National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21907.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 144 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Safety and Human Factors • Vehicles and Equipment Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer Kenneth Neubauer David Fleet Futron AviAtion CorporAtion Norfolk, VA Filippo Grosoli Merlin GlobAl ServiCeS Solana Beach, CA Harry Verstynen WhirlWind enGineerinG Poquoson, VA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 144 Project 03-30 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-37481-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2015950932 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Cover photo: An MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicle takes off from Creech Air Force Base, Nev., May 11, for a training sortie over the Nevada desert. (U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Brian Ferguson) Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 144 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-30 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Michael P. Hainsey, Golden Triangle Regional Airport, Columbus, MS (Chair) H. Norman Abramson, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX Ben Gielow, Amazon, Washington, DC Heather Hasper, Jacobsen/Daniels, Ypsilanti, MI Hernando Jimenez, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Kimberly A. Kenville, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND Todd L. McNamee, Ventura County Department of Airports, Camarillo, CA Carl Mikeman, Skyline Aviation Consulting (formerly with Northrop Grumman), El Cajon, CA Danielle J. Rinsler, FAA Liaison Christopher Swider, FAA Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council International—North America Liaison

ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer was developed to assist airports of all types and sizes and their stakeholders in gaining an understanding of UAS and their potential use and impact on airports. Information in the primer includes a glossary of key terms and a background on the current state of UAS operations. The primer addresses costs and benefits to airports, regulatory and community considerations, UAS infrastructure and operational considerations, and UAS safety and security among other issues. The FAA and other stakeholder agencies are working to safely integrate UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS). Currently the FAA prohibits commercial use; however, public entities are allowed to operate under a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COA) and civil entities under special airworthiness certificates. As UAS operations become more common, public airports will begin to receive increased requests to utilize their facilities. There are many factors that will influence airport operations. Therefore, this initial review and analysis of current UAS operations may be helpful to airports and other stakeholders. Under ACRP Project 03-30, research was conducted by Futron Aviation Corporation in association with Merlin Global Services, LLC, and Whirlwind Engineering, LLC. Surveys were conducted targeting UAS operators, airport operators, and experts in the UAS indus- try to gather information specifically about UAS operations on and around civilian airports. The surveys served as guides for conversations and interviews with the Department of Defense, civilian airport operators, universities, and FAA UAS test site representatives. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Airports 1 The Goal of the Primer 2 1.1 Elements of the Primer 3 1.2 Sources of Information 3 1.3 Primer Roadmap 5 1.4 Airport Checklist for UAS Preparation 6 Chapter 2 Introduction to UAS 6 2.1 The Evolving Spectrum of UAS 7 2.2 UAS Research 9 2.3 UAS Operations from Airports Now and in the Future 11 Chapter 3 Airport Lessons Learned 11 3.1 Southern California Logistics Airport (VCV) 12 3.2 Killeen-Fort Hood Regional Airport (GRK) 13 3.3 Golden Triangle Regional Airport (GTR) 14 3.4 Syracuse Hancock International Airport (SYR) 15 3.5 Additional Lessons Learned from U.S. Military Airfields 17 Chapter 4 Costs and Benefits to Airports 17 4.1 Vision for UAS Operations 19 4.2 Airport Revenue Streams Associated with UAS 20 4.3 Infrastructure Considerations and Costs 21 4.4 Engaging the Public and Surrounding Communities 25 Chapter 5 Regulatory and Community Considerations 25 5.1 Status of UAS Rule Making and Regulation 27 5.2 Challenges to Effective Regulation 28 5.3 UAS and Model Aircraft—Different Approaches 29 5.4 COA Application and Considerations 30 5.5 Grant Assurances 31 5.6 Economic Development 32 5.7 Environmental Impacts 32 5.8 Land Use Compatibility 34 Chapter 6 UAS Infrastructure Considerations 34 6.1 UAS Facility Requirements 35 6.2 Launch and Recovery Systems and Requirements 35 6.3 UAS Runways C O N T E N T S

37 Chapter 7 UAS Operational Considerations 37 7.1 Segregation of UAS Operations 38 7.2 Similarities and Differences Between Manned and Unmanned Aircraft Operations 39 7.3 Training of Airport Personnel 40 7.4 Airport Certification Impacts and Requirements 40 7.5 ATC Operations and Coordination with Airport Operations 42 7.6 UAS Communications and Electromagnetic Spectrum Related Issues 44 Chapter 8 UAS Safety and Security 44 8.1 Safety Management System (SMS) Development for UAS 46 8.2 Security and Access Control 47 8.3 Emergency Response Requirements 47 8.4 Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Considerations 48 8.5 UAS Safety Incident Reporting 49 Chapter 9 Moving Forward and Conclusions A-1 Appendix A UAS References for Airports B-1 Appendix B Modes of UAS Operations C-1 Appendix C UAS Checklists and Unique Procedures D-1 Appendix D UAS Airport Safety Information E-1 Appendix E Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms F-1 Appendix F References

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer provides airports of all sizes with information about unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and their potential use and impact on airports. The report includes a glossary of key terms, a background on the current state of UAS operations, UAS costs and benefits to airports, regulatory and community considerations, UAS infrastructure and operational considerations, UAS safety and security issues, and more.

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