Products from the Canadian Oil Sands. Environment Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2013.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

9. (a) Fitzpatrick, F. A.; Boufadel, M. C.; Johnson, R.; Lee, K.; Graan, T. P.; Bejarano, A. C.; Zhu, Z.; Waterman, D.; Capone, D. M.; Hayter, E.; Hamilton, S. K.; Dekker, T.; Garcia, M. H.; Hassan, J. S. Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills in Marine and Freshwater Environments - Review of the Science and Future Science Needs; Open-File Report 2015-1076; U.S. Geological Survey: Reston, VA, 2015; (b) King, T. L.; Robinson, B.; Boufadel, M.; Lee, K., Flume Tank Studies to Elucidate the Fate and Behavior of Diluted Bitumen Spilled at Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014, 83 (1), 32-37; (c) Witt O’Brien’s; Polaris Applied Sciences; Western Canada Marine Response Corporation A Study of Fate and Behavior of Diluted Bitumen Oils on Marine Waters: Dilbit Experiments - Gainford, Alberta; Trans Mountain Pipeline ULC: 2013; p 163.

10. (a) King, T. L.; Robinson, B.; McIntyre, C.; Toole, P.; Ryan, S.; Saleh, F.; Boufadel, M.; Lee, K., Fate of Surface Spills of Cold Lake Blend Diluted Bitumen Treated with Dispersant and Mineral Fines in a Wave Tank. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2015, 32 (3), 250-261; (b) SL Ross Environmental Research Limited Meso-scale Weathering of Cold Lake Bitumen/Condensate Blend; Ottawa, Canada, 2012.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

21. Adams, J.; Larter, S.; Bennett, B.; Huang, H.; Westrich, J.; C. van Kruisdijk, The Dynamic Interplay of Oil Mixing, Charge Timing, and Biodegradation in Forming The Alberta Oil Sands: Insights from Geologic Modeling and Biogeochemistry. In Heavy-Oil and Oil-Sand Petroleum Systems in Alberta and Beyond, Hein, F. J.; Leckie, D.; Larter, S.; Suter, J. R., Eds. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Canadian Heavy Oil Association, and American Association of Petroleum Geologists Energy Minerals Division: Tulsa, OK, 2013; pp 23-102.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

36. Barron, M. G.; Carls, M. G.; Short, J. W.; Rice, S. D., Photoenhanced Toxicity of Aqueous Phase and Chemically Dispersed Weathered Alaska North Slope Crude Oil to Pacific Herring Eggs and Larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2003, 22 (3), 650-660.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
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116. (a) Facilities Transferring Oil or Hazardous Material in Bulk. Code of Federal Regulations, Section 154, Title 33; (b) Oil or Hazardous Material Pollution Prevention Regulations for Vessels. Code of Federal Regulations, Section 155, Title 33; (c) Caplis, J. R. MER Policy Letter 03-13; Oil Spill Removal Organization (OSRO) Classification Program; U.S Coast Guard: Washington, DC, 2013.

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21834.
×
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Diluted bitumen has been transported by pipeline in the United States for more than 40 years, with the amount increasing recently as a result of improved extraction technologies and resulting increases in production and exportation of Canadian diluted bitumen. The increased importation of Canadian diluted bitumen to the United States has strained the existing pipeline capacity and contributed to the expansion of pipeline mileage over the past 5 years. Although rising North American crude oil production has resulted in greater transport of crude oil by rail or tanker, oil pipelines continue to deliver the vast majority of crude oil supplies to U.S. refineries.

Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines examines the current state of knowledge and identifies the relevant properties and characteristics of the transport, fate, and effects of diluted bitumen and commonly transported crude oils when spilled in the environment. This report assesses whether the differences between properties of diluted bitumen and those of other commonly transported crude oils warrant modifications to the regulations governing spill response plans and cleanup. Given the nature of pipeline operations, response planning, and the oil industry, the recommendations outlined in this study are broadly applicable to other modes of transportation as well.

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