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E-1 Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 8 A ppendices A P P E N D I X E This appendix contains a list of acronyms and a glossary of key terms used in the UAS industry. Most of the acronyms and key terms were taken from the FAA or the U.S. military. When an acronym or term was taken from another source it is noted accordingly. The lists include some acronyms and terms not used in the primer but may be of interest to the air- port operator introducing UAS operations to the airport. The intent is to be as inclusive as reasonably possible. E-1 Acronyms ACâadvisory circular ADSâBâautomatic dependent surveillanceâbroadcast. The FAA air traffic organization describes ADS-B as follows: â¢ Automatic â Periodically transmits information with no pilot or operator input required â¢ Dependent â Position and velocity vector are derived from the global positioning system (GPS) or a flight management system (FMS) â¢ Surveillance â A method of determining position of aircraft, vehicles, or other assets â¢ Broadcast â Transmitted information available to anyone with the appropriate receiving equipment ARCâAviation Rulemaking Committee ASTMâAmerican Society of Testing and Materials (formerly) AUVSIâAssociation of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International: The worldâs largest nonprofit organization devoted exclusively to advancing the unmanned systems and robotics community. Serving more than 7,500 members from government organizations, industry, and academia, AUVSI is committed to fostering, developing, and promoting unmanned systems and robotic technologies. AUVSI members support defense, civil, and commercial sectors. AVâair vehicle: Synonymous with UAS. AVOâair vehicle operator: Synonymous with pilot-in-command (PIC). BLOSâbeyond line-of-sight: A term often used by the military to describe radio communica- tions capabilities that link personnel or systems which are too distant or too fully obscured by terrain for line-of-sight (LOS) communications. Some UAS are able to travel outside of LOS Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms
E-2 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer Ch ap te r 1 Ch ap te r 5 Ch ap te r 3 Ch ap te r 7 Ch ap te r 9 Ch ap te r 2 Ch ap te r 6 Ch ap te r 4 Ch ap te r 8 A pp en di ce s and use a satellite link to transmit and receive signals to or from the GCS. The civilian industry also uses the terms BVLOSâBeyond Visual LOS and BRLOSâBeyond Radio LOS. BWâbandwidth: The width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission. BW with regard to computers is the rate of data transfer, or bit rate throughput. This is what controls the amount of data that can be uplinked and downlinked to or from a UAS. CASAâCivil Aviation Safety Authority CFRâCode of Federal Regulations CLâcommand link: When controlling the UAS in Ku-band, the CL is the package of informa- tion sent to the aircraft from the GCS to control it. The CL can also be sent in other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. CNSâcommunication, navigation, and surveillance COAâCertificate of Waiver or Authorization: Authorization to operate a UAS for non- recreational purposes in the United States. COAs are limited to public UAS operations. The FAA approves and authorizes a COA. CPAâconventionally piloted aircraft CRâclose range: Category of UAS able to fly up to 10,000 feet for 2 to 4 hours with an operating range of 5 to 10 miles (military exclusive term). DAAâdetect-and-avoid: Term used instead of sense and avoid in the Terms of Reference for the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228. This new term has not been defined by RTCA and may be considered to have the same definition as sense and avoid when used. DALâdesign assurance level DLTV/DTVâdaylight television sensor which can be installed on a UAS and operates in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. DODâU.S. Department of Defense EASAâEuropean Aviation Safety Agency ECUâEnvironmental Control Unit: Used to control and regulate the inside of the GCA to protect sensitive electronic equipment and allow a comfortable environment for the crew. EO/IRâelectro optical/infrared: Sensor which operates in the visible and/or infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. EPâexternal pilot: Refers to a pilot who controls an aircraft but is not actually on board. A UAS pilot controls the aircraft from a GCS and is referred to as an external pilot. GCS as used here includes hand-held transmitters used by an external pilot using VLOS procedures. FAAâFederal Aviation Administration FGCSâfixed ground control station: A military term synonymous with GCS which refers to the UAS control center, housed in a customer-furnished building, used to control one or more UASs. The FGCS is designed primarily for mission control element (MCE) remote operations via a Satellite Communications (SATCOM) data-link.
Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms E-3 Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 8 A ppendices FLIRâforward looking infrared: A passive imaging system that senses infrared radiation. The wavelength of infrared that thermal imaging cameras detect differs significantly from that of night vision, which operates in the visible light and near-infrared ranges. (Older USAF Term) FMRAâFAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (H.R. 658): The law passed to assist with modernizing the nationâs aviation system. The law provides funding for the modernization ATC system and allows the FAA to rebuild its ATC system to the next generation technology which will include switching from radar to a GPS ATC system. FOVâfield of view: The extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment from a sensor onboard the UAS. Depending on the sensor and the camera/display used, there can be more than one FOV. GAOâGeneral Accounting Office GCSâground control station: The station that UAS crews use to control the air vehicle and operate the sensors and systems on board. These stations are sometimes fixed in an office-sized room, and feature a number of computer systems to monitor and control the aircraft. However, GCS may also be an outside location with no enclosure depending on the type of UAS operation. There are also deployable versions of GCSs, meant to be the size and shape of standard shipping containers that can easily fit into a cargo aircraft for transportation. GDTâground data terminal: Set of antennas and integrated systems that allow a data-link between the GCS and air vehicle to control and receive feedback and video from the aircraft. HALEâhigh altitude, long endurance: A method of classification which classifies UASs in groups based on capabilities. Military HALE vehicles are described as vehicles able to fly above 30,000 feet for more than 24 hours with an operating range over 1,000 nautical miles. HDDâhead down display: Monitors usually located underneath the head up display (HUD) to display engine parameters, link status, electrical load, fuel levels, etc. HDD is any display which is not a HUD. HUDâhead up display: Display projected on the pilot/system operator monitors to allow the operator to fly the UAS. All of the essential information such as altitude, airspeed, attitude, and more are displayed in the HUD. Flying the vehicle can also be accomplished through HDD or Visual LOS (VLOS) control. ICAOâInternational Civil Aviation Organization ILLAâinitial lost link altitude: Preprogrammed altitude used in the case of lost data-link between the GCS and the aircraft. If the link is lost, the UAS will automatically assume this altitude and follow preprogrammed contingency procedures awaiting a returned link with the GCS. ILLHâinitial lost link heading: Preprogrammed heading used in the case of lost link between the GCS and the aircraft. If the link is lost, the UAS will automatically assume this heading and follow preprogrammed contingency procedures awaiting a returned link with the GCS. LALEâlow altitude long endurance: A method of classification which classifies UASs in groups based on capabilities. Military LALE vehicles are defined as UASs able to fly up to 10,000 ft. for more than 24 hrs. with an operating range over 200 NM. LIDARâlight detection and ranging: A remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges (variable distances) to the Earth. These light pulsesâcombined with other data recorded by the airborne systemâgenerate precise, three-dimensional informa- tion about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics. (NOAA 2014)
E-4 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer Ch ap te r 1 Ch ap te r 5 Ch ap te r 3 Ch ap te r 7 Ch ap te r 9 Ch ap te r 2 Ch ap te r 6 Ch ap te r 4 Ch ap te r 8 A pp en di ce s LL/LL-LOSâloss of link or lost link line-of-sight: A break in connection or loss of connection between the commands given in the GCS and the ability for the UAS to receive and respond to those commands. LLTVâlow light television: A vidicon tube with multiplier tubes that gives a useful picture in near darkness. The system has an excellent night optical capability. This sensor is used mainly to get useful pictures around sunset or sunrise when there is not enough light for a DAY TV and too much for an IR camera. LOSâline-of-sight: This describes the data-link method of controlling the aircraft. LOS control is often higher quality with direct control and feedback, versus BLOS control which is often accomplished via satellite link and may have a delay. Critical phases of flight, takeoffs, and land- ings are mostly performed using LOS link for small UAS. To be even more specific, there is visual line-of-sight (VLOS) and Radio Line-of-Sight (RLOS). VLOS provides the opportunity for direct control and feedback. The major difference between VLOS/RLOS and BLOS is higher bandwidth and lower latencies. LREâlaunch and recovery element: The LRE consists of the crews that are responsible for ini- tiating flight and recovering the aircraft. The military refers to it in the following manner: LRE crews are typically experienced mission control element (MCE) crews, as this is treated like an âupgradeâ in Air Force UAS programs. The LRE is responsible for the preflight walk-around inspection, landing, taxiing back, and shutting down. The only phase of flight the LRE is gener- ally not responsible for is the mission phase, which is covered by the MCE after âhanding-overâ control of the aircraft at a predetermined location in air. The LRE is also capable of conducting local line-of-site missions. LRSâlaunch and recovery site: The LRS is the site where all of the systems are deployed and all the manpower and equipment are located. Most of the time, this is also where maintenance on the system is performed. Many UAS takeoff and land at an LRS in the same manner as manned aircraft at a runway. MALEâmedium altitude, long endurance: A method of classification that classifies UASs in groups based on capabilities. Military MALE UAS are defined as vehicles able to fly above 20,000 feet, for more than 24 hours, and with an operating range over 200 nautical miles. MCEâmission control element: For some UAS, the MCE consists of the crews that are respon- sible for everything outside of the launch and recovery of the aircraft. (MCE is a term used by the military. Most likely the civil growth of UAS will occur in the use of smaller UAS initially; the term may be used or changed as the civil UAS industry grows.) MPCSâmission planning and control site: Site where the aircraft is controlled during its mis- sion. The MPCS may or may not be collocated with the LRS. MRâmedium range: A category of UAS used by some organizations to designate an aircraft able to fly up to 15,000 feet, for 4 to 8 hours, and with an operating range up to 100 nautical miles. NASâNational Airspace System: The common network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facili- ties, equipment, and services, airports or landing areas; aeronautical charts, information, and services; rules, regulations, and procedures; technical information; and manpower and material. Included in the NAS are system components shared jointly with the military. NASAâNational Aeronautics and Space Administration OPAâoptionally piloted aircraft: An aircraft that is integrated with UAS technology and still retains the capability of being flown by an onboard pilot using conventional control methods.
Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms E-5 Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 8 A ppendices Pfâprobability of failure P/SOWâpilot/sensor operator workstation: Control station inside the GCS from where the pilot or system operator is operating the UAS and its onboard systems and sensors. PCMâprimary control module: The brain of a UAS which processes all the information received and transmitted to the aircraft. PGCSâportable ground control station: A smaller GCS that can fit into a few suitcases and be set up in a tactical environment or on top of a desk. PGDTâportable ground data terminal: Same definition as GDT, sometimes smaller in size to allow for ease of transport and to be easily set up in a remote environment. PICâpilot-in-command: Crewmember responsible for actual flight of the UAS; additional roles will differ with individual UAS capabilities and missions. All UAS operating in the NAS must have a PIC. PIC is the person who: â¢ Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight; â¢ Has been designated as PIC before or during the flight; and â¢ Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight. PIC is a term used by the military. Most likely the civil growth of UAS will occur in the use of smaller UAS initially; the term may be used or changed as the civil UAS industry grows. RLâreturn link: When controlling the UAS, the RL is the package of information sent from the aircraft to the GCS containing pictures and metadata. RLOSâradio line-of-sight ROAâremotely operated aircraft RPAâremotely piloted aircraft RPASâRemotely Piloted Aircraft System RPVâremotely piloted vehicle. ROA, RPA, RPAS, and RPV are all used synonymously for an aircraft which is unmanned. ROA and RPV are no longer used in most segments of the industry. RSOâremote split operations: RSO are conducted when the LRS and the MPCS are not col- located. Some UAS are equipped with SATCOM, and missions can extend beyond line-of-sight or over the horizon. These missions are flown from a geographically separated, or remote, GCS. When conducting RSO, the LRS will launch the aircraft and hand over controls to the MPCS at a predetermined point in the air. Upon mission completion, the MPCS will then return the aircraft to a predetermined location where the LRS will take control and land the aircraft. SAAâsense and avoid: The capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic. Sense and avoid provides the functions of self-separation and col- lision avoidance to establish an analogous capability to âsee and avoidâ required by manned aircraft. sUASâSmall Unmanned Aircraft System: An unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds and operated within VLOS below 400 feet. Other restrictions also apply. SOâsensor operator: The SO, if required, is primarily responsible for the operation of the UAS payload. Additionally, this crewmember is responsible for backing up the pilot/operator on mon- itoring aircraft engine, electrical, and data-link systems during most phases of flight. The SO is also responsible for reading checklists to the pilot in normal and emergency situations. The SO primarily focuses on mission executionâtracking targets and reporting with other agencies on
E-6 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer Ch ap te r 1 Ch ap te r 5 Ch ap te r 3 Ch ap te r 7 Ch ap te r 9 Ch ap te r 2 Ch ap te r 6 Ch ap te r 4 Ch ap te r 8 A pp en di ce s information, intelligence, and surveillance findings; and monitoring flight path for de-confliction with weather, terrain, and other aircraft during the MCE phase. SO is a term used by the military. Most likely the civil growth of UAS will occur in the use of smaller UAS initially; the term may be used or changed as the civil UAS industry grows. UAâunmanned aircraft: â¢ A device used or intended to be used for flight in the air that has no onboard pilot. This device excludes missiles, weapons, or exploding warheads, but includes all classes of airplanes, helicopters, airships, and powered-lift aircraft without an onboard pilot. UA do not include traditional balloons (see 14 CFR Part 101), rockets, tethered aircraft, and unpowered gliders. â¢ An aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. UASâUnmanned Aircraft System: An unmanned aircraft and its associated elements related to safe operations, which may include control stations (ground, ship, or air-based), control links, support equipment, payloads, flight termination systems, and launch/recovery equipment. An unmanned aircraft and associated elements (including communications links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) those are required for the PIC to operate safely and efficiently in the NAS. UAVâunmanned aerial vehicle: An unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either by computers in the vehicle, or under the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, and characteristics. Historically, UAVs were simple RPA, but onboard control is increasingly being employed. (Note: this term is no longer widely used in the industry; however, when searching for information on unmanned aircraft, using UAV may still lead to useful information.) ULâup link: UL is the package of information sent to the aircraft from the GCS to control it. UMSâUnmanned System UVSIâUnmanned Vehicle Systems International VLOSâvisual line-of-sight E-2 Glossary of Key Terms Autonomous FlightâSet of equipment/computers, and internal navigation systems (INS) GPS navigation units which allow a UAS to navigate and fly autonomously. Autonomous flight gener- ally means the vehicle is capable of reasoning and decision making without oversight or interven- tion from human controllers, a level of autonomy that is not presently contained in most UAS. C-BandâFrequency band selected and used by a UAS system to operate an aircraft from its control station when in line-of-sight. C-Band is from 4GHz to 8GHz and is one of several bands used to control UAS. Civil AircraftâAircraft other than public aircraft (public aircraft include military and other government-use aircraft). Civil aircraft include those which are privately owned such as general aviation (GA) aircraft governed by 14 CFR Part 91, and those operated for commercial purposes such as those which fall under 14 CFR Part 121 and 14 CFR Part 135 operations. Class A AirspaceâGenerally, airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous states of
Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms E-7 Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 8 A ppendices the United States and Alaska. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in Class A airspace. Class B AirspaceâGenerally, airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nationâs busiest airports having very high numbers of airport operations or passenger enplane- ments. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wed- ding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance and two-way communication is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation instructions within the airspace. Class C AirspaceâGenerally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplane- ments. Although the configuration of each Class C area is individually tailored, the airspace usu- ally consists of a surface area with a five nautical mile (NM) radius, a circle with a 10 NM radius that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and an outer area that is not charted. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace, and thereafter maintain those communications while within the airspace. Class D AirspaceâGenerally, airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published and the airspace will normally be designed to contain the procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be within Class D or Class E airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those com- munications while in the airspace. Class E AirspaceâGenerally, if the airspace is not Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and it is controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace. Class E airspace extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. When designated as a surface area, the airspace will be configured to contain all instrument procedures. Also in this class are federal airways, airspace beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or en route environment, en route domestic, and offshore airspace areas designated below 18,000 feet MSL. Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,500 MSL over the United States, including that airspace overlying the waters within 12 NMs of the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska, up to, but not including 18,000 feet MSL, and the airspace above FL 600. Class G AirspaceâThat airspace not designated as Class A, B, C, D or E. Note for Airspace definitions: There are also minimum equipment requirements for aircraft to operate in each class of airspace. This in many ways can be a limiting factor to UAS operators. (FAA 2014d) Collision AvoidanceâThe sense and avoid (detect-and-avoid) system function where the UAS takes appropriate action to prevent an intruder from penetrating the collision volume. Action is expected to be initiated within a relatively short time horizon before the closest point of approach. The collision avoidance function engages when all other modes of separation fail. (See SAA; see DAA) Communication LinkâThe voice or data relay of instructions or information between the UAS pilot and the ATC and other NAS users. It is generally understood that there are two possible
E-8 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer Ch ap te r 1 Ch ap te r 5 Ch ap te r 3 Ch ap te r 7 Ch ap te r 9 Ch ap te r 2 Ch ap te r 6 Ch ap te r 4 Ch ap te r 8 A pp en di ce s communication links; one from the UAS operator to/from the vehicle and the other from the payload operator to/from the vehicle. Control StationâThe equipment used to maintain control, communicate with, guide, or other- wise pilot an unmanned aircraft. The control station includes the communications equipment, computers, control inceptors, and displays used to control the vehicle as well as the physical enclosure, support systems, and power sources. Crewmember [UAS]âIn addition to the crewmembers identified in 14 CFR Part 1, a UAS flight crewmember includes pilots, sensor/payload operators, and visual observers, but may include other persons as appropriate or required to ensure safe operation of the aircraft. Data-linkâTypically, a ground-to-air communications system that transmits information via digital coded pulses. However, data-link can also be air-to-air, ground-to-ground, and ground-to-space. Lost LinkâDescribes the state of the aircraft when it has no communication with ground control. Once the link is lost, the operator is no longer in control of the airplane until link is regained. In the event of lost link, the UAS executes preprogrammed lost link procedures, which can be loaded prior to takeoff or during flight depending on the type of UAS. The aircraft will strictly follow the procedures preprogrammed by the operator. A few examples of lost link procedures are listed below: â¢ Fly to the recovery field â¢ Fly to a specific set of coordinates using GPS â¢ Take any action it was preprogrammed to take (such as flight termination). Model AircraftâAn unmanned aircraft that is capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; flown within visual line-of-sight of the person operating the aircraft, and flown for hobby or recreational purposes. Narrow Beam AntennaâHigh gain antenna with a focused narrow sector for a long distance. OMNI AntennaâOmnidirectional antenna that sends and receives signals equally in all directions. OperatorâUnder the proposed FAA rule for small UAS, pilots of a small UAS will be considered operators. PayloadâSet of sensors and cameras carried on board a UAS. Public AircraftâAn aircraft operated by a governmental entity (including federal, state, or local governments, and the U.S. DOD and its military branches) for certain purposes as described in 49 U.S.C. Â§Â§ 40102(a)(41) and 40125. Public aircraft status is determined on an operation by operation basis. See 14 CFR Part 1, Â§ 1.1 for a complete definition of a public aircraft. Public AviationâPublic Aircraft Operation (PAO) is limited by statute to certain government operations within U.S. airspace. Although these operations must comply with certain general operating rules (including those applicable to all aircraft in the NAS), other civil certification and safety oversight regulations do not apply. Whether or not an operation may be considered public is determined on a flight-by-flight basis, under the terms of the statute (49 U.S.C. 40102 and 49 U.S.C. 40125) and depends on factors such as aircraft ownership, operator, the purpose of the flight, and the persons on board the aircraft. SATCOMâSatellite communications: Term used to describe controlling the aircraft in BLOS using a satellite system and equipment. Section 333 ExemptionâBy law, any aircraft operation in the national airspace requires a cer- tificated and registered aircraft, a licensed pilot, and operational approval. Section 333 of the
Acronyms and Glossary of Key Terms E-9 Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 8 A ppendices FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 grants the Secretary of Transportation the authority to determine whether an airworthiness certificate is required for a UAS to operate safely in the NAS. This authority is being leveraged to grant case-by-case authorization for certain unmanned aircraft to perform commercial operations prior to the finalization of the Small UAS Rule, which will be the primary method for authorizing small UAS operations once it is complete. The Sec- tion 333 Exemption process provides operators who wish to pursue safe and legal entry into the NAS a competitive advantage in the UAS marketplace, thus discouraging illegal operations and improving safety. Self-SeparationâSense and avoid system function where the UAS maneuvers within a suffi- cient timeframe to remain clear of other airborne traffic. SensorâSet of equipment that can be installed on board the UAS for the purpose of informa- tion gathering. Special Airworthiness CertificateâExperimental Category (UAS)âAirworthiness certification for a civil experimental UAS. The FAA defines the Experimental Category as follows: A special airworthiness certificate in the experimental category is issued to operate an aircraft that does not have a type certificate or does not conform to its type certificate and is in a condition for safe operation. Additionally, this certificate is issued to operate a primary category kit-built aircraft that was assembled without the supervision and quality control of the production certificate holder. Test RangeâA defined geographic area where research and development are conducted. Test ranges are also known as test sites in related documents, such as the FAAâs Screening Informa- tion Request. Visual Line-of-SightâUnaided (corrective lenses and/or sunglasses exempted) visual contact between a pilot-in-command or a visual observer and a UAS sufficient to maintain safe opera- tional control of the aircraft, know its location, and be able to scan the airspace in which it is operating to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. Wide AntennaâDirectional antenna, perhaps on a UAS ground data terminal, which sends and receives signals equally distributed in a wide sector of interest with a variety of ranges that are specific to the operation.